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Cofactor regeneration

Bronwyn E White, Caryn J Fenner, Martha S Smit, Susan T L Harrison
BACKGROUND: The regeneration of cofactors and the supply of alkane substrate are key considerations for the biocatalytic activation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P450s. This study focused on the biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol using resting Escherichia coli cells expressing the CYP153A6 operon, which includes the electron transport proteins ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Glycerol dehydrogenase was co-expressed with the CYP153A6 operon to investigate the effects of boosting cofactor regeneration...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Yeounjoo Ko, Eunhee Seol, Balaji Sundara Sekar, Seongjin Kwon, Jaehyeon Lee, Sunghoon Park
Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) or 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production from glycerol is challenging due to the problems associated with cofactor regeneration, coenzyme B12 synthesis, and the instability of pathway enzymes. To address these complications, simultaneous production of 3-HP and 1,3-PDO, instead of individual production of each compound, was attempted. With over-expression of an aldehyde dehydrogenase, recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae could co-produce 3-HP and 1,3-PDO successfully...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ya-Jun Wang, Wei Shen, Xi Luo, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Yu-Guo Zheng
t-Butyl 6-cyano-(3R,5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((3R,5R)-2) is a key chiral diol precursor of atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor®). We have constructed a Kluyveromyces lactis aldo-keto reductase mutant KlAKR-Y295W/W296L (KlAKRm) by rational design in previous research, which displayed high activity and excellent diastereoselectivity (dep  > 99.5%) toward t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((5R)-1). To realize in situ cofactor regeneration, a robust KlAKRm and Exiguobacterium sibiricum glucose dehydrogenase (EsGDH) co-producer E...
August 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
Meng Wang, Yiou Zhou, Tianwei Tan
Diols, such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), have several promising properties for many synthetic reactions. Here, the cofactor engineering strategy, including the construction of Entner-Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase-based NADH regeneration system, was applied in producing diols from mixtures of glucose and glycerol. Entner-Doudoroff pathway had a high regeneration rate of NAD(P)H. This work described a strategy to administrate intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio and improved the concentration of diols...
August 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Diederik J Opperman
Ene-reductases (ERs), or Old Yellow Enzymes, catalyse the asymmetric reduction of various activated alkenes. This class of biocatalysts is considered an attractive alternative to current chemical technologies for hydrogenation due to their high selectivity and specificity. Here the X-ray crystal structure of RmER, a "thermophilic"-like ER from Ralstonia (Cupriavidus) metallidurans, is reported. Unlike other members of this class of ERs, RmER is monomeric in solution which we previously related to its atypical elongated C-terminus...
August 22, 2017: Proteins
Fauziah Marpani, Zsuzsa Sárossy, Manuel Pinelo, Anne S Meyer
Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to methanol (CH3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO2 to CH3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II)...
August 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso
Plant peroxisomes are recognized organelles that - with their capacity to generate greater amounts of H2O2 than other subcellular compartments - have a remarkable oxidative metabolism. However, over the last 15 years, new information has shown that plant peroxisomes contain other important molecules and enzymes, including nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite, a NADPH-recycling system, Ca(2+) and lipid-derived signals, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and nitro-fatty acid (NO2-FA). This highlights the potential for complex interactions within the peroxisomal nitro-oxidative metabolism, which also affects the status of the cell and consequently its physiological processes...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Anna N Khusnutdinova, Robert Flick, Ana Popovic, Greg Brown, Anatoli Tchigvintsev, Boguslaw Nocek, Kevin Correia, Jeong C Joo, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan, Alexander F Yakunin
Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) selectively reduce carboxylic acids to aldehydes using ATP and NADPH as cofactors under mild conditions. Although CARs attracts significant interest, only a few enzymes have been characterized to date, whereas the vast majority of CARs have yet to be examined. Herein the authors report that 12 bacterial CARs reduces a broad range of bifunctional carboxylic acids containing oxo-, hydroxy-, amino-, or second carboxyl groups with several enzymes showing activity toward 4-hydroxybutanoic (4-HB) and adipic acids...
