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Marine biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430158/identification-of-tight-binding-plasmepsin-ii-and-falcipain-2-inhibitors-in-aqueous-extracts-of-marine-invertebrates-by-the-combination-of-enzymatic-and-interaction-based-assays
#1
Emir Salas-Sarduy, Yasel Guerra, Giovanni Covaleda Cortés, Francesc Xavier Avilés, María A Chávez Planes
Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes...
April 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427282/biofouling-in-photobioreactors-for-marine-microalgae
#2
Ouassim Zeriouh, José Vicente Reinoso-Moreno, Lorenzo López-Rosales, María Del Carmen Cerón-García, Asterio Sánchez-Mirón, Francisco García-Camacho, Emilio Molina-Grima
The economic and/or energetic feasibility of processes based on using microalgae biomass requires an efficient cultivation system. In photobioreactors (PBRs), the adhesion of microalgae to the transparent PBR surfaces leads to biofouling and reduces the solar radiation penetrating the PBR. Light reduction within the PBR decreases biomass productivity and, therefore, the photosynthetic efficiency of the cultivation system. Additionally, PBR biofouling leads to a series of further undesirable events including changes in cell pigmentation, culture degradation, and contamination by invasive microorganisms; all of which can result in the cultivation process having to be stopped...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399848/distinctive-molecular-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-20-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidase-and-salt-tolerance
#3
Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Rui Zhang, Rui Liu, Qian Wu, Junjun Li, Xianghua Tang, Bo Xu, Junmei Ding, Nanyu Han, Zunxi Huang
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic degradation of chitin has attracted substantial attention because chitin is an abundant renewable natural resource, second only to lignocellulose, and because of the promising applications of N-acetylglucosamine in the bioethanol, food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the low activity and poor tolerance to salts and N-acetylglucosamine of most reported β-N-acetylglucosaminidases limit their applications. Mining for novel enzymes from new microorganisms is one way to address this problem...
April 11, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397770/prospecting-biotechnologically-relevant-monooxygenases-from-cold-sediment-metagenomes-an-in-silico-approach
#4
Matías A Musumeci, Mariana Lozada, Daniela V Rial, Walter P Mac Cormack, Janet K Jansson, Sara Sjöling, JoLynn Carroll, Hebe M Dionisi
The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis...
April 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352560/systematic-characterization-of-potential-cellulolytic-marine-actinobacteria-actinoalloteichus-sp-mha15
#5
Gobalakrishnan Rajagopal, Sivakumar Kannan
Cellulose is the most abounding biopolymer in the world and there is a great interest in using this material as a substrate for various applications and it is the most important renewable resource for bioconversion. Therefore, it is necessary to screen the cellulolytic bioorganisms. In this context, actinobacteria are one of the most efficient prokaryotes, economically and biotechnologically, for their production of about half of the discovered bioactive secondary metabolites and they can metabolize many different compounds...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346336/enzymatic-processes-in-marine-biotechnology
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Trincone
In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity...
March 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335516/marine-diterpenes-molecular-modeling-of-thrombin-inhibitors-with-potential-biotechnological-application-as-an-antithrombotic
#7
Rebeca Cristina Costa Pereira, André Luiz Lourenço, Luciana Terra, Paula Alvarez Abreu, Valéria Laneuville Teixeira, Helena Carla Castro
Thrombosis related diseases are among the main causes of death and incapacity in the world. Despite the existence of antithrombotic agents available for therapy, they still present adverse effects like hemorrhagic risks which justify the search for new options. Recently, pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A, and dichotomanol, three diterpenes isolated from Brazilian marine brown alga Dictyota menstrualis were identified as potent antithrombotic molecules through inhibition of thrombin, a key enzyme of coagulation cascade and a platelet agonist...
