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Marine biotechnology

Antonio Trincone
After generating much interest in the past as an aid in solving structural problems for complex molecules such as polysaccharides, carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes of marine origin still appear as interesting biocatalysts for a range of useful applications in strong interdisciplinary fields such as green chemistry and similar domains. The multifaceted fields in which these enzymes are of interest and the scarce number of original articles in literature prompted us to provide the specialized analysis here reported...
April 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mustafa Camas, Anil Sazak Camas, Kwaku Kyeremeh
Through the use of genomes that have undergone millions of years of evolution, marine Actinobacteria are known to have adapted to rapidly changing environmental pressures. The result is a huge chemical and biological diversity among marine Actinobacteria . It is gradually becoming a known fact that, marine Actinobacteria have the capability to produce nanoparticles which have reasonable sizes and structures with possible applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 was isolated from the aerial roots of the mangrove plant Rhizophora racemosa ...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Maria Teresa Caccamo, Vincenzo Zammuto, Concetta Gugliandolo, Claire Madeleine-Perdrillat, Antonio Spanò, Salvatore Magazù
To dynamically characterize the thermal properties of the fructose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS1-T14), produced by the marine thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis T14, the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy was coupled to variable temperature ranging from ambient to 80 °C. The spectra were analyzed by the following innovative mathematical tools: i) non-ideal spectral deviation, ii) OH-stretching band frequency center shift, iii) spectral distance, and iv) wavelet cross-correlation analysis...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gildácio Pereira Chaves Filho, Angélica Fernandes Gurgel de Sousa, Rafael Barros Gomes Câmara, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Susana Margarida Gomes Moreira
Marine algae are sources of novel bioactive molecules and present a great potential for biotechnology and biomedical applications. Although green algae are the least studied type of seaweed, several biological activities have already been described for them. Here, we investigated the osteogenic potential of Sulfated Polysaccharides (SPs) enriched samples extracted from the green seaweed Caulerpa prolifera on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton jelly (hMSC-WJ). In addition, their potential genotoxicity was determined, by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Khawla Seddiki, François Godart, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Walter Sanseverino, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Fabrice Rébeillé, Eric Maréchal, Olivier Cagnac, Alberto Amato
Thraustochytrids are ecologically and biotechnologically relevant marine species. We report here the de novo assembly and annotation of the whole-genome sequence of a new thraustochytrid strain, CCAP_4062/3. The genome size was estimated at 38.7 Mb with 11,853 predicted coding sequences, and the GC content was scored at 57%.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Carla Ribeiro, João Borges, Ana M S Costa, Vítor M Gaspar, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, João F Mano
Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Federico Sabbadin, Giovanna Pesante, Luisa Elias, Katrin Besser, Yi Li, Clare Steele-King, Meg Stark, Deborah A Rathbone, Adam A Dowle, Rachel Bates, J Reuben Shipway, Simon M Cragg, Neil C Bruce, Simon J McQueen-Mason
Lignocellulose forms the structural framework of woody plant biomass and represents the most abundant carbon source in the biosphere. Turnover of woody biomass is a critical component of the global carbon cycle, and the enzymes involved are of increasing industrial importance as industry moves away from fossil fuels to renewable carbon resources. Shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs that digest wood and play a key role in global carbon cycling by processing plant biomass in the oceans. Previous studies suggest that wood digestion in shipworms is dominated by enzymes produced by endosymbiotic bacteria found in the animal's gills, while little is known about the identity and function of endogenous enzymes produced by shipworms...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Willem Stock, Eveline Pinseel, Sam De Decker, Josefin Sefbom, Lander Blommaert, Olga Chepurnova, Koen Sabbe, Wim Vyverman
Diatoms constitute the most diverse group of microalgae and have long been recognised for their large biotechnological potential. In the wake of growing research interest in new model species and development of commercial applications, there is a pressing need for long-term preservation of diatom strains. While cryopreservation using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotective agent is the preferred method for long-term strain preservation, many diatom species cannot be successfully cryopreserved using DMSO...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stefano Romano
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marines sources as both free living and host associated. So far, the available data depict a group of Alphaproteobacteria characterized by a versatile metabolism, which allows them to use a variety of substrates to meet their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous requirements. Additionally, Pseudovibrio -related bacteria have been shown to proliferate under extreme oligotrophic conditions, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and metabolize potentially toxic compounds...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Noora Barzkar, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Seema Patel
Thermostable proteases are important in biotechnological and industrial sectors, due to their stability against denaturing agents and chemicals. The feature that gives them such unique applicability is their reaction at high temperatures, which affords a high concentration of substrate, and less risk of microbial contamination. Nearly 65% of industrial proteases are isolated from marine microbial source, and they can significantly resist a wide range of organic solvents at high temperatures. The most important trait of marine organisms is their adaptability, which allows them to grow optimally in harsh environments such as high salt, temperatures, and pressure-the characteristics of deep-sea hot springs and geothermal sediments...
