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Marine biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819353/a-metabolomics-guided-exploration-of-marine-natural-product-chemical-space
#1
Dimitrios J Floros, Paul R Jensen, Pieter C Dorrestein, Nobuhiro Koyama
INTRODUCTION: Natural products from culture collections have enormous impact in advancing discovery programs for metabolites of biotechnological importance. These discovery efforts rely on the metabolomic characterization of strain collections. OBJECTIVE: Many emerging approaches compare metabolomic profiles of such collections, but few enable the analysis and prioritization of thousands of samples from diverse organisms while delivering chemistry specific read outs...
September 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803482/corynebacterium-glutamicum-chassis-c1-building-and-testing-a-novel-platform-host-for-synthetic-biology-and-industrial-biotechnology
#2
Meike Baumgart, Simon Unthan, Ramona Kloss, Andreas Radek, Tino Polen, Niklas Tenhaef, Moritz Fabian Müller, Andreas Küberl, Daniel Siebert, Natalie Brühl, Kay Marin, Stephan Hans, Reinhard Krämer, Michael Bott, Joern Kalinowski, Wolfgang Wiechert, Gerd Seibold, Julia Frunzke, Christian Rückert, Volker Wendisch, Stephan Noack
Targeted top-down strategies for genome reduction are considered to have a high potential for providing robust basic strains for synthetic biology and industrial biotechnology. Recently, we created a library of 26 genome-reduced strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum carrying broad deletions in single gene clusters and showing wild-type-like biological fitness. Here, we proceeded with combinatorial deletions of these irrelevant gene clusters in two parallel orders and the resulting library of 28 strains was characterized under various environmental conditions...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734738/evaluation-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-bacterioplankton-from-niter%C3%A3-i-coast-rj
#3
Marcelly Miranda Aybal Jayme, Rebeca Oliveira Castro, Carlos André Mandarino Silva, Mariana Muniz Silva, Flávia Lima do Carmo, Fábio Vieira de Araujo
Production of antibiotics and enzymes by microorganisms is well recognized for its economic benefits. Searching potentially exploitable microorganisms, strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from marine and estuarine waters in Niterói-RJ, Brazil, and tested for the production of enzymes and antimicrobial substances. From the 76 isolated colonies, 09.21% showed antimicrobial potential, 63.16% showed enzymatic activity for at least one of the substrates tested and 91% showed multidrug resistance. Strains that presented the better results were identified by sequencing...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#4
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725265/two-bifunctional-enzymes-from-the-marine-protist-thraustochytrium-roseum-biochemical-characterization-of-wax-ester-synthase-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-activity-catalyzing-wax-ester-and-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#5
Nannan Zhang, Zejing Mao, Ling Luo, Xia Wan, Fenghong Huang, Yangmin Gong
BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718807/melanin-and-melanin-related-polymers-as-materials-with-biomedical-and-biotechnological-applications-cuttlefish-ink-and-mussel-foot-proteins-as-inspired-biomolecules
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Solano
The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717014/investigating-mixotrophic-metabolism-in-the-model-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#7
Valeria Villanova, Antonio Emidio Fortunato, Dipali Singh, Davide Dal Bo, Melissa Conte, Toshihiro Obata, Juliette Jouhet, Alisdair R Fernie, Eric Marechal, Angela Falciatore, Julien Pagliardini, Adeline Le Monnier, Mark Poolman, Gilles Curien, Dimitris Petroutsos, Giovanni Finazzi
Diatoms are prominent marine microalgae, interesting not only from an ecological point of view, but also for their possible use in biotechnology applications. They can be cultivated in phototrophic conditions, using sunlight as the sole energy source. Some diatoms, however, can also grow in a mixotrophic mode, wherein both light and external reduced carbon contribute to biomass accumulation. In this study, we investigated the consequences of mixotrophy on the growth and metabolism of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using glycerol as the source of reduced carbon...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714254/microbial-biotechnology-addressing-the-plastic-waste-disaster
#8
Tanja Narancic, Kevin E O'Connor
Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO2 . However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14).
