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Marine biotechnology

Stefano Romano
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marines sources as both free living and host associated. So far, the available data depict a group of Alphaproteobacteria characterized by a versatile metabolism, which allows them to use a variety of substrates to meet their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous requirements. Additionally, Pseudovibrio -related bacteria have been shown to proliferate under extreme oligotrophic conditions, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and metabolize potentially toxic compounds...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Noora Barzkar, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Seema Patel
Thermostable proteases are important in biotechnological and industrial sectors, due to their stability against denaturing agents and chemicals. The feature that gives them such unique applicability is their reaction at high temperatures, which affords a high concentration of substrate, and less risk of microbial contamination. Nearly 65% of industrial proteases are isolated from marine microbial source, and they can significantly resist a wide range of organic solvents at high temperatures. The most important trait of marine organisms is their adaptability, which allows them to grow optimally in harsh environments such as high salt, temperatures, and pressure-the characteristics of deep-sea hot springs and geothermal sediments...
February 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Chiara Lauritano, Jesús Martín, Mercedes de la Cruz, Fernando Reyes, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active compounds for applications in several biotechnology sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. Considering the increasing rate of antibiotic-resistance bacteria and infections by fungi, 46 microalgae have been screened in this study for possible antibacterial and antifungal activities...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
José Gerardo Carneiro, Ticiana de Brito Lima Holanda, Ana Luíza Gomes Quinderé, Annyta Fernandes Frota, Vitória Virgínia Magalhães Soares, Rayane Siqueira de Sousa, Manuela Araújo Carneiro, Dainesy Santos Martins, Antoniella Souza Gomes Duarte, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
The development of the gastric lesion is complex and the result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors, involving the generation of free radicals and disturbance in nitric oxide (NO) production. Sulphated polysaccharides (SP), from marine algae, are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SP) in ethanol-induced gastric damage models in mice. Cm-SP (2, 20, or 200 mg/kg), administered p...
January 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Jingjing Shen, Yaoguang Chang, Feng Chen, Shujun Dong
κ-Carrageenases are desirable tools for tailoring the molecular weight, physicochemical properties and functionalities of κ-carrageenan, a macromolecule widely utilized in various industries. In this study, a novel GH16 family κ-carrageenase, designated as Cgk16A, was cloned from the genome of marine bacterium Wenyingzhuangia aestuarii OF219 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its biochemical properties, kinetic parameters and hydrolytic pattern were characterized. The enzyme demonstrated a low optimal reaction temperature (25 °C) and a cold-adapted feature...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Harshada Sowani, Mohan Kulkarni, Smita Zinjarde
The bacterial genus Gordonia encompasses a variety of versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Gordonia was described as a genus about 20 years ago, and to date, 39 different species have been identified. Gordonia is recognized for symbiotic associations with multiple hosts, including aquatic (marine and fresh water) biological forms and terrestrial invertebrates. Some Gordonia species isolated from clinical specimens are known to be opportunistic human pathogens causing secondary infections in immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals...
December 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Fábio V DE Araújo, Marcelle C M Netto, Gustavo P Azevedo, Marcelly M A Jayme, Monica C Nunes-Carvalho, Mariana M Silva, Flávia L DO Carmo
Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yoshiaki Maeda, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Marine microalgae are recognized as promising feedstocks for biofuels and chemicals owing to their higher growth rates than those of terrestrial crop plants. We aimed to summarize the production of biofuels and chemicals by marine microalgae and to discuss their advantages and potential from the aspect of bioprocess. The present circumstances of the microalgae industry were briefly described and large-scale industrial plants for microalgae production, where some marine microalgae are cultivated, were introduced...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
D F R Cleary, A R M Polónia, N J de Voogd
Certain sponge species are difficult to identify using traditional morphology and other techniques are often necessary. Here we used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities of two distinct Cinachyrella morphospecies collected from two Indonesian marine lakes with differing degrees of connection to the surrounding sea. Our main goal was to assess whether these morphospecies hosted distinct bacterial and archaeal communities and to what extent these differed from those found in lake water...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Consolazione Caruso, Carmen Rizzo, Santina Mangano, Annarita Poli, Paola Di Donato, Ilaria Finore, Barbara Nicolaus, Gaetano Di Marco, Luigi Michaud, Angelina Lo Giudice
Four sponge-associated Antarctic bacteria (i.e. Winogradskyella spp. CAL384 and CAL396, Colwellia sp. GW185 and Shewanella sp. CAL606) were selected for the highly mucous appearance of their colonies on agar plates. The production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) was enhanced by a step-by step approach varying the carbon source, substrate and NaCl concentrations, temperature and pH. The EPSs produced under optimal conditions were chemically characterized, resulting in a moderate carbohydrate content (range 15-28%), and the presence of proteins (range 3-24%) and uronic acids (range 3...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jinwei Zhang, J Grant Burgess
Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26%) of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass) of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature...
