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Varun K Phadke, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Brian C Quigley, Alton B Farris, J P Norvell
BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. METHODS: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yvonne N Flores, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz, Paula Ramírez, Manuel Bañuelos, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Hal F Yee, Shen-Chih Chang, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Manuel Quiterio, Guillermo Cabrera-Alvarez, Nelly Patiño, Jorge Salmerón
There is scarce information about the link between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of liver disease among Latinos, despite the disproportionate burden of disease among this population. Our aim was to investigate nine SNPs in or near the following genes: PNPLA3, LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, GCKR, NCAN, IRS1, PPARG, and ADIPOR2 and examine their association with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Mexican adults. Data and samples were collected from 741 participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study, in Cuernavaca, Mexico...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Christina Jiun-Yu Tan, Grant E Sklar
INTRODUCTION: Paracetamol is the most common pharmaceutical agent implicated in toxic exposure in Singapore. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of paracetamol overdose in the adult population managed at a tertiary healthcare facility in Singapore. METHODS: Medical records of adult patients hospitalised with a diagnosis of paracetamol overdose at National University Hospital, Singapore, over a three-year period from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 18, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jeong-Wook Choi, In-Hye Kim, Young-Min Kim, Min-Kyeong Lee, Youn-Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) against chronic ethanol consumption‑mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20; 6 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in each group were treated for 30 days with the following: i) CON group, distilled water only; ii) EtOH group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW; iii) EtOH+150 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 150 mg/kg/BW; iv) EtOH+300 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 300 mg/kg/BW...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Michael Vogt, Christian Brüsseler, Jan van Ooyen, Michael Bott, Jan Marienhagen
The pentanol isomers 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol represent commercially interesting alcohols due to their potential application as biofuels. For a sustainable microbial production of these compounds, Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered for producing 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol via the Ehrlich pathway from 2-keto-3-methylvalerate and 2-ketoisocaproate, respectively. In addition to an already available 2-ketoisocaproate producer, a 2-keto-3-methylvalerate accumulating C. glutamicum strain was also constructed...
October 13, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Zhipeng Li, Hui Jin, So Young Oh, Geun Eog Ji
Previous researchers have documented that probiotic bacteria can have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and improve metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effects of the probiotic bacteria are suggested to be strain dependent. In this study, two candidate lactobacteria strains, Lactobacillus casei IBS041, Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 and two bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI, were individually administered to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks. B...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
T Mahévas, D Gobert, M Gatfossé, A Mekinian, O Fain
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic glycogenosis is a rare syndrome, which includes poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, hepatomegaly, delayed puberty, and growth delay. Insulin edema is sometimes associated. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old woman presented with diffuse edema, hepatomegaly, amenorrhea, uncontrolled diabetes, and elevated transaminases and cholestasis. Hepatic ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomographic scan confirmed the hepatomegaly. The liver biopsy showed a massive glycogenosis and the diagnosis of hepatic glycogenosis was confirmed...
October 13, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Kendall R Beck, Nicole Kim, Mandana Khalili
BACKGROUND: Vulnerable populations are disproportionately affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and experience high rates of health disparity. There are no data on real-world experience with highly efficacious direct-acting anti-HCV treatment in this population. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the real-world experience with sofosbuvir-based regimens among a vulnerable HCV-infected population. METHODS: HCV treatment response was assessed among 204 patients who completed 12-24 weeks of sofosbuvir-based regimens (in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, simeprevir, ledipasvir, or daclatasvir) at the San Francisco safety-net healthcare system liver specialty clinic between January 2014 and December 2015...
October 14, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Somchit Jaruratanasirikul, Sudarat Thammaratchuchai, Maneerat Puwanant, Ladda Mo-Suwan, Hutcha Sriplung
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in asymptomatic obese children and adolescents, and determined the percentage of T2DM development after 3-6 years of follow-up. METHODS: During 2007-2013, 177 obese children and adolescents who had normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG<100 mg/dL) were given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Sunil V Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ajay S Choksey, Ashok R Mohite, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi, Ravi U Verma, Premlata K Varthakavi
:  Background and rationale. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of pediatric liver disease in western countries. Its prevalence in Indian subcontinent is not well studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a school based cross sectional study we have screened overweight and obese children in the age group of 11 to 15 years for NAFLD. Ultrasonography, elevated serum transaminases, fibroscan were used for defining NAFLD. Dietary habits, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, blood counts and insulin resistance were recorded...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Martin S Weiß, Ioannis V Pavlidis, Paul Spurr, Steven P Hanlon, Beat Wirz, Hans Iding, Uwe T Bornscheuer
Application of amine transaminases (ATAs) for stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones represents an environmentally benign and economically attractive alternative to transition metal catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. However, the restrictive substrate scope has limited the conversion typically to non-sterically demanding scaffolds. Recently, we reported on the identification and design of fold class I ATAs that effect a highly selective asymmetric synthesis of a set of chiral aromatic bulky amines from the corresponding ketone precursors in high yield...
