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Cofactor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322283/rational-design-of-engineered-microbial-cell-surface-multi-enzyme-co-display-system-for-sustainable-nadh-regeneration-from-low-cost-biomass
#1
Lei Han, Bo Liang, Jianxia Song
As an important cofactor, NADH is essential for most redox reactions and biofuel cells. However, supply of exogenous NADH is challenged, due to the low production efficiency and high cost of NADH regeneration system, as well as low stability of NADH. Here, we constructed a novel cell surface multi-enzyme co-display system with ratio- and space-controllable manner as exogenous NADH regeneration system for the sustainable NADH production from low-cost biomass. Dockerin-fused glucoamylase (GA) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) were expressed and assembled on the engineered bacterial surfaces, which displayed protein scaffolds with various combinations of different cohesins...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278779/transaminases-for-chiral-amine-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Andrew Gomm, Elaine O'Reilly
Amine transaminases are important biocatalysts for the synthesis of chiral primary amines. Unlike many enzymes that have been employed for the synthesis of optically active amines, amine transaminases are capable of asymmetric synthesis and do not rely on costly cofactors that must be regenerated in situ. However, their application as general catalysts for the preparation of amines is hampered by a limited substrate scope, substrate and (co)product inhibition and difficulties associated with displacing challenging reaction equilibrium...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224628/co-immobilization-of-enoate-reductase-with-a-cofactor-recycling-partner-enzyme
#3
Han Li, Wenhua Xiao, Panpan Xie, Liangyu Zheng
Herein we established co-immobilized methods for enoate reductases (ERs) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), forming a cofactor regeneration system. In cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), ammonium sulfate and oxidized dextran were selected as a precipitant and a cross-linker, respectively. In biomimetic immobilization (BI), ER-GDH-silica particles (ER-GDH-SPs) were rapidly formed through a one-step approach by using a silicic acid precursor. Under the optimal conditions, the ER activity recovery in ER-GDH-CLEAs and ER-GDH-SPs were 44...
February 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185388/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-functional-fatty-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-alternative-for-central-nervous-system-diseases-a-review
#4
Fatemeh Seifar, Mohammad Khalili, Habib Khaledyan, Shirin Amiri Moghadam, Azimeh Izadi, Amirreza Azimi, Seied Kazem Shakouri
OBJECTIVES: α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor...
November 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170654/preparation-and-characterization-of-enzyme-compartments-in-uv-cured-polyurethane-based-materials-and-their-application-in-enzymatic-reactions
#5
Diana Uhrich, Jan von Langermann
The preparation and characterization of UV-cured polyurethane-based materials for the mild inclusion immobilization of enzymes was investigated. Full curing of the polymer precursor/enzyme solution mixture was realized by a short irradiation with UV-light at ambient temperatures. The included aqueous enzyme solution remains highly dispersed in the polymer material with an even size distribution throughout the polymer material. The presented concept provides stable enzyme compartments which were applied for an alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction reaction in organic solvents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155059/microbial-production-of-branched-chain-dicarboxylate-2-methylsuccinic-acid-via-enoate-reductase-mediated-bioreduction
#6
Jian Wang, Yaping Yang, Ruihua Zhang, Xiaolin Shen, Zhenya Chen, Jia Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate...
November 20, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140542/perioperative-von-willebrand-factor-dynamics-are-associated-with-liver-regeneration-and-predict-outcome-after-liver-resection
#7
Patrick Starlinger, David Pereyra, Stefanie Haegele, Paul Braeuer, Lukas Oehlberger, Florian Primavesi, Andreas Kohler, Florian Offensperger, Thomas Reiberger, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Barbara Messner, Guido Beldi, Stefan Staettner, Christine Brostjan, Thomas Gruenberger
Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) was found to mediate platelet influx during the early phase of liver regeneration in mice. Further, increased vWF-antigen (vWF-Ag) levels were shown to be predictive for outcome of patients with chronic liver disease. Accordingly, we aimed to assess the relevance of perioperative vWF-Ag dynamics in terms of liver regeneration and clinical outcome in patients undergoing liver resection (LR). Accordingly, we observed that vWF-Ag and its activity - estimated via ristocetin cofactor measurement - increased immediately after induction of liver regeneration and was associated with platelet accumulation within the liver...
