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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#1
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880062/the-effect-of-vegetarian-diets-on-iron-status-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Lisa M Haider, Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Background Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. Methods The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups...
November 23, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871943/understanding-the-attitudes-and-perceptions-of-vegetarian-and-plant-based-diets-to-shape-future-health-promotion-programs
#3
REVIEW
Tricia Corrin, Andrew Papadopoulos
Vegetarian diets have become a prominent area of interest. However, little research has focused on the attitudes and perceptions on vegetarian diets. The purpose of this scoping review was to methodologically search the literature and summarize public perceptions and attitudes towards a vegetarian diet. Using the information found from this review, the Health Belief Model can be applied to shape future health promotion initiatives to move individuals towards a vegetarian or plant-based diet. The main findings indicate that vegetarian diets are generally perceived in a positive light...
November 18, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870032/warm-vegetarians-heat-waves-and-diet-shifts-in-tadpoles
#4
B M Carreira, P Segurado, G Orizaola, N Gonçalves, V Pinto, A Laurila, R Rebelo
Temperature can play an important role in determining the feeding preferences of ectotherms. In light of the warmer temperatures arising with the current climatic changes, omnivorous ectotherms may perform diet shifts toward higher herbivory to optimize energetic intake. Such diet shifts may also occur during heat waves, which are projected to become more frequent, intense, and longer lasting in the future. Here, we investigated how heat waves of different duration affect feeding preferences in omnivorous anuran tadpoles and how these choices affect larval life history...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863334/modulation-of-the-cytokine-profile-in-caco-2-cells-by-faecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-from-individuals-with-distinct-dietary-habits
#5
Diomira Luongo, Annachiara Coppola, Lucia Treppiccione, Paolo Bergamo, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Cocolin, Mauro Rossi
Enterocytes are actively involved in the defense against pathogens and they limit penetration of commensal microbes into tissues. They also have an important role in gut immunity as enterocytes confer mucosal dendritic cell specialisation. On the other hand, the microbiota is directly involved in the development and modulation of the intestinal immune system. Particularly, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in shaping the immune response. We further explored this issue by evaluating whether functional differences in Caco-2 cells could characterise faecal populations of lactobacilli (155 samples) and bifidobacteria (110 samples) isolated from three dietary cohorts (omnivores, ovo-lacto-vegetarians and vegans) recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari)...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854281/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-peak-torque-differences-between-vegetarian-and-omnivore-endurance-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Heidi M Lynch, Christopher M Wharton, Carol S Johnston
In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#7
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
November 8, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812084/nutrition-oxidative-stress-and-intestinal-dysbiosis-influence-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Giovanni Tomasello, Margherita Mazzola, Angelo Leone, Emanuele Sinagra, Giovanni Zummo, Felicia Farina, Provvidenza Damiani, Francesco Cappello, Alice Gerges Geagea, Abdo Jurjus, Tarek Bou Assi, Massimiliano Messina, Francesco Carini
BACKGROUND: Microbiota refers to the population of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that inhabit the entire gastrointestinal tract, more particularly the colon whose role is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and control the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota is called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis redisposes to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and indeterminate colitis. METHODS: The purpose of this literature review is to elucidate the influence of diet on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the healthy gut and the role of diet in the development of dysbiosis...
October 26, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796317/sex-differences-in-colonization-of-gut-microbiota-from-a-man-with-short-term-vegetarian-and-inulin-supplemented-diet-in-germ-free-mice
#9
Jing-Jing Wang, Jing Wang, Xiao-Yan Pang, Li-Ping Zhao, Ling Tian, Xing-Peng Wang
Gnotobiotic mouse model is generally used to evaluate the efficacy of gut microbiota. Sex differences of gut microbiota are acknowledged, yet the effect of recipient's gender on the bacterial colonization remains unclear. Here we inoculated male and female germ-free C57BL/6J mice with fecal bacteria from a man with short-term vegetarian and inulin-supplemented diet. We sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA genes V3-V4 region from donor's feces and recipient's colonic content. Shannon diversity index showed female recipients have higher bacteria diversity than males...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792907/exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-among-residents-of-a-rural-vegetarian-vegan-community
#10
Karen Tordjman, Laura Grinshpan, Lena Novack, Thomas Göen, Dar Segev, Lisa Beacher, Naftali Stern, Tamar Berman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly thought to be involved in the rising prevalence of disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and some hormone-dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence have indicated that vegetarian and vegan diets may offer some protection from such diseases. We hypothesized that exposure to selected EDCs among residents of the unique vegetarian/vegan community of Amirim would be lower than what has recently been reported for the omnivorous population in the first Israel Biomonitoring Study (IBMS)...