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676050/reconstruction-of-the-microalga-nannochloropsis-salina-genome-scale-metabolic-model-with-applications-to-lipid-production
#9
Nicolás Loira, Sebastian Mendoza, María Paz Cortés, Natalia Rojas, Dante Travisany, Alex Di Genova, Natalia Gajardo, Nicole Ehrenfeld, Alejandro Maass
BACKGROUND: Nannochloropsis salina (= Eustigmatophyceae) is a marine microalga which has become a biotechnological target because of its high capacity to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids and triacylglycerols. It has been used as a source of biofuel, pigments and food supplements, like Omega 3. Only some Nannochloropsis species have been sequenced, but none of them benefit from a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM), able to predict its metabolic capabilities. RESULTS: We present iNS934, the first GSMM for N...
July 4, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672802/bioethical-considerations-of-advancing-the-application-of-marine-biotechnology-and-aquaculture
#10
Reginal M Harrell
Normative ethical considerations of growth of the marine biotechnology and aquaculture disciplines in biopharming, food production, and marine products commercialization from a bioethical perspective have been limited. This paucity of information begs the question of what constitutes a bioethical approach (i.e., respect for individuals or autonomy; beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) to marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and whether it is one that is appropriate for consideration. Currently, thoughtful discussion on the bioethical implications of use, development, and commercialization of marine organisms or their products, as well as potential environmental effects, defaults to human biomedicine as a model...
June 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659904/antimicrobial-potential-of-bacteria-associated-with-marine-sea-slugs-from-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#11
Nils Böhringer, Katja M Fisch, Dorothee Schillo, Robert Bara, Cora Hertzer, Fabian Grein, Jan-Hendrik Eisenbarth, Fontje Kaligis, Tanja Schneider, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König, Till F Schäberle
Nudibranchia, marine soft-bodied organisms, developed, due to the absence of a protective shell, different strategies to protect themselves against putative predators and fouling organisms. One strategy is to use chemical weapons to distract predators, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, these gastropods take advantage of the incorporation of chemical molecules. Thereby the original source of these natural products varies; it might be the food source, de novo synthesis from the sea slug, or biosynthesis by associated bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653740/isolation-diversity-and-biotechnological-potential-of-rhizo-and-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-mangrove-plants-from-saudi-arabia
#12
F Bibi, I Ullah, S A Alvi, S A Bakhsh, M Yasir, A A K Al-Ghamdi, E I Azhar
Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651436/beyond-the-beaten-path-improving-natural-products-bioprospecting-using-an-eco-evolutionary-framework-the-case-of-the-octocorals
#13
Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Agostinho Antunes
Marine natural products (NPs) represent an impressive source of novel bioactive molecules with major biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, the usual chemical and applied perspective leading most of bioprospecting projects come along with various limitations blurring our understanding of the extensive marine chemical diversity. Here, we propose several guidelines: (i) to optimize bioprospecting and (ii) to refine our knowledge on marine chemical ecology focusing on octocorals, one of the most promising sources of marine NPs...
June 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650092/photoactivatable-mussel-based-underwater-adhesive-proteins-by-an-expanded-genetic-code
#14
Mathias Hauf, Florian Richter, Tobias Schneider, Thomas Faidt, Berta M Martins, Tobias Baumann, Patrick Durkin, Holger Dobbek, Karin Jacobs, Andreas Möglich, Nediljko Budisa
Marine mussels exhibit potent underwater adhesion abilities under hostile conditions employing 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich mussel-adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, their recombinant production is a major biotechnological challenge. Here, we have developed a novel strategy based on genetic code expansion by engineering efficient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) for the photocaged non-canonical amino acid (ncAA) ortho-nitrobenzyl Dopa (ONB-Dopa). The engineered ONB-DopaRS enables in vivo production of MAP type 5 site-specifically equipped with multiple instances of ONB-Dopa yielding spatiotemporally controlled underwater adhesives...