November 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138681/cell-signaling-with-extracellular-thioredoxin-and-thioredoxin-like-proteins-insight-into-their-mechanisms-of-action
#8
REVIEW
Thierry Léveillard, Najate Aït-Ali
Thioredoxins are small thiol-oxidoreductase enzymes that control cellular redox homeostasis. Paradoxically, human thioredoxin (TXN1) was first identified as the adult T cell leukemia-derived factor (ADF), a secreted protein. ADF has been implicated in a wide variety of cell-to-cell communication systems acting as a cytokine or a chemokine. TRX80 is a truncated TXN1 protein with cytokine activity. The unconventional secretion mechanism of these extracellular thioredoxins is unknown. The thioredoxin system is relying on glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway that provides reducing power in the form of NADPH, the cofactor of thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134460/enzyme-based-electrobiotechnological-synthesis
#9
Lisa Marie Schmitz, Katrin Rosenthal, Stephan Lütz
Oxidoreductases are enzymes with a high potential for organic synthesis, as their selectivity often exceeds comparable chemical syntheses. The biochemical cofactors of these enzymes need regeneration during synthesis. Several regeneration methods are available but the electrochemical approach offers an efficient and quasi mass-free method for providing the required redox equivalents. Electron transfer systems involving direct regeneration of natural and artificial cofactors, indirect electrochemical regeneration via a mediator, and indirect electroenzymatic cofactor regeneration via enzyme and mediator have been investigated...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124518/one-pot-simultaneous-preparation-of-both-enantiomer-of-%C3%AE-amino-alcohol-and-vicinal-diol-via-cascade-biocatalysis
#10
Jian-Wei Zhao, Hua-Lei Wu, Jian-Dong Zhang, Wen-Chao Gao, Xiao-Jun Fan, Hong-Hong Chang, Wen-Long Wei, Jian-He Xu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficiency of a new cascade biocatalysis system for the conversion of R, S-β-amino alcohols to enantiopure vicinal diol and β-amino alcohol. RESULTS: An efficient cascade biocatalysis was achieved by combination of a transaminase, a carbonyl reductase and a cofactor regeneration system. An ee value of > 99% for 2-amino-2-phenylethanol and 1-phenyl-1, 2-ethanediol were simultaneously obtained with 50% conversion from R, S-2-amino-2-phenylethanol...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114196/phenylketonuria-a-new-look-at-an-old-topic-advances-in-laboratory-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Khalid M Sumaily, Ahmed H Mujamammi
Disorders of protein metabolism are the most common diseases among discovered inherited metabolic disorders. Phenylketonuria (PKU), a relatively common disorder that is responsive to treatment, is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) or one of several enzymes mediating biosynthesis or regeneration of the PAH cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The objective of this review is to discuss therapeutic strategies that have recently emerged for curing patients with PKU, which have demonstrated promising improvements in managing these patients...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108627/co-expression-of-an-alcohol-dehydrogenase-and-a-cyclohexanone-monooxygenase-for-cascade-reactions-facilitates-the-regeneration-of-the-nadph-cofactor
#12
Anna Kohl, Vishnu Srinivasamurthy, Dominique Böttcher, Johannes Kabisch, Uwe T Bornscheuer
The introduction of a three-enzyme cascade (comprising a cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and a lipase (CAL-A)) for the production of oligo-ε-caprolactone provided self-sufficiency with respect to NADPH-cofactor regeneration and reduced inhibiting effects on the central CHMO enzyme. For further optimization of cofactor regeneration, now a co-expression of CHMO and ADH in E. coli using a Duet™ vector was performed. This led to higher conversion values of the substrate cyclohexanol in whole-cell biocatalysis compared to an expression of both enzymes from two separate plasmids...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079576/ablation-of-the-riboflavin-binding-protein-retbindin-reduces-flavin-levels-and-leads-to-progressive-and-dose-dependent-degeneration-of-rods-and-cones
#13
Ryan A Kelley, Muayyad R Al-Ubaidi, Tirthankar Sinha, Ayse M Genc, Mustafa S Makia, Larissa Ikelle, Muna I Naash
The interface between the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is critical for several processes, including visual pigment regeneration and retinal attachment to the RPE. One of its most important functions is the exchange of metabolites between the photoreceptors and RPE because photoreceptor cells have very high energy demands, largely satisfied by oxidative metabolism. The riboflavin (RF) cofactors, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) are two key cofactors involved in oxidative metabolism...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076413/ntp-regeneration-and-its-application-in-the-biosynthesis-of-nucleotides-and-their-derivatives
#14
Qingbao Ding, Ling Oua
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (NTPs) play an important role in cells in the transfer of phosphate groups or bioenergy. In vivo, they are ready to be produced, regenerated and consumed in different kinds of metabolic pathways, and their concentrations are strictly controlled. NTPs are useful reagents that take part in many biosynthetic processes. However, NTPs are expensive and unstable, which greatly increases the cost of the final product if a large amount of NTPs is used directly in biosynthesis...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067382/extreme-halophilic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-mediated-highly-efficient-syntheses-of-enantiopure-aromatic-alcohols
#15
Diya Alsafadi, Safaa Alsalman, Francesca Paradisi
Enzymatic synthesis of enantiopure aromatic secondary alcohols (including substituted, hetero-aromatic and bicyclic structures) was carried out using halophilic alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Haloferax volcanii (HvADH2). This enzyme showed an unprecedented substrate scope and absolute enatioselectivity. The cofactor NADPH was used catalytically and regenerated in situ by the biocatalyst, in the presence of 5% ethanol. The efficiency of HvADH2 for the conversion of aromatic ketones was markedly influenced by the steric and electronic factors as well as the solubility of ketones in the reaction medium...
