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Marine biotechnology

Yoshiaki Maeda, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Marine microalgae are recognized as promising feedstocks for biofuels and chemicals owing to their higher growth rates than those of terrestrial crop plants. We aimed to summarize the production of biofuels and chemicals by marine microalgae and to discuss their advantages and potential from the aspect of bioprocess. The present circumstances of the microalgae industry were briefly described and large-scale industrial plants for microalgae production, where some marine microalgae are cultivated, were introduced...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
D F R Cleary, A R M Polónia, N J de Voogd
Certain sponge species are difficult to identify using traditional morphology and other techniques are often necessary. Here we used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities of two distinct Cinachyrella morphospecies collected from two Indonesian marine lakes with differing degrees of connection to the surrounding sea. Our main goal was to assess whether these morphospecies hosted distinct bacterial and archaeal communities and to what extent these differed from those found in lake water...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Consolazione Caruso, Carmen Rizzo, Santina Mangano, Annarita Poli, Paola Di Donato, Ilaria Finore, Barbara Nicolaus, Gaetano Di Marco, Luigi Michaud, Angelina Lo Giudice
Four sponge-associated Antarctic bacteria (i.e. Winogradskyella spp. CAL384 and CAL396, Colwellia sp. GW185 and Shewanella sp. CAL606) were selected for the highly mucous appearance of their colonies on agar plates. The production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) was enhanced by a step-by step approach varying the carbon source, substrate and NaCl concentrations, temperature and pH. The EPSs produced under optimal conditions were chemically characterized, resulting in a moderate carbohydrate content (range 15-28%), and the presence of proteins (range 3-24%) and uronic acids (range 3...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jinwei Zhang, J Grant Burgess
Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26%) of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass) of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature...
2017: PloS One
Claudine Bisson, Nathan B P Adams, Ben Stevenson, Amanda A Brindley, Despo Polyviou, Thomas S Bibby, Patrick J Baker, C Neil Hunter, Andrew Hitchcock
Inorganic phosphate is the major bioavailable form of the essential nutrient phosphorus. However, the concentration of phosphate in most natural habitats is low enough to limit microbial growth. Under phosphate-depleted conditions some bacteria utilise phosphite and hypophosphite as alternative sources of phosphorus, but the molecular basis of reduced phosphorus acquisition from the environment is not fully understood. Here, we present crystal structures and ligand binding affinities of periplasmic binding proteins from bacterial phosphite and hypophosphite ATP-binding cassette transporters...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
Ruchi Pathania, Ahmad Ahmad, Shireesh Srivastava
Marine cyanobacteria play an important role in global carbon cycling and are a potential source of polyglucans for biotechnological purposes. This report provides the draft sequence of an Indian marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus BDU 130192, which shows fast growth and high polyglucan content. The genome sequence will help in understanding the unique properties of this organism.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Leidson Allan Ferreira de Lucena, Virgilio Uarrota, Manuela Bernardes Batista, Marina Nasri Sissini, Iara Oliveira, Bruno Briani, Cintia D L Martins, José Marcos de Castro Nunes, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo Antunes Horta, Félix L Figueroa, Nathalie Korbee, Marcelo Maraschin, José Bonomi-Barufi
Absorption spectra are indicative of biological sample chemical composition and can be used as a basis for the construction of descriptive and predictive models for biotechnological screening or assays. In marine algae, chemical composition can vary due to species-specific differences in biochemistry, as well as intra-specific responses to unique environmental variables. Different indices (UVCi, UVB+Ai and PARi) were proposed and calculated to evaluate how photoprotective compounds vary in 18 species of Phaeophyceae...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhen Chen, Zhipeng Li, Peize Liu, Yu Liu, Yuanpeng Wang, Qingbiao Li, Ning He
BACKGROUND: The identification of microorganisms with excellent flocculant-producing capability and optimization of the fermentation process are necessary for the wide-scale application of bioflocculants. Thus, we evaluated the flocculant-producing ability of a novel strain identified by the screening of marine bacteria, and we report for the first time the properties of the bioflocculant produced by Alteromonas sp. in the treatment of dye wastewater. RESULTS: A bioflocculant-producing bacterium was isolated from seawater and identified as Alteromonas sp...
November 17, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Marinella Silva Laport, Mathieu Bauwens, Marie Collard, Isabelle George
In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and the antagonistic interactions of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus collected from Aber and Morgat, both located in Crozon peninsula, France. Bacteria were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ten specimens by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Assays for antagonistic interactions among the bacterial strains were performed; bacteria (including at least one strain representative of each OTU identified) were screened for antimicrobial substance production...
