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Marine biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031541/how-to-boost-marine-fungal-research-a-first-step-towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-by-combining-molecular-fungal-ecology-and-natural-products-chemistry
#1
Marlis Reich, Antje Labes
Marine fungi have attracted attention in recent years due to increased appreciation of their functional role in ecosystems and as important sources of new natural products. The concomitant development of various "omic" technologies has boosted fungal research in the fields of biodiversity, physiological ecology and natural product biosynthesis. Each of these research areas has its own research agenda, scientific language and quality standards, which have so far hindered an interdisciplinary exchange. Inter- and transdisciplinary interactions are, however, vital for: (i) a detailed understanding of the ecological role of marine fungi, (ii) unlocking their hidden potential for natural product discovery, and (iii) designing access routes for biotechnological production...
October 11, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#2
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022835/time-for-multiple-extraction-methods-in-proteomics-a-comparison-of-three-protein-extraction-methods-in-the-eustigmatophyte-alga-microchloropsis-gaditana-ccmp526
#3
Anbarasu Karthikaichamy, Pranali Deore, Vineeta Rai, Dieter Bulach, John Beardall, Santosh Noronha, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Proteomics is a crucial postgenomic biotechnology for functional and systems scale analyses in cell and integrative biology, not to mention clinical and precision medicine research. However, a fundamental requirement for an accurate examination of the protein complement of cells is an efficient method for extracting the proteins. This study reports on the evaluation of three protein extraction methods: trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone, phenol, and TRIzol, in the eustigmatophyte alga Microchloropsis gaditana CCMP526 for proteomic analysis...
October 12, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962975/an-evaluation-of-the-genus-amphidinium-dinophyceae-combining-evidence-from-morphology-phylogenetics-and-toxin-production-with-the-introduction-of-six-novel-species
#4
Sarah Karafas, Sing Tung Teng, Chui Pin Leaw, Catharina Alves-de-Souza
The genus Amphidinium is an important group of athecated dinoflagellates because of its high abundance in marine habitats, its member's ability to live in a variety of environmental conditions and ability to produce toxins. Furthermore, the genus is of particular interest in the biotechnology field for its potential in the pharmaceutical arena. Taxonomically the there is a history of complication and confusion over the proper identities and placements of Amphidinium species due to high genetic variability coupled with high morphological conservation...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916825/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-cosmopolitan-dinoflagellate-amphidinium-carterae-to-identify-enzymes-with-biotechnological-potential
#5
Chiara Lauritano, Daniele De Luca, Alberto Ferrarini, Carla Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Francesco Esposito, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are phytoplanktonic organisms found in both freshwater and marine habitats. They are often studied because related to harmful algal blooms but they are also known to produce bioactive compounds for the treatment of human pathologies. The aim of this study was to sequence the full transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae in both nitrogen-starved and -replete culturing conditions (1) to evaluate the response to nitrogen starvation at the transcriptional level, (2) to look for possible polyketide synthases (PKSs) in the studied clone (genes that may be involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds), (3) if present, to evaluate if nutrient starvation can influence PKS expression, (4) to look for other possible enzymes of biotechnological interest and (5) to test strain cytotoxicity on human cell lines...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890138/unlocking-marine-biotechnology-in-the-developing-world
#6
Cristiane C Thompson, Ricardo H Kruger, Fabiano L Thompson
Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies.