March 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330249/emulsifying-activity-of-a-biosurfactant-produced-by-a-marine-bacterium
#8
K Abraham Peele, V Ravi Teja Ch, Vidya P Kodali
Biosurfactants produced by biofilm-forming bacteria have great applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, food engineering, bioremediation, and biohydrometallurgy industries. This study aimed to find out the bacteria that produce novel exopolymers (EPSs) which can find potential role in oil biodegradation. A screening procedure was performed to detect EPS-producing bacteria. The EPS producing isolate was identified as Acinetobacter species by 16S rDNA analysis. The polymer produced by the isolate has shown significant emulsification and surfactant activities, and the activities were compared to some of the commercial emulsifiers...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330218/bacterial-carrageenases-an-overview-of-production-and-biotechnological-applications
#9
REVIEW
Prakram Singh Chauhan, Arunika Saxena
Carrageenan, one of the phycocolloids is a sulfated galactan made up of linear chains of galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose with alternating α-(1 → 3) and β-(1 → 4) linkages and further classified based on the number and the position of sulfated ester(s); κ-, ι- and λ-carrageenan. Enzymes which degrade carrageenans are called k-, ι-, and λ-carrageenases. They all are endohydrolases that cleave the internal β-(1-4) linkages of carrageenans yielding products of the oligo-carrageenans. These enzymes are produced only by bacteria specifically gram negative bacteria...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303907/crystal-structure-of-a-raw-starch-degrading-bacterial-%C3%AE-amylase-belonging-to-subfamily-37-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-gh13
#10
Yanhong Liu, Jigang Yu, Fudong Li, Hui Peng, Xuecheng Zhang, Yazhong Xiao, Chao He
Subfamily 37 of the glycoside hydrolase family GH13 was recently established on the basis of the discovery of a novel α-amylase, designated AmyP, from a marine metagenomic library. AmyP exhibits raw-starch-degrading activity and consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal starch-binding domain. To understand this newest subfamily, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmyP, named AmyPΔSBD, complexed with maltose, and the crystal structure of the E221Q mutant AmyPΔSBD complexed with maltotriose...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294564/cultivation-based-strategies-to-find-efficient-marine-biocatalysts
#11
Carlos J C Rodrigues, Ricardo F S Pereira, Pedro Fernandes, Joaquim M S Cabral, Carla C C R de Carvalho
Marine bacteria have evolved to survive in the marine environment by using unique physiological, biochemical and metabolic features and the ability to produce enzymes and compounds which may have commercial value. The Azores archipelago presents several ecosystems with strong volcanic activity where bacteria thrive under e.g. high temperatures. In this study, samples collected in the island of São Miguel were screened for biocatalysts possessing e.g. lipase, esterase, amylase, and inulinase activities. After isolation of several hundred bacterial strains, high throughput screening methods allowed the fast identification of biocatalysts...
March 10, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238042/entotheonella-bacteria-as-source-of-sponge-derived-natural-products-opportunities-for-biotechnological-production
#12
Agneya Bhushan, Eike E Peters, Jörn Piel
Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219380/effects-of-nutritional-conditions-on-growth-and-biochemical-composition-of-tetraselmis-sp
#13
Mouna Dammak, Bilel Hadrich, Ramzi Miladi, Mohamed Barkallah, Faiez Hentati, Ridha Hachicha, Céline Laroche, Philippe Michaud, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to maximize biomass concentration, biomass productivity and biochemical composition of the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. METHODS: In the current study, Box-Behnken Design was used to model the effect of NaNO3, NaH2PO4, metals and vitamins in the F/2 medium on the growth, total chlorophylls, carotenoids and starch contents. The total chlorophylls content was quantified by spectrophotometry. The FT-IR spectroscopy was used to estimate the biochemical compositions of Tetraselmis sp...
