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Biocatalysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650512/elucidating-sequence-and-solvent-specific-design-targets-to-protect-and-stabilize-enzymes-for-biocatalysis-in-ionic-liquids
#1
K G Sprenger, J G Plaks, J L Kaar, J Pfaendtner
For many different frameworks, the structure, function, and dynamics of an enzyme is largely determined by the nature of its interactions with the surrounding host environment, thus a molecular level understanding of enzyme/host interactions is essential to the design of new processes and applications. Ionic liquid (IL) solvents are a popular class of solvents in which to study enzyme behavior, yet it is still not possible to predict how a given enzyme will behave in a given IL solvent. Furthermore, a dearth of experimental data with which to evaluate simulation force fields has prevented the full integration of experimental and computational techniques to gain a complete picture of enzyme/IL interactions...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648492/biocatalysis-for-synthesis-of-pharmaceuticals
#2
REVIEW
Ramesh N Patel
Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates and drugs has become important and state of the art in the pharmaceutical industry. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes (biocatalysts) for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enatioselectivities providing products in high yields and purity. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of key chiral intermediates for development pharmaceuticals...
May 22, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644714/genome-mining-in-silico-validation-and-phase-selection-of-a-novel-aldo-keto-reductase-from-candida-glabratea-for-biotransformation
#3
Souvik Basak, Nanda Gopal Sahoo, Angayar K Pavanasam
Previously, we published cloning, over-expression, characterization and subsequent exploitation of a carbonyl reductase (cr) gene, belonging to general family aldo-keto reductase from Candida glabrata CBS138 to convert keto ester (COBE) to a chiral alcohol (ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate or CHBE). Exploiting global transcription factor CRP, rDNA and transporter engineering, we have improved batch production of CHBE by trinomial bioengineering. Herein, we present the exploration of cr gene in Candida glabrata CBS138 through genome miningapproach, in silico validation of its activity and selection of its biocatalytic phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627388/improved-soluble-bacterial-expression-and-properties-of-the-recombinant-flavonoid-glucosyltransferase-ugt73g1-from-allium-cepa
#4
Ruxin Cai, Caihong Chen, Yan Li, Kaiyan Sun, Fangfang Zhou, Kequan Chen, Honghua Jia
Glycosylation of quercetin using flavonol-specific glycosyltransferases offers an alternate method for isoquercitrin production. Obtaining sufficient quantities of bioactive enzymes is an important prerequisite for highly effective biocatalysis and biotransformation. In this study, a codon-optimized gene for the flavonoid glucosyltransferase UGT73G1 from Allium cepa was heterologously expressed in the preferred prokaryotic expression host Escherichia coli. By combining expression as a fusion protein with 6-histidine tags with coexpression with molecular chaperones, increased soluble expression of UGT73G1 was achieved in E...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625736/use-of-bioconjugation-with-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#5
REVIEW
Julie Ducharme, Karine Auclair
Bioconjugation, defined as chemical modification of biomolecules, is widely employed in biological and biophysical studies. It can expand functional diversity and enable applications ranging from biocatalysis, biosensing and even therapy. This review summarizes how chemical modifications of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s or CYPs) have contributed to improving our understanding of these enzymes. Genetic modifications of P450s have also proven very useful but are not covered in this review. Bioconjugation has served to gain structural information and investigate the mechanism of P450s via photoaffinity labeling, mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) and fluorescence studies...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624535/atp-free-biosynthesis-of-a-high-energy-phosphate-metabolite-fructose-1-6-diphosphate-by-in-vitro-metabolic-engineering
#6
Wei Wang, Meixia Liu, Chun You, Zhimin Li, Yi-Heng Percival Zhang
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) is a widely used medicine and is also a precursor of two important three-carbon phosphates -- glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) for the biosynthesis of numerous fine chemicals. An in vitro synthetic cofactor-free enzymatic pathway comprised of four hyperthermophilic enzymes was designed to produce FDP from starch and pyrophosphate. All of four hyperthermophilic enzymes (i.e., alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Thermotaga maritima, phosphoglucomutase from Thermococcus kodakarensis, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase from Thermus thermophilus, and pyrophosphate phosphofructokinase from T...
