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Marine biotechnology

Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
Vipaporn Cheewinthamrongrod, Hakuto Kageyama, Tanapat Palaga, Teruhiro Takabe, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of natural sunscreen compounds that possess highly photoprotective properties. The most commonly found MAAs in marine organisms is shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-glycine. However, the halophilic species accumulate mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G) as the major MAA. In this study, we have investigated the protective effect of M2G against oxidative stress. In vitro radical scavenging activity revealed that M2G exhibited a significant inhibition with scavenging concentration (SC) 50 value of 22±1...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Marcelo M P Tangerina, Hebelin Correa, Brad Haltli, Wagner Vilegas, Russell G Kerr
Shrimp fisheries along the Brazilian coast have significant environmental impact due to high by-catch rates (21 kg per kilogram of shrimp). Typically discarded, by-catch contains many invertebrates that may host a great variety of bacterial genera, some of which may produce bioactive natural products with biotechnological applications. Therefore, to utilize by-catch that is usually discarded we explored the biotechnological potential of culturable bacteria of two abundant by-catch invertebrate species, the snail Olivancillaria urceus and the sea star Luidia senegalensis...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Rekha Devi Chakraborty, Vamshi Krishna Raola, Minju Joy
The brown seaweed, Sargassum myriocystum associated with heterotrophic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10407 (JF834075) exhibited broad-spectra of potent antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. B. subtilis MTCC 10407 was found to be positive for polyketide synthetase (pks) gene, and therefore, was considered to characterize secondary metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, two new antibacterial O-heterocyclic compounds belonging to pyranyl benzoate analogs of polyketide origin, with activity against pathogenic bacteria, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B...
September 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ping Chen, Limin Zhang, Xiaoxuan Guo, Xin Dai, Li Liu, Lijun Xi, Jian Wang, Lei Song, Yuezhu Wang, Yaxin Zhu, Li Huang, Ying Huang
The phylum Actinobacteria has been reported to be common or even abundant in deep marine sediments, however, knowledge about the diversity, distribution, and function of actinobacteria is limited. In this study, actinobacterial diversity in the deep sea along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) was investigated using both 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and culture-based methods. The samples were collected at depths of 1662-4000 m below water surface. Actinobacterial sequences represented 1.2-9.1% of all microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences in each sample...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Verónica González, Alfredo F Braña, Juan J Palacios, Luis Otero, Jonathan Fernández, Axayacatl Molina, Andreas Kulik, Fernando Vázquez, José L Acuña, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Adele Williamson, Concetta De Santi, Bjørn Altermark, Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde
The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Detmer Sipkema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Xiao-Lai Shi, Yue-Hong Wu, Hong Cheng, Xin-Qi Zhang, Chun-Sheng Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis NBRC 107699 was isolated from marine sediment collected from a site on the coast of Ishigaki Island, Japan and deposited to the NITE Biological Resource Center. This strain is able to produce astaxanthin, which can be used as a food supplement. Here we describe the genome sequence and annotation, as well as the features of the organism. The genome of strain NBRC 107699 comprises 2,673,978bp and contains 2618 protein-coding genes (1966 with predicted functions), 42 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes...
August 15, 2016: Marine Genomics
Paola Cicatiello, Alfredo Maria Gravagnuolo, Giorgio Gnavi, Giovanna Cristina Varese, Paola Giardina
Hydrophobins have been described as the most powerful surface-active proteins known. They are produced by filamentous fungi and exhibit a distinct amphiphilic structure determining their self-assembly at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces and surfactant properties which have been demonstrated to be useful for several biotechnological applications. The marine environment represents a vast natural resource of new molecules produced by organisms growing in various stressful conditions. This study was focused on the screening of 100 marine fungi from Mycoteca Universitatis Taurinensis (MUT) for the identification of new hydrophobins...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rashmi Chandra, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world...
August 2, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Agustina Undabarrena, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Fernanda P Claverías, Myriam González, Edward R B Moore, Michael Seeger, Beatriz Cámara
Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luciana C S Chaud, Luciana D Lario, Rafaella C Bonugli-Santos, Lara D Sette, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Maria das Graças de A Felipe
Microorganisms from extreme and restrictive eco systems, such as the Antarctic continent, are of great interest due to their ability to synthesize products of commercial value. Among these, enzymes from psychrotolerant and psychrophilic microorganisms offer potential economical benefits due to their high activity at low and moderate temperatures. The cold adapted yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa L7 was selected out of 97 yeasts isolated from Antarctica as having the highest extracellular proteolytic activity in preliminary tests...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Maria Costantini
The marine environment represents a very rich source of biologically active compounds with pharmacological applications. This is due to its chemical richness, which is claiming considerable attention from the health science communities. In this review we give a general overview on the marine natural products involved in stimulation and inhibition of autophagy (a type of programmed cell death) linked to pharmacological and pathological conditions. Autophagy represents a complex multistep cellular process, wherein a double membrane vesicle (the autophagosome) captures organelles and proteins and delivers them to the lysosome...
2016: Marine Drugs
Johanna Silber, Annemarie Kramer, Antje Labes, Deniz Tasdemir
Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics...
2016: Marine Drugs
R N Lima, A L M Porto
In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Abdelrahman Saleh Zaky, Darren Greetham, Edward J Louis, Greg A Tucker, Chenyu Du
Yeasts that are present in marine environments have evolved to survive hostile environments, which are characterised by high exogenous salt content, high concentrations of inhibitory compounds and low soluble carbon and nitrogen levels. Therefore, yeasts isolated from marine environments could have interesting characteristics for industrial applications. However, the application of marine yeast in research or industry is currently very limited due to the lack of a suitable isolation method. Current methods for isolation suffer from fungal interference and/or low number of yeast isolates...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Concetta De Santi, Nils Peder Willassen, Adele Williamson
BACKGROUND: The glucuronoyl esterase enzymes of wood-degrading fungi (Carbohydrate Esterase family 15; CE15) form part of the hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzyme systems that break down plant biomass, and have possible applications in biotechnology. Homologous enzymes are predicted in the genomes of several bacteria, however these have been much less studied than their fungal counterparts. Here we describe the recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a bacterial CE15 enzyme denoted MZ0003, which was identified by in silico screening of a prokaryotic metagenome library derived from marine Arctic sediment...
2016: PloS One
Ismael L Hernández-González, Gabriela Olmedo-Álvarez
Bacillus aquimaris TF12 is a Gram-positive bacteria isolated from a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in South Korea. We report the draft whole-genome sequence of Bacillus aquimaris TF12, the type strain of a set of bacteria typically associated with marine habitats and with a potentially high biotechnology value.
2016: Genome Announcements
Natércia F Brás, Pedro Ferreira, Ana R Calixto, Marcel Jaspars, Wael Houssen, James H Naismith, Pedro A Fernandes, Maria J Ramos
Cyclic peptides are a class of compounds with high therapeutic potential, possessing bioactivities including antitumor and antiviral (including anti-HIV). Despite their desirability, efficient design and production of these compounds has not been achieved to date. The catalytic mechanism of patellamide macrocyclization by the PatG macrocyclase domain has been computationally investigated by using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methodology, specifically ONIOM(M06/6-311++G(2d,2p):ff94//B3LYP/6-31G(d):ff94)...
September 5, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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