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Cofactor regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739871/canonical-notch-signaling-directs-the-fate-of-differentiating-neurocompetent-progenitors-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#1
Daniel B Herrick, Zhen Guo, Woochan Jang, Nikolai Schnittke, James E Schwob
The adult olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capacity to regenerate fully both neurosensory and non-neuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury. Life-long persistence of two stem cell populations supports OE regeneration when damaged: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs) -- dormant and held in reserve, and globose basal cells (GBCs) -- a heterogeneous population most of which are actively dividing. Both populations regenerate all cell types of the OE after injury, but the mechanisms underlying neuronal vs...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714371/nonconventional-regeneration-of-redox-enzymes-a-practical-approach-for-organic-synthesis
#2
Wuyuan Zhang, Frank Hollmann
Oxidoreductases have become useful tools in the hands of chemists to perform selective and mild oxidation and reduction reactions. Instead of mimicking native catalytic cycles, generally involving costly and unstable nicotinamide cofactors, more direct, NAD(P)-independent methodologies are being developed. The promise of these approaches not only lies with simpler and cheaper reaction schemes but also with higher selectivity as compared to whole cell approaches and their mimics.
May 1, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697210/recombinant-arol-catalyzed-phosphorylation-for-the-efficient-synthesis-of-shikimic-acid-3-phosphate
#3
Bernhard Schoenenberger, Agata Wszolek, Roland Meier, Henrike Brundiek, Markus Obkircher, Roland Wohlgemuth
Shikimic acid 3-phosphate, as a central metabolite of the shikimate pathway, is of high interest as enzyme substrate for 5-enolpyruvoyl-shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a drug target in infectious diseases and a prime enzyme target for the herbicide glyphosate. As the important substrate shikimic acid 3-phosphate was only accessible via a chemical multi-step route, a new straightforward preparative one-step enzymatic phosphorylation of shikimate using a stable recombinant shikimate kinase has been developed for the selective phosphorylation of shikimate in the 3-position...
April 26, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642888/reconstruction-of-metabolic-module-with-improved-promoter-strength-increases-the-productivity-of-2-phenylethanol-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Zhaoyue Wang, Mingyue Jiang, Xuena Guo, Zhaozheng Liu, Xiuping He
BACKGROUND: 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic compound with a lovely rose-like scent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a desirable microbe for 2-PE production but its natural yield is not high, and one or two crucial genes' over-expression in S. cerevisiae did not improve 2-PE greatly. RESULTS: A new metabolic module was established here, in which, permease Gap1p for L-phenylalanine transportation, catalytic enzymes Aro8p, Aro10p and Adh2p in Ehrlich pathway respectively responsible for transamination, decarboxylation and reduction were assembled, besides, glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh2p was harbored for re-supplying another substrate 2-oxoglutarate, relieving product glutamate repression and regenerating cofactor NADH...
April 11, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623070/a-review-the-styrene-metabolizing-cascade-of-side-chain-oxygenation-as-biotechnological-basis-to-gain-various-valuable-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Michel Oelschlägel, Juliane Zimmerling, Dirk Tischler
Styrene is one of the most produced and processed chemicals worldwide and is released into the environment during widespread processing. But, it is also produced from plants and microorganisms. The natural occurrence of styrene led to several microbiological strategies to form and also to degrade styrene. One pathway designated as side-chain oxygenation has been reported as a specific route for the styrene degradation among microorganisms. It comprises the following enzymes: styrene monooxygenase (SMO; NADH-consuming and FAD-dependent, two-component system), styrene oxide isomerase (SOI; cofactor independent, membrane-bound protein) and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD; NAD+ -consuming) and allows an intrinsic cofactor regeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550567/the-effect-of-a-doubled-glutathione-level-on-parameters-affecting-the-germinability-of-recalcitrant-acer-saccharinum-seeds-during-drying
#6
Ewa M Kalemba, Ewelina Ratajczak
Approximately 20% of plant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), produce seeds that are sensitive to desiccation, which is reflected in their poor storage potential and viability. In the search for a compound that can improve seed recalcitrance, freshly harvested seeds were soaked in either 2.5 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) or water and desiccated to comparable water levels of 55-20%. We examined the impact of a doubled endogenous level of glutathione on the seed germination capacity, the activity of enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, the cell membrane components and integrity, reactive oxygen species, and ascorbate levels...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537267/enhancement-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-dicarboxylic-acid-production-by-the-expression-of-xylose-reductase-for-refactoring-redox-cofactor-regeneration