February 20, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215329/biotechnological-applications-of-marine-enzymes-from-algae-bacteria-fungi-and-sponges
#14
S Parte, V L Sirisha, J S D'Souza
Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215328/characterization-and-applications-of-marine-microbial-enzymes-in-biotechnology-and-probiotics-for-animal-health
#15
T H Nguyen, V D Nguyen
Marine microorganisms have been recognized as potential sources of novel enzymes because they are relatively more stable than the corresponding enzymes derived from plants and animals. Enzymes from marine microorganisms also differ from homologous enzymes in terrestrial microorganisms based on salinity, pressure, temperature, and lighting conditions. Marine microbial enzymes can be used in diverse industrial applications. This chapter will focus on the biotechnological applications of marine enzymes and also their use as a tool of marine probiotics to improve host digestion (food digestion, food absorption, and mucus utilization) and cleave molecular signals involved in quorum sensing in pathogens to control disease in aquaculture...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206708/physiological-metabolic-and-biotechnological-features-of-extremely-thermophilic-microorganisms
#16
REVIEW
James A Counts, Benjamin M Zeldes, Laura L Lee, Christopher T Straub, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The current upper thermal limit for life as we know it is approximately 120°C. Microorganisms that grow optimally at temperatures of 75°C and above are usually referred to as 'extreme thermophiles' and include both bacteria and archaea. For over a century, there has been great scientific curiosity in the basic tenets that support life in thermal biotopes on earth and potentially on other solar bodies. Extreme thermophiles can be aerobes, anaerobes, autotrophs, heterotrophs, or chemolithotrophs, and are found in diverse environments including shallow marine fissures, deep sea hydrothermal vents, terrestrial hot springs-basically, anywhere there is hot water...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163780/efficient-molasses-fermentation-under-high-salinity-by-inocula-of-marine-and-terrestrial-origin
#17
Alberto Scoma, Marta Coma, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Nico Boon, Korneel Rabaey
BACKGROUND: Molasses is a dense and saline by-product of the sugar agroindustry. Its high organic content potentially fuels a myriad of renewable products of industrial interest. However, the biotechnological exploitation of molasses is mainly hampered by the high concentration of salts, an issue that is nowadays tackled through dilution. In the present study, the performance of microbial communities derived from marine sediment was compared to that of communities from a terrestrial environment (anaerobic digester sludge)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161850/potential-anti-proliferative-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-marine-microalgal-exopolysaccharide-on-various-human-cancer-cells-and-lymphocytes-in-vitro
#18
Geon-Tae Park, Ryeo-Eun Go, Hae-Miru Lee, Geum-A Lee, Cho-Won Kim, Jeong-Woo Seo, Won-Kyung Hong, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-A Hwang
Marine microalgal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have drawn great attention due to their biotechnological potentials such as anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-lipidemic, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory activities, etc. In the present study, the EPS derived from microalgae Thraustochytriidae sp.-derived mutant GA was investigated for its anti-proliferation and immunomodulation. Anti-cancer efficacy of the microalgal EPS was examined for the alterations in cell proliferation and cell cycle-related gene expression that occur in three types of human cancer cell lines, BG-1 ovarian, MCF-7 breast, and SW-620 colon cancer cell lines, by its treatment...
February 4, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143585/molecular-characterization-of-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-the-three-types-of-salmonids-farmed-in-chile
#19
René A Manríquez, Tamara Vera, Melina V Villalba, Alejandra Mancilla, Vikram N Vakharia, Alejandro J Yañez, Juan G Cárcamo
BACKGROUND: The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, characterized, and constantly updated at the molecular level. METHODS: In this study, 36 Chilean IPNV isolates collected over 6 years (2006-2011) from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Oncorhynchus kisutch were genotypically characterized. Salmonid samples were obtained from freshwater, estuary, and seawater sources from central, southern, and the extreme-south of Chile (35° to 53°S)...
January 31, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137240/ascidians-an-emerging-marine-model-for-drug-discovery-and-screening
#20
Rémi Dumollard, Ievgeniia Gazo, Isa D L Gomes, Lydia Besnardeau, Alex McDougall
Ascidians (tunicates; sea squirts) are marine animals which provide a source of diverse, bioactive natural products, and a model for toxicity screenings. Compounds isolated from ascidians comprise an approved anti-tumor drug and many others are potent drug leads. Furthermore, the use of invertebrate embryos for toxicological screening tests or analysis offers the possibility to image a large number of samples for high throughput screens. Ascidians are members of a sister clade to the vertebrates and make a vertebrate-like tadpole larva composed of less than 3000 cells in 18 hours...
January 29, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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