August 1, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Xiaoqiang Ma, Hong Liang, Chenxi Ning, Senwen Deng, Erzheng Su
Herein, we reported that Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides) can be engineered by heterologous expression of an alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) from Leifsonia sp. to build a light-driven cofactor regeneration system for synthesis of chiral alcohol. The model substrate, 3'-chloroacetophenone, can be reduced by the engineered R. sphaeroides to (R)-1-(3-chlorophenyl) ethanol with an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) value of more than 99% in an n-hexane/aqueous biphasic media. This system, which is fully controlled by light, exhibited potential power to be an alternative cofactor regeneration platform for cheap synthesis of various chiral alcohols via the cloning other oxidoreductases with diverse characteristics...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Nobuyuki Okahashi, Fumio Matsuda, Katsunori Yoshikawa, Tomokazu Shirai, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Mitsufumi Wada, Hiroshi Shimizu
Metabolic engineering of isopropyl alcohol (IPA)-producing Escherichia coli strains was conducted along with (13) C-metabolic flux analysis (MFA). A metabolically engineered E. coli strain expressing the adc gene derived from Clostridium acetobutylicum and the IPADH gene from C. beijerinckii did not produce IPA during its exponential growth phase in the aerobic batch culture. (13) C-MFA was carried out, and revealed a deficiency in NADPH regeneration for IPA production in growth phase. Based on these findings, we used nitrogen-starved culture conditions to reduce NADPH consumption for biomass synthesis...
July 29, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Judith E Farnberger, Elisabeth Lorenz, Nina Richter, Volker F Wendisch, Wolfgang Kroutil
BACKGROUND: Transaminases have become a key tool in biocatalysis to introduce the amine functionality into a range of molecules like prochiral α-ketoacids and ketones. However, due to the necessity of shifting the equilibrium towards the product side (depending on the amine donor) an efficient amination system may require three enzymes. So far, this well-established transformation has mainly been performed in vitro by assembling all biocatalysts individually, which comes along with elaborate and costly preparation steps...
July 28, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Claudia Nowak, André Pick, Lénárd-István Csepei, Volker Sieber
Oxidoreductases are attractive biocatalysts that convert achiral substrates to products of higher value but are also for the most part dependent on nicotinamide cofactors. Recently, biomimetic nicotinamide derivatives have received attention as less costly alternatives to natural cofactors. However, recycling of biomimetics is still challenging since there are only limited opportunities. Here, we characterized various biomimetic cofactors in regard of stability and redox potentials to find the best alternative for natural cofactors...
July 27, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Sebastian Roth, Andreas Präg, Cindy Wechsler, Marija Marolt, Sascha Ferlaino, Steffen Lüdeke, Nicolas Sandon, Dennis Wetzl, Hans Iding, Beat Wirz, Michael Müller
NADP(H)-dependent imine reductases (IREDs) are of interest in biocatalytic research due to their ability to generate chiral amines from imine/iminium substrates. In reaction protocols involving IREDs, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is generally used to regenerate the expensive cofactor NADPH by oxidation of d-glucose to gluconolactone. We have characterized different IREDs with regard to reduction of a set of bicyclic iminium compounds and have utilized (1) H NMR and GC analyses to determine degree of substrate conversion and product enantiomeric excess (ee)...
July 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Charumathi Jayachandran, Balakumaran Palanisamy Athiyaman, Meenakshisundaram Sankaranarayanan
The cofactor engineering strategy can relieve the metabolic stress induced by expression of recombinant protein in cellular metabolism related to cofactor and energy reactions. To study the effect of cofactor regeneration on recombinant protein expression, NADH oxidase (noxE) was engineered in P. pastoris expressing lipase B (GSCALB). Expression of noxE in P. pastoris (GSCALBNOX) increased NAD+ levels by 85% with a concomitant reduction in NADH/NAD+ ratio of 67% compared to GSCALB. The change in the redox level positively influenced the methanol uptake rate and made 34% augment in CALB activity...
