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Marine biotechnology

Antonin Kunka, Jiri Damborsky, Zbynek Prokop
Haloalkane dehalogenases degrade halogenated compounds to corresponding alcohols by a hydrolytic mechanism. These enzymes are being intensively investigated as model systems in experimental and in silico studies of enzyme mechanism and evolution, but also hold importance as useful biocatalysts for a number of biotechnological applications. Haloalkane dehalogenases originate from various organisms including bacteria (degraders, symbionts, or pathogens), eukaryotes, and archaea. Several members of this enzyme family have been found in marine organisms...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Saeid Tamadoni Jahromi, Noora Barzkar
The marine ecosystem has been known to be a rich source of novel enzymes. Agarase is a key enzyme that can hydrolyze agar in the marine environment. Marine bacterial agarase has been isolated from various sources, such as sediments, coastal water, and deep sea and from the surface of crustaceans and seaweeds. This review presents an account of the agarase production of marine bacteria. General information about agar, agarase, isolation, and purification of marine bacterial agarases; the biochemical properties of native agarase from marine bacteria; the biochemical properties of recombinant marine bacterial agarases from engineered microorganisms; and the industrial future of marine bacterial agarases is analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jean-Étienne R L Morlighem, Chen Huang, Qiwen Liao, Paula Braga Gomes, Carlos Daniel Pérez, Álvaro Rossan de Brandão Prieto-da-Silva, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals), form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides...
June 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Javier Torregrosa-Crespo, Zaida Montero, Juan Luis Fuentes, Manuel Reig García-Galbis, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Carotenoids are among the most abundant natural pigments available in nature. These pigments have received considerable attention because of their biotechnological applications and, more importantly, due to their potential beneficial uses in human healthcare, food processing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. These bioactive compounds are in high demand throughout the world; Europe and the USA are the markets where the demand for carotenoids is the highest. The in vitro synthesis of carotenoids has sustained their large-scale production so far...
June 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Vivek K Bajpai, Shruti Shukla, Sung-Min Kang, Seung Kyu Hwang, Xinjie Song, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han
Current trends in the application of nanomaterials are emerging in the nano-biotechnological sector for development of medicines. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are photosynthetic prokaryotes that have applications to human health and numerous biological activities as dietary supplements. Cyanobacteria produce biologically active and chemically diverse compounds such as cyclic peptides, lipopeptides, fatty acid amides, alkaloids, and saccharides. More than 50% of marine cyanobacteria are potentially exploitable for the extraction of bioactive substances, which are effective in killing cancer cells by inducing apoptotic death...
May 23, 2018: Marine Drugs
Gabriela A L Vieira, Mariana Juventina Magrini, Rafaella C Bonugli-Santos, Marili V N Rodrigues, Lara D Sette
Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation...
May 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Luis Contreras-Castro, Luis A Maldonado, Erika T Quintana, Luciana Raggi, Alejandro Sánchez-Flores
Plantactinospora sp. strains BB1 and BC1 were isolated in 2009 from sediment samples of the Gulf of California from among almost 300 actinobacteria. Genome mining of their ∼8.5-Mb sequences showed the bioprospecting potential of these rare actinomycetes, providing an insight to their ecological and biotechnological importance.
May 24, 2018: Genome Announcements
M Quintero, A Velásquez, L M Jutinico, E Jiménez-Vergara, L M Blandón, K Martinez, H S Lee, J Gómez-León
AIMS: To isolate microorganisms associated to marine - coastal sediments of colombian Caribbean and for evaluating its antimicrobial activity in order to identify the most active strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: 104 strains were isolated from sediment samples of the colombian Caribbean. First at all, an antimicrobial activity screening was made using agar well diffusion method against the pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Verónica Sánchez Hinojosa, Joel Asenjo, Sergio Leiva
Bacterial communities of Antarctic marine macroalgae remain largely underexplored in terms of diversity and biotechnological applications. In this study, three Antarctic subtidal macroalgae (Himantothallus grandifolius, Pantoneura plocamioides and Plocamium cartilagineum), two of them endemic of Antarctica, were investigated as a source for isolation of agar-degrading bacteria. A total of 21 epiphytic isolates showed agarolytic activity at low temperature on agar plates containing agar as the sole carbon source...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
N Cuevas, M Martins, A P Rodrigo, C Martins, P M Costa
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth León-Palmero, Vanessa Joglar, Pedro A Álvarez, Antonio Martín-Platero, Inmaculada Llamas, Isabel Reche
Marine invertebrates, as holobionts, contain symbiotic bacteria that coevolve and develop antimicrobial substances. These symbiotic bacteria are an underexplored source of new bioactive molecules to face the emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Here, we explored the antimicrobial activity of bacteria retrieved from the microbiota of two sea anemones (Anemonia sulcata, Actinia equina) and two holothurians (Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria forskali). We tested the antimicrobial activity of the isolated bacteria against pathogens with interest for human health, agriculture and aquaculture...
