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Marine biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#1
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511892/occurrence-and-biosynthesis-of-carotenoids-in-phytoplankton
#3
REVIEW
Jim Junhui Huang, Shaoling Lin, Wenwen Xu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition...
May 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#4
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480140/high-diversity-and-suggested-endemicity-of-culturable-actinobacteria-in-an-extremely-oligotrophic-desert-oasis
#5
Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza, Ricardo Canales-Del Castillo, Luis E Eguiarte, Valeria Souza, Susana De la Torre-Zavala
The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes one of the largest and anciently divergent phyla within the Bacteria domain. Actinobacterial diversity has been thoroughly researched in various environments due to its unique biotechnological potential. Such studies have focused mostly on soil communities, but more recently marine and extreme environments have also been explored, finding rare taxa and demonstrating dispersal limitation and biogeographic patterns for Streptomyces. To test the distribution of Actinobacteria populations on a small scale, we chose the extremely oligotrophic and biodiverse Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), an endangered oasis in the Chihuahuan desert to assess the diversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in the Churince System with a culture-dependent approach over a period of three years, using nine selective media...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450504/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-producing-strain-streptococcus-thermophilus-apc151
#6
Daniel M Linares, Silvia Arboleya, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%.
April 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443080/genome-sequencing-reveals-the-complex-polysaccharide-degrading-ability-of-novel-deep-sea-bacterium-flammeovirga-pacifica-wpaga1
#7
Boliang Gao, Min Jin, Li Li, Wu Qu, Runying Zeng
Flammeovirga pacifica strain WPAGA1 is a Gram-negative, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from the marine sediment of the West Pacific Ocean. This strain is a cosmopolitan marine bacterium that uses complex polysaccharides as exclusive source of carbon and energy and plays a key role in the marine carbon cycle. Genome sequence analysis of strain WPAGA1 revealed that the assembled fine genome contains 6,610,326 bp with 32.89% G+C content, 5036 open reading frames (ORFs) and abundant genomic elements...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430158/identification-of-tight-binding-plasmepsin-ii-and-falcipain-2-inhibitors-in-aqueous-extracts-of-marine-invertebrates-by-the-combination-of-enzymatic-and-interaction-based-assays
#8
Emir Salas-Sarduy, Yasel Guerra, Giovanni Covaleda Cortés, Francesc Xavier Avilés, María A Chávez Planes
Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes...
April 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427282/biofouling-in-photobioreactors-for-marine-microalgae
#9
Ouassim Zeriouh, José Vicente Reinoso-Moreno, Lorenzo López-Rosales, María Del Carmen Cerón-García, Asterio Sánchez-Mirón, Francisco García-Camacho, Emilio Molina-Grima
The economic and/or energetic feasibility of processes based on using microalgae biomass requires an efficient cultivation system. In photobioreactors (PBRs), the adhesion of microalgae to the transparent PBR surfaces leads to biofouling and reduces the solar radiation penetrating the PBR. Light reduction within the PBR decreases biomass productivity and, therefore, the photosynthetic efficiency of the cultivation system. Additionally, PBR biofouling leads to a series of further undesirable events including changes in cell pigmentation, culture degradation, and contamination by invasive microorganisms; all of which can result in the cultivation process having to be stopped...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399848/distinctive-molecular-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-20-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidase-and-salt-tolerance
#10
Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Rui Zhang, Rui Liu, Qian Wu, Junjun Li, Xianghua Tang, Bo Xu, Junmei Ding, Nanyu Han, Zunxi Huang
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic degradation of chitin has attracted substantial attention because chitin is an abundant renewable natural resource, second only to lignocellulose, and because of the promising applications of N-acetylglucosamine in the bioethanol, food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the low activity and poor tolerance to salts and N-acetylglucosamine of most reported β-N-acetylglucosaminidases limit their applications. Mining for novel enzymes from new microorganisms is one way to address this problem...
April 11, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397770/prospecting-biotechnologically-relevant-monooxygenases-from-cold-sediment-metagenomes-an-in-silico-approach
#11
Matías A Musumeci, Mariana Lozada, Daniela V Rial, Walter P Mac Cormack, Janet K Jansson, Sara Sjöling, JoLynn Carroll, Hebe M Dionisi
The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis...
April 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352560/systematic-characterization-of-potential-cellulolytic-marine-actinobacteria-actinoalloteichus-sp-mha15
#12
Gobalakrishnan Rajagopal, Sivakumar Kannan
Cellulose is the most abounding biopolymer in the world and there is a great interest in using this material as a substrate for various applications and it is the most important renewable resource for bioconversion. Therefore, it is necessary to screen the cellulolytic bioorganisms. In this context, actinobacteria are one of the most efficient prokaryotes, economically and biotechnologically, for their production of about half of the discovered bioactive secondary metabolites and they can metabolize many different compounds...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346336/enzymatic-processes-in-marine-biotechnology
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Trincone
In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity...