October 25, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792174/-a-vegetarian-vs-conventional-hypocaloric-diet-the-effect-on-physical-fitness-in-response-to-aerobic-exercise-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-parallel-randomized-study
#11
Jiri Veleba, Martin Matoulek, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova, Hana Kahleova
It has been shown that it is possible to modify macronutrient oxidation, physical fitness and resting energy expenditure (REE) by changes in diet composition. Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidation can be significantly increased by a diet with a low glycemic index. The purpose of our trial was to compare the effects of a vegetarian (V) and conventional diet (C) with the same caloric restriction (-500 kcal/day) on physical fitness and REE after 12 weeks of diet plus aerobic exercise in 74 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786355/effect-of-sulfur-containing-spices-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-trace-minerals-from-selected-cereals-and-pulses
#12
Meena Kumari, Kalpana Platel
BACKGROUND: Garlic and onion, rich in organo-sulfur compounds, are reported to enhance the bioaccessibility of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn; however, there is lack of similar information on the bioaccessibility of copper, manganese and chromium. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of exogenous garlic and onion on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from selected food grains. The effect of two levels of garlic (0.25 and 0.5 g/10 g of grain) and onion (1.5 and 3 g/10 g of grain) on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from two representative cereals and pulses was determined by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure...
October 27, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761072/sambar-an-indian-dish-prevents-the-development-of-dimethyl-hydrazine-induced-colon-cancer-a-preclinical-study
#13
Vutturu Ganga Prasad, Neetinkumar Reddy, Albi Francis, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar, Mallikarjuna C Rao, Rekha Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CC) is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of mortality in the US when compared to India where prevalence is less. Possible reason could be the vegetarian diet comprising spices used in curry powders. Researchers believe that 70% of the cases are associated with diet. Spices have inherited a rich tradition for their flavor and medicinal properties. Researchers have been oriented towards spices present in food items for their antitumorigenic properties...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717930/-analysis-of-the-fatty-acid-profile-of-vegetarian-and-non-vegetarian-diet-in-the-context-of-some-diet-related-diseases-prevention
#14
Agata Kornek, Alicja Kucharska, Katarzyna Kamela
INTRODUCTION: Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709695/vegetarianism-and-breast-colorectal-and-prostate-cancer-risk-an-overview-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#15
J Godos, F Bella, S Sciacca, F Galvano, G Grosso
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets may be associated with certain benefits toward human health, although current evidence is scarce and contrasting. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed with respect to the association between vegetarian diets and breast, colorectal and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Studies were systematically searched in Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases. Eligible studies had a prospective design and compared vegetarian, semi- and pesco-vegetarian diets with a non-vegetarian diet...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708845/lifestyle-modification-interventions-differing-in-intensity-and-dietary-stringency-improve-insulin-resistance-through-changes-in-lipoprotein-profiles
#16
D L Ellsworth, N S Costantino, H L Blackburn, R J M Engler, M Kashani, M N Vernalis
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Subjects with diagnosed type-2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non-randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean-style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls)...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708121/harmonization-of-food-frequency-questionnaires-and-dietary-pattern-analysis-in-4-ethnically-diverse-birth-cohorts
#17
Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
November 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697540/harmful-effects-behind-the-daily-supplementation-of-a-fixed-vegetarian-blend-in-the-rat-model
#18
Barbara Bonamassa, Donatella Canistro, Andrea Sapone, Fabio Vivarelli, Andrea Vornoli, Vincenzo Longo, Moreno Paolini
Fruit and vegetables (FV) have long been considered a panacea against major chronic diseases, including cancer. However, there is no convincing epidemiological, clinical or experimental evidence supporting FV chemopreventive ability. A daily mono-supplementation of lyophilized onion, tomato, peach, black grape or lettuce was compared with the daily combined administration of the same FV (5 a day-like diet). Ten days post-treatment, the phase-I/II xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme activities, protein and mRNA levels were investigated...
November 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681561/deletion-of-proton-sensing-receptor-gpr4-associates-with-lower-blood-pressure-and-lower-binding-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-in-sfo
#19
Xuming Sun, Ellen Tommasi, Doris Molina, Renu Sah, K Bridget Brosnihan, Debra Diz, Snezana Petrovic
Diets rich in grains and meat and low in fruits and vegetables (acid-producing diets) associate with incident hypertension, whereas vegetarian diets associate with lower blood pressure (BP). However, the pathways that sense and mediate the effects of acid-producing diets on BP are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the deletion of an acid sensor GPR4 on BP. GPR4 is a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney, and blood vessels. We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649693/vegan-vegetarian-low-protein-supplemented-diets-in-pregnant-ckd-patients-fifteen-years-of-experience
#20
Rossella Attini, Filomena Leone, Silvia Parisi, Federica Fassio, Irene Capizzi, Valentina Loi, Loredana Colla, Maura Rossetti, Martina Gerbino, Stefania Maxia, Maria Grazia Alemanno, Fosca Minelli, Ettore Piccoli, Elisabetta Versino, Marilisa Biolcati, Paolo Avagnina, Antonello Pani, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Tullia Todros, Giorgina B Piccoli
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison...
September 20, 2016: BMC Nephrology
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