February 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Chiara Lauritano, Jesús Martín, Mercedes de la Cruz, Fernando Reyes, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active compounds for applications in several biotechnology sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. Considering the increasing rate of antibiotic-resistance bacteria and infections by fungi, 46 microalgae have been screened in this study for possible antibacterial and antifungal activities...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
José Gerardo Carneiro, Ticiana de Brito Lima Holanda, Ana Luíza Gomes Quinderé, Annyta Fernandes Frota, Vitória Virgínia Magalhães Soares, Rayane Siqueira de Sousa, Manuela Araújo Carneiro, Dainesy Santos Martins, Antoniella Souza Gomes Duarte, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
The development of the gastric lesion is complex and the result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors, involving the generation of free radicals and disturbance in nitric oxide (NO) production. Sulphated polysaccharides (SP), from marine algae, are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SP) in ethanol-induced gastric damage models in mice. Cm-SP (2, 20, or 200 mg/kg), administered p...
January 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Jingjing Shen, Yaoguang Chang, Feng Chen, Shujun Dong
κ-Carrageenases are desirable tools for tailoring the molecular weight, physicochemical properties and functionalities of κ-carrageenan, a macromolecule widely utilized in various industries. In this study, a novel GH16 family κ-carrageenase, designated as Cgk16A, was cloned from the genome of marine bacterium Wenyingzhuangia aestuarii OF219 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Its biochemical properties, kinetic parameters and hydrolytic pattern were characterized. The enzyme demonstrated a low optimal reaction temperature (25 °C) and a cold-adapted feature...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Harshada Sowani, Mohan Kulkarni, Smita Zinjarde
The bacterial genus Gordonia encompasses a variety of versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Gordonia was described as a genus about 20 years ago, and to date, 39 different species have been identified. Gordonia is recognized for symbiotic associations with multiple hosts, including aquatic (marine and fresh water) biological forms and terrestrial invertebrates. Some Gordonia species isolated from clinical specimens are known to be opportunistic human pathogens causing secondary infections in immunocompromised and immunosuppressive individuals...
December 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Fábio V DE Araújo, Marcelle C M Netto, Gustavo P Azevedo, Marcelly M A Jayme, Monica C Nunes-Carvalho, Mariana M Silva, Flávia L DO Carmo
Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
December 11, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yoshiaki Maeda, Tomoko Yoshino, Tadashi Matsunaga, Mitsufumi Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Marine microalgae are recognized as promising feedstocks for biofuels and chemicals owing to their higher growth rates than those of terrestrial crop plants. We aimed to summarize the production of biofuels and chemicals by marine microalgae and to discuss their advantages and potential from the aspect of bioprocess. The present circumstances of the microalgae industry were briefly described and large-scale industrial plants for microalgae production, where some marine microalgae are cultivated, were introduced...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Daniel F R Cleary, Ana R M Polónia, Nicole J de Voogd
Certain sponge species are difficult to identify using classical taxonomic characters, and other techniques are often necessary. Here we used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities of two distinct Cinachyrella morphospecies collected from two Indonesian marine lakes with differing degrees of connection to the surrounding sea. Our main goal was to assess whether these morphospecies hosted distinct bacterial and archaeal communities and to what extent these differed from those found in lake water...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Consolazione Caruso, Carmen Rizzo, Santina Mangano, Annarita Poli, Paola Di Donato, Ilaria Finore, Barbara Nicolaus, Gaetano Di Marco, Luigi Michaud, Angelina Lo Giudice
Four sponge-associated Antarctic bacteria (i.e., Winogradskyella sp. strains CAL384 and CAL396, Colwellia sp. strain GW185, and Shewanella sp. strain CAL606) were selected for the highly mucous appearance of their colonies on agar plates. The production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) was enhanced by a step-by-step approach, varying the carbon source, substrate and NaCl concentrations, temperature, and pH. The EPSs produced under optimal conditions were chemically characterized, resulting in a moderate carbohydrate content (range, 15 to 28%) and the presence of proteins (range, 3 to 24%) and uronic acids (range, 3...
February 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jinwei Zhang, J Grant Burgess
Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26%) of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass) of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature...
2017: PloS One
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