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Cofactor regeneration

Xiang Chen, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Chao-Ping Lin, Yu-Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate ((R)-CHBE) is a versatile chiral precursor for many pharmaceuticals. Although several biosynthesis strategies have been documented to convert ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) to (R)-CHBE, the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity are still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Due to the increasing demand of (R)-CHBE, it is essential to explore more robust biocatalyst capable of preparing (R)-CHBE efficiently. RESULTS: A stereoselective carbonyl reductase toolbox was constructed and employed into the asymmetric reduction of COBE to (R)-CHBE...
October 18, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
Gangyi Chen, Juan Dong, Yi Yuan, Na Li, Xin Huang, Xin Cui, Zhuo Tang
Nucleic acid amplification is the core technology of molecular biology and genetic engineering. Various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, most of these methods can only detect single stranded nucleic acid. Herein, we put forward a simple solution for opening double-stranded DNA for isothermal detection methods. The strategy employs recombination protein from E. coli (RecA) to form nucleoprotein complex with single-stranded DNA, which could scan double-stranded template for homologous sites...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xingyu Zhou, Mingsen Li, Huaxing Huang, Keren Chen, Zhuning Yuan, Ying Zhang, Yaping Nie, Hu Chen, Xumeng Zhang, Luxi Chen, Yaosheng Chen, Delin Mo
Although the mechanism underlying modulation of transcription factors in myogenesis has been well elucidated, the function of the transcription cofactors involved in this process remains poorly understood. Here, we identified HMGB2 as an essential nuclear transcriptional co-regulator in myogenesis. HMGB2 was highly expressed in undifferentiated myoblasts and regenerating muscle. Knockdown of HMGB2 inhibited myoblast proliferation and stimulated its differentiation. HMGB2 depletion down-regulated Myf5 and Cyclin A2 on the protein but not mRNA level...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Ya-Ping Xue, Hao Zeng, Xiao-Lu Jin, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Yu-Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Enantiopure 2-hydroxy acids are key intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. We present an enantioselective cascade biocatalysis using recombinant microbial cells for deracemization of racemic 2-hydroxy acids that allows for efficient production of enantiopure 2-hydroxy acids. RESULTS: The method was realized by a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain coexpressing three enzymes: (S)-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase, (R)-2-keto acid reductase and glucose dehydrogenase...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Ronny Frank, Marcus Klenner, Ronny Azendorf, Manuel Bartz, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Andrea A Robitzki
Enzymes are the most effective catalysts for a broad range of difficult chemical reactions e.g. hydroxylation of non-activated C-H Bonds and stereoselective synthesis. Nevertheless, a lot of enzymes are not accessible for the biotechnological applications or industrial use. One reason is the prerequisite of expensive cofactors. In this context, we developed a bioelectrocatalytic analysis platform for the electrochemical and photonic quantification of the direct electron transfer from the electrode to redox enzymes and therefore, bypass the need of soluble cofactors that had to be continuously exchanged or regenerated...
August 18, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Eunice S da Silva, Vanessa Gómez-Vallejo, Zuriñe Baz, Jordi Llop, Fernando López-Gallego
Nitrogen-13 can be efficiently produced in biomedical cyclotrons in different chemical forms, and its stable isotopes are present in the majority of biologically active molecules. Hence, it may constitute a convenient alternative to Fluorine-18 and Carbon-11 for the preparation of positron-emitter-labelled radiotracers; however, its short half-life demands for the development of simple, fast, and efficient synthetic processes. Herein, we report the one-pot, enzymatic and non-carrier-added synthesis of the (13) N-labelled amino acids l-[(13) N]alanine, [(13) N]glycine, and l-[(13) N]serine by using l-alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis, an enzyme that catalyses the reductive amination of α-keto acids by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the redox cofactor and ammonia as the amine source...
September 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fen Gao, Haitao Ding, Xiaohong Xu, Yuhua Zhao
Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by microorganisms is hampered by the transport barrier imposed by cell membranes. On the other hand, cell-free systems using enzyme-based biodegradation strategy are costly. Therefore, an efficient and inexpensive approach circumventing these problems is highly desirable. Here, we constructed a self-sufficient system for synthetic dye removal by coupling of spore surface-displayed triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) and glucose 1-dehydrogenase (GDH) for the first time. Display of both TMR and GDH significantly enhanced their stability under conditions of extreme pH and temperature...
August 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Quentin Merle Dudley, Kim Cecilia Anderson, Michael C Jewett
Cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is advancing a powerful paradigm for accelerating the design and synthesis of biosynthetic pathways. However, as most cell-free biomolecule synthesis systems to date use purified enzymes, energy and cofactor supply can be limiting. To address this challenge, we report a new CFME framework for building biosynthetic pathways by mixing multiple crude lysates, or extracts. In our modular approach, cell-free lysates, each selectively enriched with an overexpressed enzyme, are generated in parallel and then combinatorically mixed to construct a full biosynthetic pathway...
July 31, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Aihua Liu, Ruirui Feng, Bo Liang
In the present work, NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH), encoded by fdh gene from Candida boidinii was successfully displayed on Escherichia coli cell surface using ice nucleation protein (INP) from Pseudomonas borealis DL7 as an anchoring protein. Localization of matlose binding protein (MBP)-INP-FDH fusion protein on the E. coli cell surface was characterized by SDS-PAGE and enzymatic activity assay. FDH activity was monitored through the oxidation of formate catalyzed by cell-surface-displayed FDH with its cofactor NAD(+), and the production of NADH can be detected spectrometrically at 340nm...