June 14, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619444/single-step-production-of-the-simvastatin-precursor-monacolin-j-by-engineering-of-an-industrial-strain-of-aspergillus-terreus
#7
Xuenian Huang, Yajing Liang, Yong Yang, Xuefeng Lu
Monacolin J is a key precursor for the synthesis of simvastatin (Zocor), an important drug for treating hypercholesterolemia. Industrially, monacolin J is manufactured through alkaline hydrolysis of lovastatin, a fungal polyketide produced by Aspergillus terreus. Multistep chemical processes for the conversion of lovastatin to simvastatin are laborious, cost expensive and environmentally unfriendly. A biocatalysis process for monacolin J conversion to simvastatin has been developed. However, direct bioproduction of monacolin J has not yet been achieved...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610636/whole-cell-biocatalysts-by-design
#8
REVIEW
Baixue Lin, Yong Tao
Whole-cell biocatalysts provide unique advantages and have been widely used for the efficient biosynthesis of value-added fine and bulk chemicals, as well as pharmaceutically active ingredients. What is more, advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, together with the rapid development of molecular genetic tools, have brought about a renaissance of whole-cell biocatalysis. These rapid advancements mean that whole-cell biocatalysts can increasingly be rationally designed. Genes of heterologous enzymes or synthetic pathways are increasingly being introduced into microbial hosts, and depending on the complexity of the synthetic pathway or the target products, they can enable the production of value-added chemicals from cheap feedstock...
June 13, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605882/toward-a-cell-free-hydantoinase-process-screening-for-expression-optimization-and-one-step-purification-as-well-as-immobilization-of-hydantoinase-and-carbamoylase
#9
Christin Slomka, Georg Paris Späth, Phillip Lemke, Marc Skoupi, Christof M Niemeyer, Christoph Syldatk, Jens Rudat
The hydantoinase process is applied for the industrial synthesis of optically pure amino acids via whole cell biocatalysis, providing a simple and well-established method to obtain the catalyst. Nevertheless, whole cell approaches also bear disadvantages like intracellular degradation reactions, transport limitations as well as low substrate solubility. In this work the hydantoinase and carbamoylase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes DSM 20117 were investigated with respect to their applicability in a cell-free hydantoinase process...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605732/progress-in-bacillus-subtilis-spore-surface-display-technology-towards-environment-vaccine-development-and-biocatalysis
#10
Huayou Chen, Jawad Ullah, Jinru Jia
Spore surface display is the most desirable with enhanced effects, low cost, less time consuming and the most promising technology for environmental, medical, and industrial development. Spores have various applications in industry due to their ability to survive in harsh industrial processes including heat resistance, alkaline tolerance, chemical tolerance, easy recovery, and reusability. Yeast and bacteria, including gram-positive and -negative, are the most frequently used organisms for the display of various proteins (eukaryotic and prokaryotic), but unlike spores, they can rupture easily due to nutritive properties, susceptibility to heat, pH, and chemicals...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598166/resolving-the-iron-phthalocyanine-redox-transitions-for-orr-catalysis-in-aqueous-media
#11
Amell Alsudairi, Jingkun Li, Nagappan Ramaswamy, Sanjeev Mukerjee, Kuzhikalalil M Abraham, Qingying Jia
Metal macrocycles are among the most important catalytic systems in electrocatalysis and biocatalysis owing to their rich redox chemistry. Precise understanding of the redox behavior of metal macrocycles under operando conditions is essential for fundamental studies and practical applications of this catalytic system. Here we present electrochemical data for the representative iron phthalocyanine (FePc) in both aqueous and non-aqueous media coupled with in situ Raman and X-ray absorption analyses to challenge the traditional notion of the redox transition of FePc at the low potential end in aqueous media by showing that it arises from the redox transition of the ring...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587256/biochemical-and-computational-insights-on-a-novel-acid-resistant-and-thermal-stable-glucose-1-dehydrogenase
#12
Haitao Ding, Fen Gao, Yong Yu, Bo Chen
Due to the dual cofactor specificity, glucose 1-dehydrogenase (GDH) has been considered as a promising alternative for coenzyme regeneration in biocatalysis. To mine for potential GDHs for practical applications, several genes encoding for GDH had been heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for primary screening. Of all the candidates, GDH from Bacillus sp. ZJ (BzGDH) was one of the most robust enzymes. BzGDH was then purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized biochemically...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559183/using-concanavalina-as-a-spacer-for-immobilization-of-e-coli-onto-magnetic-nanoparticles