March 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335516/marine-diterpenes-molecular-modeling-of-thrombin-inhibitors-with-potential-biotechnological-application-as-an-antithrombotic
#14
Rebeca Cristina Costa Pereira, André Luiz Lourenço, Luciana Terra, Paula Alvarez Abreu, Valéria Laneuville Teixeira, Helena Carla Castro
Thrombosis related diseases are among the main causes of death and incapacity in the world. Despite the existence of antithrombotic agents available for therapy, they still present adverse effects like hemorrhagic risks which justify the search for new options. Recently, pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A, and dichotomanol, three diterpenes isolated from Brazilian marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were identified as potent antithrombotic molecules through inhibition of thrombin, a key enzyme of coagulation cascade and a platelet agonist...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330249/emulsifying-activity-of-a-biosurfactant-produced-by-a-marine-bacterium
#15
K Abraham Peele, V Ravi Teja Ch, Vidya P Kodali
Biosurfactants produced by biofilm-forming bacteria have great applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, food engineering, bioremediation, and biohydrometallurgy industries. This study aimed to find out the bacteria that produce novel exopolymers (EPSs) which can find potential role in oil biodegradation. A screening procedure was performed to detect EPS-producing bacteria. The EPS producing isolate was identified as Acinetobacter species by 16S rDNA analysis. The polymer produced by the isolate has shown significant emulsification and surfactant activities, and the activities were compared to some of the commercial emulsifiers...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330218/bacterial-carrageenases-an-overview-of-production-and-biotechnological-applications
#16
REVIEW
Prakram Singh Chauhan, Arunika Saxena
Carrageenan, one of the phycocolloids is a sulfated galactan made up of linear chains of galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose with alternating α-(1 → 3) and β-(1 → 4) linkages and further classified based on the number and the position of sulfated ester(s); κ-, ι- and λ-carrageenan. Enzymes which degrade carrageenans are called k-, ι-, and λ-carrageenases. They all are endohydrolases that cleave the internal β-(1-4) linkages of carrageenans yielding products of the oligo-carrageenans. These enzymes are produced only by bacteria specifically gram negative bacteria...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303907/crystal-structure-of-a-raw-starch-degrading-bacterial-%C3%AE-amylase-belonging-to-subfamily-37-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-gh13
#17
Yanhong Liu, Jigang Yu, Fudong Li, Hui Peng, Xuecheng Zhang, Yazhong Xiao, Chao He
Subfamily 37 of the glycoside hydrolase family GH13 was recently established on the basis of the discovery of a novel α-amylase, designated AmyP, from a marine metagenomic library. AmyP exhibits raw-starch-degrading activity and consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal starch-binding domain. To understand this newest subfamily, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmyP, named AmyPΔSBD, complexed with maltose, and the crystal structure of the E221Q mutant AmyPΔSBD complexed with maltotriose...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294564/cultivation-based-strategies-to-find-efficient-marine-biocatalysts
#18
Carlos J C Rodrigues, Ricardo F S Pereira, Pedro Fernandes, Joaquim M S Cabral, Carla C C R de Carvalho
Marine bacteria have evolved to survive in the marine environment by using unique physiological, biochemical and metabolic features and the ability to produce enzymes and compounds which may have commercial value. The Azores archipelago presents several ecosystems with strong volcanic activity where bacteria thrive under e.g. high temperatures. In this study, samples collected in the island of São Miguel were screened for biocatalysts possessing e.g. lipase, esterase, amylase, and inulinase activities. After isolation of several hundred bacterial strains, high throughput screening methods allowed the fast identification of biocatalysts...
March 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238042/entotheonella-bacteria-as-source-of-sponge-derived-natural-products-opportunities-for-biotechnological-production
#19
Agneya Bhushan, Eike E Peters, Jörn Piel
Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219380/effects-of-nutritional-conditions-on-growth-and-biochemical-composition-of-tetraselmis-sp
#20
Mouna Dammak, Bilel Hadrich, Ramzi Miladi, Mohamed Barkallah, Faiez Hentati, Ridha Hachicha, Céline Laroche, Philippe Michaud, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to maximize biomass concentration, biomass productivity and biochemical composition of the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. METHODS: In the current study, Box-Behnken Design was used to model the effect of NaNO3, NaH2PO4, metals and vitamins in the F/2 medium on the growth, total chlorophylls, carotenoids and starch contents. The total chlorophylls content was quantified by spectrophotometry. The FT-IR spectroscopy was used to estimate the biochemical compositions of Tetraselmis sp...
February 20, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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