September 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Ioannis Kyrou, Martin O Weickert, Seley Gharanei, Harpal S Randeva, Bee K Tan
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family consists of 22 evolutionarily and structurally related proteins (FGF1 to FGF23; with FGF15 being the rodent ortholog of human FGF19). Based on their mechanism of action, FGFs can be categorized into intracrine, autocrine/paracrine and endocrine subgroups. Both autocrine/paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted from their cells of origin and exert their effects on target cells by binding to and activating specific single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs)...
July 14, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Jan Brummund, Monika Müller, Thomas Schmitges, Iwona Kaluzna, Daniel Mink, Lutz Hilterhaus, Andreas Liese
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a unique family of enzymes that are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxidations for a broad substrate range. However, due to limited enzyme activities and stabilities, hydrophobicity of substrates, as well as the necessity of a continuous electron and oxygen supply the implementation of P450s for industrial processes remains challenging. Aim of this study was to point out key aspects for the development of an efficient synthesis concept for cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidations...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Shohei Ikeda, Junichi Sadoshima
Stress in the heart causes loss of cardiomyocytes (CMs), the accumulation of which leads to heart failure, a major cause of clinical mortality. The improvement of CM survival and facilitation of CM regeneration are major goals in treatment for heart failure. The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that regulates organ size by controlling both apoptosis and cell proliferation. The main components of the Hippo pathway, including Mst1/2, Lats1/2 and Yes-associated protein (Yap), are present in the mammalian heart and play an important role in regulating the growth and death of CMs...
June 24, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Lin Zhang, Neus Vilà, Tobias Klein, Gert-Wieland Kohring, Ievgen Mazurenko, Alain Walcarius, Mathieu Etienne
Thiol-ene click chemistry can be exploited for the immobilization of cysteine-tagged dehydrogenases in an active form onto carbon electrodes (glassy carbon and carbon felt). The electrode surfaces have been first modified with vinylphenyl groups by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salts generated in situ from 4-vinylaniline. The grafting process has been optimized in order to not hinder the electrochemical regeneration of NAD(+)/NADH cofactor and soluble mediators such as ferrocenedimethanol and [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl](+)...
July 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sang-Jeong Bae, Sujin Kim, Ji-Sook Hahn
Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jiandong Zhang, Zhimei Cui, Honghong Chang, Xiaojun Fan, Qiuyong Zhao, Wenlong Wei
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficiency of a cofactor regeneration enzyme co-expressed with a glycerol dehydrogenase for the production of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA). RESULTS: In vitro biotransformation of glycerol was achieved with the cell-free extracts containing recombinant GlyDH (glycerol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase form Bacillus subtilis) or LpNox1 (NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus pentosus), giving DHA at 1.3 g l(-1) (GlyDH/LDH) and 2...
September 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Takanori Eguchi, Stuart K Calderwood, Masaharu Takigawa, Satoshi Kubota, Ken-Ichi Kozaki
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial factors in tumor progression, inflammatory/immune responses and tissue development/regeneration. Of note, it has been known that MMPs promote genome instability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis in tumor progression. We previously reported that human MMP3 could translocate into cellular nuclei and control transcription in human chondrosarcoma-derived cells and in articular cartilage (Mol Cell Biol, 2008, 28(7), 2391-2413); however, further transcriptional target genes and cofactors of intranuclear MMP3 have not been uncovered...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Wei Jiang, Peng Lin, Ruonan Yang, Baishan Fang
Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are continually used for the cofactor regeneration in biocatalysis and biotransformation with hiring NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases. Major weaknesses of most native FDHs are their low activity and operational stability in the catalytic reaction. In this work, the FDH from Candida boidinii (CboFDH) was engineered in order to gain an enzyme with high activity and better operational stability. Through comparing and analyzing its spatial structure with other FDHs, the catalysis, substrate, and coenzyme binding sites of the CboFDH were identified...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Woo Seok Choi, Sahng Ha Lee, Jong Wan Ko, Chan Beum Park
Human urine is considered as an alternative source of hydrogen and electricity owing to its abundance and high energy density. Here we show the utility of human urine as a chemical fuel for driving redox biocatalysis in a photoelectrochemical cell. Ni(OH)2 -modified α-Fe2 O3 is selected as a photoanode for the oxidation of urea in human urine and black silicon (bSi) is used as a photocathode material for nicotinamide cofactor (NADH: hydrogenated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) regeneration. The electrons extracted from human urine are used for the regeneration of NADH, an essential hydride mediator that is required for numerous redox biocatalytic reactions...
July 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
Jia Sun, Jin Huang, Xuzhong Ding, Pu Wang
(S)-3-Hydroxy-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-1-one ((S)-HTPP) is a crucial intermediate for the synthesis of Sitagliptin. A fungal strain ZJPH1308, capable of the biocatalysis of ketoamide 4-oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-one (OTPP) to (S)-HTPP with excellent enantioselectivity, was isolated from a soil sample and identified as Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis ZJPH1308 based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence...
May 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hui Gao, Eshita Khera, Jung-Kul Lee, Fei Wen
We have recently developed a simple, reusable and coupled whole-cell biocatalytic system with the capability of cofactor regeneration and biocatalyst immobilization for improved production yield and sustained synthesis. Described herewith is the experimental procedure for the development of such a system consisting of two E. coli strains that express functionally complementary enzymes. Together, these two enzymes can function co-operatively to mediate the regeneration of expensive cofactors for improving the product yield of the bioreaction...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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