October 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xiaoqi Zhao, Tianxiang Gu, Zongyi Xiu, Enyi Shi, Lei Yu
Objective: To summarize the effect of mild hypothermia on function of the organs in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into two groups, northermia group (n=71) and hypothermia group (n=89). We immediately began cooling the hypothermia group when test results showed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, meanwhile all patients of two groups were drawn blood to test blood gas, liver and kidney function, blood coagulation function, and evaluated the cardiac function using echocardiography from 12 to 36 hours...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Dina S El-Agamy
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of pirfenidone (PFD) against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in mice. METHODS: Autoimmune model of hepatitis was established using single intravenous injection of Con A. Mice were randomly assigned into four groups as follows: control group; Con A group; and two groups, receiving PFD in two dose levels (200, 300 mg/kg) for 5 days before Con A administration. Extent of hepatitis was studied using biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical estimations...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tao Tian, Weiliang Tian, Fan Yang, Risheng Zhao, Qian Huang, Yunzhao Zhao
BACKGROUND: Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) signaling plays a key role in inflammatory responses. Lei et al. showed that SphK1 inhibition presented a hepatoprotective effect on acute liver damage via decreasing hepatic high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) cytoplasmic translocation. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine whether SphK1 or S1PRs inhibition improves lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute liver failure by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway...
October 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Bradley Smith, Xenia L Schafer, Aslihan Ambeskovic, Cody M Spencer, Hartmut Land, Joshua Munger
Metabolic reprogramming is critical to oncogenesis, but the emergence and function of this profound reorganization remain poorly understood. Here we find that cooperating oncogenic mutations drive large-scale metabolic reprogramming, which is both intrinsic to cancer cells and obligatory for the transition to malignancy. This involves synergistic regulation of several genes encoding metabolic enzymes, including the lactate dehydrogenases LDHA and LDHB and mitochondrial glutamic pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2)...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Chao Wang, Jianjun Lu, Le Zhou, Jun Li, Jiaman Xu, Weijian Li, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg...
2016: PloS One
Yukinori Takenaka, Norihiko Takemoto, Toshimichi Yasui, Yoshifumi Yamamoto, Atsuhiko Uno, Haruka Miyabe, Naoki Ashida, Kotaro Shimizu, Susumu Nakahara, Atshushi Hanamoto, Takahito Fukusumi, Takahiro Michiba, Hironori Cho, Masashi Yamamoto, Hidenori Inohara
Various serum biomarkers have been developed for predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. However, none of them have been proven to be clinically significant. A recent study reported that the ratio of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) had a prognostic effect on non-metastatic cancers. This study aimed to examine the effect of the AST/ALT ratio on the survival of patients with HNSCC. Clinical data of 356 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC were collected...
2016: PloS One
Małgorzata Szczuko, Natalia Komorniak, Monika Hoffmann, Joanna Walczak, Agata Jaroszek, Bartosz Kowalewski, Krzysztof Kaseja, Dominika Jamioł-Milc, Ewa Stachowska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y-bypass (RYGB) on anthropometric and biochemical parameters, including changes in glucose levels, lipid profile and liver function. Drastic decrease in all lipid fractions a few weeks or months after the surgery could be regarded as favourable, but low level of HDL is an independent risk factor for heart diseases. Extreme load on the liver without preparation of the patient to the surgery can have negative consequences...
October 11, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Su Rin Shin, Young Seok Kim, Young-Seok Lim, June Sung Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Sun Myung Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Joo Hyun Sohn, Myung Seok Lee, Sang Hoon Park
Background/Aims: Because of the limited geographic distribution, there have been insufficient data regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and available treatment outcomes of patients with genotype 6 HCV in Korea. Methods: From 2004 to 2014, data were collected from Korean patients infected with genotype 6 HCV in eight hospitals. Results: Thirty-two patients had genotype 6 HCV...
October 13, 2016: Gut and Liver
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