2017: PloS One
Qi Su, Petrina A Boucher, Steven E Rokita
Natural and engineered nitroreductases have rarely supported full reduction of nitroaromatics to their amine products, and more typically, transformations are limited to formation of the hydroxylamine intermediates. Efficient use of these enzymes also requires a regenerating system for NAD(P)H to avoid the costs associated with this natural reductant. Iodotyrosine deiodinase is a member of the same structural superfamily as many nitroreductases but does not directly consume reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H, nor demonstrate nitroreductase activity...
August 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Soo-Jung Kim, Hee-Jin Sim, Jin-Woo Kim, Ye-Gi Lee, Yong-Cheol Park, Jin-Ho Seo
The aim of this study was to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) from xylose efficiently by modulation of the xylose metabolic pathway in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the Scheffersomyces stipitis transaldolase and NADH-preferring xylose reductase in S. cerevisiae improved xylose consumption rate by a 2.1-fold and 2,3-BDO productivity by a 1.8-fold. Expression of the Lactococcus lactis noxE gene encoding NADH oxidase also increased 2,3-BDO yield by decreasing glycerol accumulation. Additionally, the disadvantage of C2-dependent growth of pyruvate decarboxylase-deficient (Pdc(-)) S...
June 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Souvik Basak, Nanda Gopal Sahoo, Angayar K Pavanasam
Previously, we published cloning, over-expression, characterization and subsequent exploitation of a carbonyl reductase (cr) gene, belonging to general family aldo-keto reductase from Candida glabrata CBS138 to convert keto ester (COBE) to a chiral alcohol (ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate or CHBE). Exploiting global transcription factor CRP, rDNA and transporter engineering, we have improved batch production of CHBE by trinomial bioengineering. Herein, we present the exploration of cr gene in Candida glabrata CBS138 through genome miningapproach, in silico validation of its activity and selection of its biocatalytic phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioengineered
Wei Wang, Meixia Liu, Chun You, Zhimin Li, Yi-Heng Percival Zhang
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) is a widely used medicine and is also a precursor of two important three-carbon phosphates - glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) for the biosynthesis of numerous fine chemicals. An in vitro synthetic cofactor-free enzymatic pathway comprised of four hyperthermophilic enzymes was designed to produce FDP from starch and pyrophosphate. All of four hyperthermophilic enzymes (i.e., alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Thermotaga maritima, phosphoglucomutase from Thermococcus kodakarensis, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase from Thermus thermophilus, and pyrophosphate phosphofructokinase from T...
July 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Shuxin Liu, Jiabin Liu, Jiayin Hou, Nan Chao, Ying Gai, Xiangning Jiang
BACKGROUND: 4-Hydroxycinnamyl alcohols are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that include p-coumaryl alcohol, caffeyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, and have physiological, ecological and biomedical significance. While it is necessary to investigate the biological pathways and economic value of these alcohols, research is hindered because of their limited availability and high cost. Traditionally, these alcohols are obtained by chemical synthesis and plant extraction...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Chao Dong, Jing Yang, Stefan Reschke, Silke Leimkühler, Martin L Kirk
The pyranopterin dithiolene (PDT) ligand is an integral component of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) found in all molybdoenzymes with the sole exception of nitrogenase. However, the roles of the PDT in catalysis are still unknown. The PDT is believed to be bound to the proteins by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and it has been suggested that these interactions may function to fine-tune Moco for electron- and atom-transfer reactivity in catalysis. Here, we use resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy to probe Moco-protein interactions using heavy-atom congeners of lumazine, molecules that bind tightly to both wild-type xanthine dehydrogenase (wt-XDH) and its Q102G and Q197A variants following enzymatic hydroxylation to the corresponding violapterin product molecules...
June 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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