September 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883133/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-iridescent-marine-bacterium-cellulophaga-lytica-cect-8139
#7
Maylis Chapelais-Baron, Isabelle Goubet, Eric Duchaud, Eric Rosenfeld
Some species of the genus Cellulophaga have been reported as having biotechnological interests and noteworthy physiological properties. We report here the draft genome sequence of Cellulophaga lytica CECT 8139, a bacterium that produces an intensely iridescent colony biofilm on agar surfaces.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873280/a-biomimetic-escape-strategy-for-cytoplasm-invasion-by-synthetic-particles
#8
Nerea Iturrioz-Rodríguez, Elena González-Domínguez, Eloisa González-Lavado, Laura Marín-Caba, Belén Vaz, Moisés Pérez-Lorenzo, Miguel A Correa-Duarte, Monica L Fanarraga
The translocation of nanomaterials or complex delivery systems into the cytosol is a major challenge in nanobiotechnology. After receptor-mediated endocytosis, most nanomaterials are sequestered and undergo degradation, therapy inactivation, or exocytosis. Herein we explore a novel surface particle coating made of adsorbed carbon nanotubes that provides coated materials with new properties that reproduce the viral cell-invasive mechanisms, namely, receptor-mediated endocytosis, endolysosomal escape, and cytosolic particle release preserving cell viability...
September 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871244/microbial-diversity-in-sulfate-reducing-marine-sediment-enrichment-cultures-associated-with-anaerobic-biotransformation-of-coastal-stockpiled-phosphogypsum-sfax-tunisia
#9
Hana Zouch, Fatma Karray, Fabrice Armougom, Sandrine Chifflet, Agnès Hirschler-Réa, Hanen Kharrat, Lotfi Kamoun, Wajdi Ben Hania, Bernard Ollivier, Sami Sayadi, Marianne Quéméneur
Anaerobic biotechnology using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a promising alternative for reducing long-term stockpiling of phosphogypsum (PG), an acidic (pH ~3) by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries containing high amounts of sulfate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the diversity and ability of anaerobic marine microorganisms to convert sulfate from PG into sulfide, in order to look for marine SRB of biotechnological interest. A series of sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures were performed using different electron donors (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819353/a-metabolomics-guided-exploration-of-marine-natural-product-chemical-space
#10
Dimitrios J Floros, Paul R Jensen, Pieter C Dorrestein, Nobuhiro Koyama
INTRODUCTION: Natural products from culture collections have enormous impact in advancing discovery programs for metabolites of biotechnological importance. These discovery efforts rely on the metabolomic characterization of strain collections. OBJECTIVE: Many emerging approaches compare metabolomic profiles of such collections, but few enable the analysis and prioritization of thousands of samples from diverse organisms while delivering chemistry specific read outs...
September 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803482/corynebacterium-glutamicum-chassis-c1-building-and-testing-a-novel-platform-host-for-synthetic-biology-and-industrial-biotechnology
#11
Meike Baumgart, Simon Unthan, Ramona Kloss, Andreas Radek, Tino Polen, Niklas Tenhaef, Moritz Fabian Müller, Andreas Küberl, Daniel Siebert, Natalie Brühl, Kay Marin, Stephan Hans, Reinhard Krämer, Michael Bott, Joern Kalinowski, Wolfgang Wiechert, Gerd Seibold, Julia Frunzke, Christian Rückert, Volker Wendisch, Stephan Noack
Targeted top-down strategies for genome reduction are considered to have a high potential for providing robust basic strains for synthetic biology and industrial biotechnology. Recently, we created a library of 26 genome-reduced strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum carrying broad deletions in single gene clusters and showing wild-type-like biological fitness. Here, we proceeded with combinatorial deletions of these irrelevant gene clusters in two parallel orders and the resulting library of 28 strains was characterized under various environmental conditions...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734738/evaluation-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-bacterioplankton-from-niter%C3%A3-i-coast-rj
#12
Marcelly Miranda Aybal Jayme, Rebeca Oliveira Castro, Carlos André Mandarino Silva, Mariana Muniz Silva, Flávia Lima do Carmo, Fábio Vieira de Araujo
Production of antibiotics and enzymes by microorganisms is well recognized for its economic benefits. Searching potentially exploitable microorganisms, strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from marine and estuarine waters in Niterói-RJ, Brazil, and tested for the production of enzymes and antimicrobial substances. From the 76 isolated colonies, 09.21% showed antimicrobial potential, 63.16% showed enzymatic activity for at least one of the substrates tested and 91% showed multidrug resistance. Strains that presented the better results were identified by sequencing...