2018: PloS One
Dalal Asker
Carotenoids are valuable natural colorants that exhibit numerous health promoting properties, and thus are widely used in food, feeds, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, we isolated and identified novel microbial sources that produced high-value carotenoids using high throughput screening (HTS). A total of 701 pigmented microbial strains library including marine bacteria and red yeast was constructed. Carotenoids profiling using HPLC-DAD-MS methods showed 88 marine bacterial strains with potential for the production of high-value carotenoids including astaxanthin (28 strains), zeaxanthin (21 strains), lutein (1 strains) and canthaxanthin (2 strains)...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sarah Lisa Hoffmann, Lukas Jungmann, Sarah Schiefelbein, Lindsay Peyriga, Edern Cahoreau, Jean-Charles Portais, Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann
The amino acid lysine is among the world's most important biotechnological products, and enabling its manufacture from the most attractive new materials is an ever-present challenge. In this study, we describe a cell factory of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which produces lysine from mannitol. A preliminary mutant obtained by the deletion of the mannitol repressor MtlR in the glucose-based, lysine-producing C. glutamicum produced only small amounts of lysine. This limitation was due to the significant accumulation of fructose and a limited NADPH supply, which caused a low flux of only 6% into the oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathway...
April 27, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Anna Ilnicka, Jerzy P Lukaszewicz
Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured by various methods, such as pyrolysis and hydrothermal processes supported by means of chemical and physical activators. However, every synthesis concept relies on an efficient transfer of nitrogen and carbon from marine/freshwater feedstock to the final product...
April 26, 2018: Marine Drugs
Francesca Mensitieri, Federica De Lise, Andrea Strazzulli, Marco Moracci, Eugenio Notomista, Valeria Cafaro, Emiliano Bedini, Matthew Howard Sazinsky, Marco Trifuoggi, Alberto Di Donato, Viviana Izzo
α-L-Rhamnosidases (α-RHAs, EC are glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) hydrolyzing terminal α-l-rhamnose residues from different substrates such as heteropolysaccharides, glycosylated proteins and natural flavonoids. Although the possibility to hydrolyze rhamnose from natural flavonoids has boosted the use of these enzymes in several biotechnological applications over the past decades, to date only few bacterial rhamnosidases have been fully characterized and only one crystal structure of a rhamnosidase of the GH106 family has been described...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Antonio Trincone
After generating much interest in the past as an aid in solving structural problems for complex molecules such as polysaccharides, carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes of marine origin still appear as interesting biocatalysts for a range of useful applications in strong interdisciplinary fields such as green chemistry and similar domains. The multifaceted fields in which these enzymes are of interest and the scarce number of original articles in literature prompted us to provide the specialized analysis here reported...
April 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mustafa Camas, Anil Sazak Camas, Kwaku Kyeremeh
Through the use of genomes that have undergone millions of years of evolution, marine Actinobacteria are known to have adapted to rapidly changing environmental pressures. The result is a huge chemical and biological diversity among marine Actinobacteria . It is gradually becoming a known fact that, marine Actinobacteria have the capability to produce nanoparticles which have reasonable sizes and structures with possible applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 was isolated from the aerial roots of the mangrove plant Rhizophora racemosa ...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Maria Teresa Caccamo, Vincenzo Zammuto, Concetta Gugliandolo, Claire Madeleine-Perdrillat, Antonio Spanò, Salvatore Magazù
To dynamically characterize the thermal properties of the fructose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS1-T14), produced by the marine thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis T14, the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy was coupled to variable temperature ranging from ambient to 80°C. The spectra were analyzed by the following innovative mathematical tools: i) non-ideal spectral deviation, ii) OH-stretching band frequency center shift, iii) spectral distance, and iv) wavelet cross-correlation analysis...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gildácio Pereira Chaves Filho, Angélica Fernandes Gurgel de Sousa, Rafael Barros Gomes Câmara, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Susana Margarida Gomes Moreira
Marine algae are sources of novel bioactive molecules and present a great potential for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Although green algae are the least studied type of seaweed, several of their biological activities have already been described. Here, we investigated the osteogenic potential of Sulfated Polysaccharide (SP)-enriched samples extracted from the green seaweed Caulerpa prolifera on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton jelly (hMSC-WJ). In addition, the potential genotoxicity of these SPs was determined by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Khawla Seddiki, François Godart, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Walter Sanseverino, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Fabrice Rébeillé, Eric Maréchal, Olivier Cagnac, Alberto Amato
Thraustochytrids are ecologically and biotechnologically relevant marine species. We report here the de novo assembly and annotation of the whole-genome sequence of a new thraustochytrid strain, CCAP_4062/3. The genome size was estimated at 38.7 Mb with 11,853 predicted coding sequences, and the GC content was scored at 57%.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
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