June 26, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648476/constraint-based-metabolic-modelling-of-marine-microbes-and-communities
#15
REVIEW
Marco Fondi, Renato Fani
Constraint-based metabolic modelling (CBMM) consists in the use of computational methods and tools to perform genome-scale simulations and predict metabolic features at the whole cellular level. This approach is rapidly expanding in microbiology, as it combines reliable predictive abilities with conceptually and technically simple frameworks. Among the possible outcomes of CBMM, the capability to i) guide a focused planning of metabolic engineering experiments and ii) provide a system-level understanding of (single or community-level) microbial metabolic circuits also represent primary aims in present-day marine microbiology...
August 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629190/biotechnological-potential-of-cold-adapted-pseudoalteromonas-spp-isolated-from-deep-sea-sponges
#16
Erik Borchert, Stephen Knobloch, Emilie Dwyer, Sinéad Flynn, Stephen A Jackson, Ragnar Jóhannsson, Viggó T Marteinsson, Fergal O'Gara, Alan D W Dobson
The marine genus Pseudoalteromonas is known for its versatile biotechnological potential with respect to the production of antimicrobials and enzymes of industrial interest. We have sequenced the genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from different deep sea sponges on the Illumina MiSeq platform. The isolates have been screened for various industrially important enzymes and comparative genomics has been applied to investigate potential relationships between the isolates and their host organisms, while comparing them to free-living Pseudoalteromonas spp...
June 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629096/synthesis-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-and-their-dispersions-with-special-reference-to-applications-in-biomedicine-and-biotechnology
#17
REVIEW
R V Mehta
Biomedical and biotechnological applications of magnetic nanoparticles and their dispersions in liquids are found to be potentially useful. An exponential growth in publications of papers, reviews and patents has been observed. Possibilities of their indiscriminate use on individual as well as environmental health hazards are also investigated. Still, there appears to be a good scope for further research work in the field. Even a small improvement either in preparation method or development of novel nanoparticles may prove to be beneficial in longer run...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611737/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-apigenin-luteolin-and-eriodictyol-in-the-actinomycete-streptomyces-albus-and-production-improvement-by-feeding-and-spore-conditioning
#18
Laura Marín, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Paula Yagüe, Ángel Manteca, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Nutraceutical compounds as plant flavonoids play an important role in prevention and modulation of diverse heath conditions, as they exert interesting antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. They also possess anti-inflammatory activities in arthritis, cardiovascular disease or neurological diseases, as well as modulatory effects on the CYP450 activity on diverse drugs. Most flavonoids are bioactive molecules of plant origin, but their industrial production is sometimes hindered due to reasons as low concentration in the plant tissues, presence in only some species or as a complex mixture or inactive glycosides in plant vacuolae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602552/intensity-fading-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-and-functional-proteomics-assignments-to-identify-protease-inhibitors-in-marine-invertebrates
#19
Giovanni Covaleda, Sebastian A Trejo, Emir Salas-Sarduy, Maday Alonso Del Rivero, Maria Angeles Chavez, Francesc X Aviles
Proteases and their inhibitors have become molecules of increasing fundamental and applicative value. Here we report an integrated strategy to identify and analyze such inhibitors from Caribbean marine invertebrates extracts by a fast and sensitive functional proteomics-like approach. The strategy works in three steps: i) multiplexed enzymatic inhibition kinetic assays, ii) Intensity Fading MALDI-TOF MS to establish a link between inhibitory molecules and the related MALDI signal(s) detected in the extract(s), and iii) ISD-CID-T(3) MS fragmentation on the parent MALDI signals selected in the previous step, enabling the partial or total top-down sequencing of the molecules...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549320/light-emission-miracle-in-the-sea-and-preeminent-applications-of-bioluminescence-in-recent-new-biotechnology
#20
Sana Sharifian, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Khosro Khajeh
Bioluminescence is referred to the light emission by a living organism due to a specific biochemical reaction. This interesting feature of the organisms could highly influences behavioral and ecosystem dynamics. Luminescence, mostly observed in marine species, is generally higher in deep-living genera than in benthic or shallow organisms. However, among creatures living in land, fireflies, beetles, springtails and fungi have shown some bioluminescent activities. Classically, the emission of light is catalyzed by luciferase from a substrate...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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