November 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
Samadhan Waghmode, Laxmikant Dama, Tejashri Hingamire, Nidhi Bharti, Swapnil Doijad, Mangesh Suryavanshi
Bacillus aquimaris strain SAMM, a biosurfactant producing moderately halophilic marine bacterium was isolated from Indian Arabian coastline sea water. The strain was found to tolerate up to 2.7 M NaCl indicating osmotic stress sustainable physiological systems. We report here the draft genome sequence of B. aquimaris SAMM, as a candidate bacterium for bioactive surfactant producer. The whole genome sequence with 161 scaffolds, 4,414,932 bp and 44.8% of G+C content for SAMM was obtained using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology...
2017: Journal of Genomics
José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, F Jerry Reen, María L Parages, Ronan McCarthy, Alan D W Dobson, Fergal O'Gara
In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel bioactivities. One such area of ongoing research is the discovery of compounds that interfere with the cell-cell signalling process called quorum sensing (QS). Described as the next generation of antimicrobials, these compounds can target virulence and persistence of clinically relevant pathogens, independent of any growth-limiting effects...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
T Buryska, P Babkova, O Vavra, J Damborsky, Z Prokop
The haloalkane dehalogenase enzyme DmmA was identified by marine metagenomic screening. Determination of its crystal structure revealed an unusually large active site compared to previously characterized haloalkane dehalogenases. Here we present a biochemical characterization of this interesting enzyme with emphasis on its structure-function relationships. DmmA exhibited an exceptionally broad substrate specificity and degraded several halogenated environmental pollutants that are resistant to other members of this enzyme family...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Qinhong Cai, Xudong Ye, Bing Chen, Baiyu Zhang
Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain N4-1P, a psychrophilic bacterium that produces bioemulsifier, isolated for the first time from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment samples from shoreline Newfoundland, Canada. Many strains of the genus Exiguobacterium are extremophiles and have properties of biotechnological interest.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
Tom Defoirdt, Siegfried E Vlaeminck, Xiaoyan Sun, Nico Boon, Peter Clauwaert
Human urine contains a high concentration of nitrogen and is therefore an interesting source for nutrient recovery. Ureolysis is a key requirement in many processes aiming at nitrogen recovery from urine. Although ureolytic activity is widespread in terrestrial and aquatic environments, very little is known about the urease activity and regulation in specific bacteria other than human pathogens. Given the relatively high salt concentration of urine, marine bacteria would be particularly well suited for biotechnological applications involving nitrogen recovery from urine, and therefore, in this study, we investigated ureolytic activity and its regulation in marine vibrios...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Dexy Joseph, Kajal Chakraborty
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited Vmax and Km of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol...
October 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Henning Stockmann, Viktor Todorovic, Paul L Richardson, Violeta Marin, Victoria Scott, Clare Gerstein, Marc Lake, Leyu Wang, Ramkrishna Sadhukhan, Anil Vasudevan
Ligand-binding assays are the linchpin of drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. Cell-surface receptors and their ligands have traditionally been characterized by radioligand-binding assays, which have low temporal and spatial resolution and entail safety risks. Here, we report a powerful alternative (GlycoFRET), where terbium-labeled fluorescent reporters are irreversibly attached to receptors by metabolic glycan engineering. For the first time, we show time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer between receptor glycans and fluorescently labeled ligands...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fatih Deniz, Elif Tezel Ersanli
High levels of heavy metals like copper ions in many industrial based effluents lead to serious environmental and health problems. Biosorption is a potential environmental biotechnology approach for biotreatment of aquatic sites polluted with heavy metal ions. Seaweeds have received great attention for their high bioremediation potential in recent years. However, the co-application of marine macroalgae for removal of heavy metals from wastewater is very limited. Thus, for the first time in literature, a coastal seaweed community composed of Chaetomorpha sp...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Daniela Beisser, Nadine Graupner, Lars Grossmann, Henning Timm, Jens Boenigk, Sven Rahmann
BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are increasingly applied to analyse complex microbial ecosystems by mRNA sequencing of whole communities, also known as metatranscriptome sequencing. This approach is at the moment largely limited to prokaryotic communities and communities of few eukaryotic species with sequenced genomes. For eukaryotes the analysis is hindered mainly by a low and fragmented coverage of the reference databases to infer the community composition, but also by lack of automated workflows for the task...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Marlis Reich, Antje Labes
Marine fungi have attracted attention in recent years due to increased appreciation of their functional role in ecosystems and as important sources of new natural products. The concomitant development of various "omic" technologies has boosted fungal research in the fields of biodiversity, physiological ecology and natural product biosynthesis. Each of these research areas has its own research agenda, scientific language and quality standards, which have so far hindered an interdisciplinary exchange. Inter- and transdisciplinary interactions are, however, vital for: (i) a detailed understanding of the ecological role of marine fungi, (ii) unlocking their hidden potential for natural product discovery, and (iii) designing access routes for biotechnological production...
October 11, 2017: Marine Genomics
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