2017: PloS One
Claudine Bisson, Nathan B P Adams, Ben Stevenson, Amanda A Brindley, Despo Polyviou, Thomas S Bibby, Patrick J Baker, C Neil Hunter, Andrew Hitchcock
Inorganic phosphate is the major bioavailable form of the essential nutrient phosphorus. However, the concentration of phosphate in most natural habitats is low enough to limit microbial growth. Under phosphate-depleted conditions some bacteria utilise phosphite and hypophosphite as alternative sources of phosphorus, but the molecular basis of reduced phosphorus acquisition from the environment is not fully understood. Here, we present crystal structures and ligand binding affinities of periplasmic binding proteins from bacterial phosphite and hypophosphite ATP-binding cassette transporters...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
Ruchi Pathania, Ahmad Ahmad, Shireesh Srivastava
Marine cyanobacteria play an important role in global carbon cycling and are a potential source of polyglucans for biotechnological purposes. This report provides the draft sequence of an Indian marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus BDU 130192, which shows fast growth and high polyglucan content. The genome sequence will help in understanding the unique properties of this organism.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Leidson Allan Ferreira de Lucena, Virgilio Uarrota, Manuela Bernardes Batista, Marina Nasri Sissini, Iara Oliveira, Bruno Briani, Cintia D L Martins, José Marcos de Castro Nunes, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo Antunes Horta, Félix L Figueroa, Nathalie Korbee, Marcelo Maraschin, José Bonomi-Barufi
Absorption spectra are indicative of biological sample chemical composition and can be used as a basis for the construction of descriptive and predictive models for biotechnological screening or assays. In marine algae, chemical composition can vary due to species-specific differences in biochemistry, as well as intra-specific responses to unique environmental variables. Different indices (UVCi, UVB+Ai and PARi) were proposed and calculated to evaluate how photoprotective compounds vary in 18 species of Phaeophyceae...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhen Chen, Zhipeng Li, Peize Liu, Yu Liu, Yuanpeng Wang, Qingbiao Li, Ning He
BACKGROUND: The identification of microorganisms with excellent flocculant-producing capability and optimization of the fermentation process are necessary for the wide-scale application of bioflocculants. Thus, we evaluated the flocculant-producing ability of a novel strain identified by the screening of marine bacteria, and we report for the first time the properties of the bioflocculant produced by Alteromonas sp. in the treatment of dye wastewater. RESULTS: A bioflocculant-producing bacterium was isolated from seawater and identified as Alteromonas sp...
November 17, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Marinella Silva Laport, Mathieu Bauwens, Marie Collard, Isabelle George
In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and the antagonistic interactions of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus collected from Aber and Morgat, both located in Crozon peninsula, France. Bacteria were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ten specimens by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Assays for antagonistic interactions among the bacterial strains were performed; bacteria (including at least one strain representative of each OTU identified) were screened for antimicrobial substance production...
November 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Samadhan Waghmode, Laxmikant Dama, Tejashri Hingamire, Nidhi Bharti, Swapnil Doijad, Mangesh Suryavanshi
Bacillus aquimaris strain SAMM, a biosurfactant producing moderately halophilic marine bacterium was isolated from Indian Arabian coastline sea water. The strain was found to tolerate up to 2.7 M NaCl indicating osmotic stress sustainable physiological systems. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. aquimaris SAMM, as a candidate bacterium for bioactive surfactant producer. The whole genome sequence with 161 scaffolds, 4,414,932 bp and 44.8% of G+C content for SAMM was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology...
2017: Journal of Genomics
José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, F Jerry Reen, María L Parages, Ronan McCarthy, Alan D W Dobson, Fergal O'Gara
In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel bioactivities. One such area of ongoing research is the discovery of compounds that interfere with the cell-cell signalling process called quorum sensing (QS). Described as the next generation of antimicrobials, these compounds can target virulence and persistence of clinically relevant pathogens, independent of any growth-limiting effects...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
T Buryska, P Babkova, O Vavra, J Damborsky, Z Prokop
The haloalkane dehalogenase enzyme DmmA was identified by marine metagenomic screening. Determination of its crystal structure revealed an unusually large active site compared to previously characterized haloalkane dehalogenases. Here we present a biochemical characterization of this interesting enzyme with emphasis on its structure-function relationships. DmmA exhibited an exceptionally broad substrate specificity and degraded several halogenated environmental pollutants that are resistant to other members of this enzyme family...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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