November 7, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051382/destruction-and-reformation-of-an-iron-sulfur-cluster-during-catalysis-by-lipoyl-synthase
#16
Erin L McCarthy, Squire J Booker
Lipoyl synthase (LipA) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lipoyl cofactor, which is the attachment of two sulfhydryl groups to C6 and C8 of a pendant octanoyl chain. The appended sulfur atoms derive from an auxiliary [4Fe-4S] cluster on the protein that is degraded during turnover, limiting LipA to one turnover in vitro. We found that the Escherichia coli iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster carrier protein NfuA efficiently reconstitutes the auxiliary cluster during LipA catalysis in a step that is not rate-limiting...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030132/improved-strategies-for-electrochemical-1-4-nad-p-h2-regeneration-a-new-era-of-bioreactors-for-industrial-biocatalysis
#17
REVIEW
Clifford S Morrison, William B Armiger, David R Dodds, Jonathan S Dordick, Mattheos A G Koffas
Industrial enzymatic reactions requiring 1,4-NAD(P)H2 to perform redox transformations often require convoluted coupled enzyme regeneration systems to regenerate 1,4-NAD(P)H2 from NAD(P) and recycle the cofactor for as many turnovers as possible. Renewed interest in recycling the cofactor via electrochemical means is motivated by the low cost of performing electrochemical reactions, easy monitoring of the reaction progress, and straightforward product recovery. However, electrochemical cofactor regeneration methods invariably produce adventitious reduced cofactor side products which result in unproductive loss of input NAD(P)...
October 10, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951189/cofactor-self-sufficient-whole-cell-biocatalysts-for-the-production-of-2-phenylethanol
#18
Pengchao Wang, Xinwei Yang, Baixue Lin, Jianzhong Huang, Yong Tao
The efficiency of biocatalysis is often affected by an insufficient supply and regeneration of cofactors and redox equivalents. To alleviate this shortcoming, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed for enhanced production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in E. coli. A "bridge" between the amino acid and its corresponding alcohol was designed in the system using glutamate dehydrogenase. By coupling glutamate dehydrogenase with transaminase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the cosubstrate (2-oxoglutarate) and redox equivalents (NAD(P)H) were regenerated simultaneously, so that no external cofactor or redox source was required...
September 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950808/engineering-of-an-episomal-plasmid-suitable-for-high-throughput-expression-in-pichia-pastoris
#19
Huan Chen, Cui Cao, Anna Kulinich, Li Liu, Yong-Sam Jung, Josef Voglmeir
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and evaluation of an expression vector for Pichia pastoris (pPICZαBHF), which is based on the commercial vector construct pPICZαB. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The performance of pPICZαBHF was evaluated with red fluorescence protein as a reporter. Additional His- and Flag-tags on the N-terminal ensure a simplified protein purification procedure. Transformation efficiency, expression level and plasmid maintenance were studied in order to test the functionality and usefulness of the constructed vector...
September 25, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931395/effect-of-cell-permeability-and-dehydrogenase-expression-on-octane-activation-by-cyp153a6-based-whole-cell-escherichia-coli-catalysts
#20
Bronwyn E White, Caryn J Fenner, Martha S Smit, Susan T L Harrison
BACKGROUND: The regeneration of cofactors and the supply of alkane substrate are key considerations for the biocatalytic activation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P450s. This study focused on the biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol using resting Escherichia coli cells expressing the CYP153A6 operon, which includes the electron transport proteins ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Glycerol dehydrogenase was co-expressed with the CYP153A6 operon to investigate the effects of boosting cofactor regeneration...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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