#7
Chandran Sathesh-Prabu, Sung Kuk Lee
The production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) by whole-cell biocatalysis is often limited by cofactor regeneration. Here, ω-oxidation pathway genes (monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase) were co-expressed with a xylose reductase (XR) gene to regenerate cofactors in an engineered Escherichia coli strain that co-metabolizes glucose and xylose. The resulting strain exhibited a 180% increase in DCA production compared with the control strain without XR, and produced xylitol in the presence of xylose...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532253/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium-development
#8
REVIEW
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531036/substrate-recognition-and-mechanism-revealed-by-ligand-bound-polyphosphate-kinase-2-structures
#9
Alice E Parnell, Silja Mordhorst, Florian Kemper, Mariacarmela Giurrandino, Josh P Prince, Nikola J Schwarzer, Alexandre Hofer, Daniel Wohlwend, Henning J Jessen, Stefan Gerhardt, Oliver Einsle, Petra C F Oyston, Jennifer N Andexer, Peter L Roach
Inorganic polyphosphate is a ubiquitous, linear biopolymer built of up to thousands of phosphate residues that are linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Polyphosphate kinases of the family 2 (PPK2) use polyphosphate to catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of nucleotide phosphates and are highly relevant as targets for new pharmaceutical compounds and as biocatalysts for cofactor regeneration. PPK2s can be classified based on their preference for nucleoside mono- or diphosphates or both. The detailed mechanism of PPK2s and the molecular basis for their substrate preference is unclear, which is mainly due to the lack of high-resolution structures with substrates or substrate analogs...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483189/deletion-of-the-neural-tube-defect-associated-gene-mthfd1l-disrupts-one-carbon-and-central-energy-metabolism-in-mouse-embryos
#10
Joshua D Bryant, Shannon R Sweeney, Enrique Sentandreu, Minhye Shin, Hélène Ipas, Blerta Xhemalce, Jessica Momb, Stefano Tiziani, Dean R Appling
One-carbon (1C) metabolism is a universal folate-dependent pathway essential for de novo purine and thymidylate synthesis, amino acid interconversion, universal methyl-donor production, and regeneration of redox cofactors. Homozygous deletion of the 1C pathway gene Mthfd1l encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ -dependent) 1-like, which catalyzes mitochondrial formate production from 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, results in 100% penetrant embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), underscoring the central role of mitochondrially derived formate in embryonic development and providing a mechanistic link between folate and NTDs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477859/bioamination-of-alkane-with-ammonium-by-an-artificially-designed-multienzyme-cascade
#11
Hui-Lei Yu, Tuo Li, Fei-Fei Chen, Xiao-Jing Luo, Aitao Li, Chao Yang, Gao-Wei Zheng, Jian-He Xu
Biocatalytic C-H amination is one of the most challenging tasks. C-H amination reaction can hardly be driven efficiently by solely one enzyme so far. Thus, enzymatic synergy represents an alternative strategy. Herein, we report an "Artificially Bioamination Pathway" for C-H amination of cyclohexane as a model substrate. Three enzymes, a monooxygenase P450BM3 mutant, an alcohol dehydrogenase ScCR from Streptomyces coelicolor and an amine dehydrogenase EsLeuDH from Exiguobacterium sibiricum, constituted a clean cascade reaction system with easy product isolation...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452130/magnetic-combined-cross-linked-enzyme-aggregates-combi-cleas-for-cofactor-regeneration-in-the-synthesis-of-chiral-alcohol
#12
Erzheng Su, Yang Meng, Chenxi Ning, Xiaoqiang Ma, Senwen Deng
Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were prepared and embedded into the Combi-CLEAs to produce the magnetic Combi-CLEAs in this work. The process for magnetic Combi-CLEAs preparation was optimized, and its properties were investigated. The optimum temperature, thermal stability and optimum pH of magnetic Combi-CLEAs were similar to those of Combi-CLEAs. The catalytic performance of magnetic Combi-CLEAs was tested with the biosynthesis of (S)-ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate ((S)-CHBE). Magnetic Combi-CLEAs could tolerate higher substrate concentration in the biphasic system...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436714/gch1-attenuates-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-remodeling-in-canines-with-atrial-tachypacing-via-tetrahydrobiopterin-pathway-regulated-by-microrna-206
#13
Jinqiu Wei, Yujiao Zhang, Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Linlin Chen, Juanjuan Du, Jing Liu, Ju Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling (ANR) is an important mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF). GTP cyclohydrolase I, encoded by GCH1, is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Previous studies reported that increased BH4 and NO content negatively regulated nerve regeneration. This study investigated the effects of GCH1 on ANR via BH4 pathway, regulated by microRNA-206 (miR-206)...