June 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#13
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725265/two-bifunctional-enzymes-from-the-marine-protist-thraustochytrium-roseum-biochemical-characterization-of-wax-ester-synthase-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-activity-catalyzing-wax-ester-and-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#14
Nannan Zhang, Zejing Mao, Ling Luo, Xia Wan, Fenghong Huang, Yangmin Gong
BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718807/melanin-and-melanin-related-polymers-as-materials-with-biomedical-and-biotechnological-applications-cuttlefish-ink-and-mussel-foot-proteins-as-inspired-biomolecules
#15
REVIEW
Francisco Solano
The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717014/investigating-mixotrophic-metabolism-in-the-model-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#16
Valeria Villanova, Antonio Emidio Fortunato, Dipali Singh, Davide Dal Bo, Melissa Conte, Toshihiro Obata, Juliette Jouhet, Alisdair R Fernie, Eric Marechal, Angela Falciatore, Julien Pagliardini, Adeline Le Monnier, Mark Poolman, Gilles Curien, Dimitris Petroutsos, Giovanni Finazzi
Diatoms are prominent marine microalgae, interesting not only from an ecological point of view, but also for their possible use in biotechnology applications. They can be cultivated in phototrophic conditions, using sunlight as the sole energy source. Some diatoms, however, can also grow in a mixotrophic mode, wherein both light and external reduced carbon contribute to biomass accumulation. In this study, we investigated the consequences of mixotrophy on the growth and metabolism of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using glycerol as the source of reduced carbon...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714254/microbial-biotechnology-addressing-the-plastic-waste-disaster
#17
Tanja Narancic, Kevin E O'Connor
Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO2 . However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14).
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676050/reconstruction-of-the-microalga-nannochloropsis-salina-genome-scale-metabolic-model-with-applications-to-lipid-production
#18
Nicolás Loira, Sebastian Mendoza, María Paz Cortés, Natalia Rojas, Dante Travisany, Alex Di Genova, Natalia Gajardo, Nicole Ehrenfeld, Alejandro Maass
BACKGROUND: Nannochloropsis salina (= Eustigmatophyceae) is a marine microalga which has become a biotechnological target because of its high capacity to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids and triacylglycerols. It has been used as a source of biofuel, pigments and food supplements, like Omega 3. Only some Nannochloropsis species have been sequenced, but none of them benefit from a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM), able to predict its metabolic capabilities. RESULTS: We present iNS934, the first GSMM for N...
July 4, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672802/bioethical-considerations-of-advancing-the-application-of-marine-biotechnology-and-aquaculture
#19
Reginal M Harrell
Normative ethical considerations of growth of the marine biotechnology and aquaculture disciplines in biopharming, food production, and marine products commercialization from a bioethical perspective have been limited. This paucity of information begs the question of what constitutes a bioethical approach (i.e., respect for individuals or autonomy; beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) to marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and whether it is one that is appropriate for consideration. Currently, thoughtful discussion on the bioethical implications of use, development, and commercialization of marine organisms or their products, as well as potential environmental effects, defaults to human biomedicine as a model...
June 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659904/antimicrobial-potential-of-bacteria-associated-with-marine-sea-slugs-from-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#20
Nils Böhringer, Katja M Fisch, Dorothee Schillo, Robert Bara, Cora Hertzer, Fabian Grein, Jan-Hendrik Eisenbarth, Fontje Kaligis, Tanja Schneider, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König, Till F Schäberle
Nudibranchia, marine soft-bodied organisms, developed, due to the absence of a protective shell, different strategies to protect themselves against putative predators and fouling organisms. One strategy is to use chemical weapons to distract predators, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, these gastropods take advantage of the incorporation of chemical molecules. Thereby the original source of these natural products varies; it might be the food source, de novo synthesis from the sea slug, or biosynthesis by associated bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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