February 13, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429342/modular-engineering-intracellular-nadh-regeneration-boosts-extracellular-electron-transfer-of-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1
#14
Feng Li, Yuanxiu Li, Liming Sun, Xiaoli Chen, Xingjuan An, Changji Yin, Yingxiu Cao, Hui Wu, Hao Song
Efficient extracellular electron transfer (EET) of exoelectrogens is essentially for practical applications of versatile bioelectrochemical systems. Intracellular electrons flow from NADH to extracellular electron acceptors via EET pathways. However, it was yet established how the manipulation of intracellular NADH impacted the EET efficiency. Strengthening NADH regeneration from NAD+ , as a feasible approach for cofactor engineering, has been used in regulating the intracellular NADH pool and the redox state (NADH/NAD+ ratio) of cells...
March 16, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322283/rational-design-of-engineered-microbial-cell-surface-multi-enzyme-co-display-system-for-sustainable-nadh-regeneration-from-low-cost-biomass
#15
Lei Han, Bo Liang, Jianxia Song
As an important cofactor, NADH is essential for most redox reactions and biofuel cells. However, supply of exogenous NADH is challenged, due to the low production efficiency and high cost of NADH regeneration system, as well as low stability of NADH. Here, we constructed a novel cell surface multi-enzyme co-display system with ratio- and space-controllable manner as exogenous NADH regeneration system for the sustainable NADH production from low-cost biomass. Dockerin-fused glucoamylase (GA) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) were expressed and assembled on the engineered bacterial surfaces, which displayed protein scaffolds with various combinations of different cohesins...
February 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278779/transaminases-for-chiral-amine-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
Andrew Gomm, Elaine O'Reilly
Amine transaminases are important biocatalysts for the synthesis of chiral primary amines. Unlike many enzymes that have been employed for the synthesis of optically active amines, amine transaminases are capable of asymmetric synthesis and do not rely on costly cofactors that must be regenerated in situ. However, their application as general catalysts for the preparation of amines is hampered by a limited substrate scope, substrate and (co)product inhibition and difficulties associated with displacing challenging reaction equilibrium...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224628/co-immobilization-of-enoate-reductase-with-a-cofactor-recycling-partner-enzyme
#17
Han Li, Wenhua Xiao, Panpan Xie, Liangyu Zheng
Herein we established co-immobilized methods for enoate reductases (ERs) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), forming a cofactor regeneration system. In cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), ammonium sulfate and oxidized dextran were selected as a precipitant and a cross-linker, respectively. In biomimetic immobilization (BI), ER-GDH-silica particles (ER-GDH-SPs) were rapidly formed through a one-step approach by using a silicic acid precursor. Under the optimal conditions, the ER activity recovery in ER-GDH-CLEAs and ER-GDH-SPs were 44...
February 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185388/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-functional-fatty-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-alternative-for-central-nervous-system-diseases-a-review
#18
Fatemeh Seifar, Mohammad Khalili, Habib Khaledyan, Shirin Amiri Moghadam, Azimeh Izadi, Amirreza Azimi, Seied Kazem Shakouri
OBJECTIVES: α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant which acts as a cofactor of bioenergetic mitochondrial enzymes. Along with its mitochondrial action, ALA and its reduced form have many biological functions resulting in a wide variety of actions such as anti-inflammation and antioxidant protection, scavenging reactive oxygen species, regenerating other antioxidant agents, such as vitamins C and E, and cytosolic glutathione, chelating the transitional metal ions (e.g. iron and copper), and modulating the signal transduction of nuclear factor...
November 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170654/preparation-and-characterization-of-enzyme-compartments-in-uv-cured-polyurethane-based-materials-and-their-application-in-enzymatic-reactions
#19
Diana Uhrich, Jan von Langermann
The preparation and characterization of UV-cured polyurethane-based materials for the mild inclusion immobilization of enzymes was investigated. Full curing of the polymer precursor/enzyme solution mixture was realized by a short irradiation with UV-light at ambient temperatures. The included aqueous enzyme solution remains highly dispersed in the polymer material with an even size distribution throughout the polymer material. The presented concept provides stable enzyme compartments which were applied for an alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction reaction in organic solvents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155059/microbial-production-of-branched-chain-dicarboxylate-2-methylsuccinic-acid-via-enoate-reductase-mediated-bioreduction
#20
Jian Wang, Yaping Yang, Ruihua Zhang, Xiaolin Shen, Zhenya Chen, Jia Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate...
January 2018: Metabolic Engineering
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