#13
Meng-Yao Zhuang, Cong Wang, Meng-Qiu Xu, Xiao-Min Ling, Jia-Jia Shen, Ye-Wang Zhang
ConcanavalinA (conA) is a protein extracted from the concanavalin, which has specific recognition through mannose components on bacterial cell surfaces. A magnetic nanocarrier with the structure of a dopamine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was grafted with conA, and was used for immobilization of recombinant Escherichia coli harboring glycerol dehydrogenase with the specific recognition between glycoconjugates and glycoprotein. The effect of various factors on the immobilization including temperature, pH, cell concentration and immobilization time were investigated...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556517/improving-the-production-activity-and-stability-of-cleas-with-diepoxides
#14
Samanta Hernández-García, María Inmaculada García-García, Francisco García-Carmona
Among enzyme immobilization techniques, the preparation of crosslinked enzyme aggregates has shown promising results in biocatalysis, because they are easy to prepare, versatile and cheap. The method involves the precipitation of enzymes with ammonium sulfate or an organic solvent and subsequent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. However, the Schiff base produced with glutaraldehyde is reversible and can be broken with acids or bases, releasing proteins to the reaction medium. To solve this problem, we propose replacing glutaraldehyde with diepoxide compounds to obtain an irreversible secondary amine bond...
May 27, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523096/biocatalysis-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-the-need-for-speed
#15
Matthew D Truppo
The use of biocatalysis in the pharmaceutical industry continues to expand as a result of increased access to enzymes and the ability to engineer those enzymes to meet the demands of industrial processes. However, we are still just scratching the surface of potential biocatalytic applications. The time pressures present in pharmaceutical process development are incompatible with the long lead times required for engineering a suitable biocatalyst. Dramatic increases in the speed of protein engineering are needed to deliver on the ever increasing opportunities for industrial biocatalytic processes...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514852/separated-immobilization-of-incompatible-enzymes-on-polymer-substrate-via-visible-light-induced-living-photografting-polymerization
#16
Xing Zhu, Bin He, Changwen Zhao, Yuhong Ma, Wantai Yang
The use of the mixed catalytic system with several enzymes can provide multiple benefits in terms of the cost, simplification of a multistep reaction, and effectiveness of complex chemical reactions. Although study of different enzyme coimmobilization systems has attracted increasing attention in recent years, separately immobilizing enzymes which can not coexist on one support is still one of the great challenges. In this paper, a simple and effective strategy was introduced to separately encapsulate incompatible trypsin and transglutaminase (TGase) into different poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) network layer grafted on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film via visible light induced living photografting polymerization...
June 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514518/a-retrosynthesis-approach-for-biocatalysis-in-organic-synthesis
#17
Uwe Bornscheuer, Rodrigo O M A de Souza, Leandro S M Miranda
Lead-In: For the planning of an organic synthesis route, the disconnection approach guided by retrosynthetic analysis of possible intermediates and the chemical reactions involved, back to ready available starting materials, is well established. In contrast, such concepts just get developed for biocatalytic routes. In this review we highlight functional group interconversions catalyzed by enzymes. The article is organized rather by chemical bonds formed - exemplified for C-N, C-O- and C-C-bonds - and not by enzyme classes, covering a broad range of reactions to incorporate the desired functionality in the target molecule...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500946/pa-tb-cu-mof-as-luminescent-nanoenzyme-for-catalytic-assay-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#18
Zewan Qi, Li Wang, Qi You, Yang Chen
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with flexible structures and components have aroused great interest in designing functional materials. In this work, we designed and made a kind of PA-Tb-Cu MOF nanoenzyme capable of emitting fluorescence for the catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Luminescent Tb(3+), catalytic Cu(2+) and bridging ligand were assembled and integrated into a single material nanoenzyme. This PA-Tb-Cu MOF nanoenzyme not only possessed excellent catalytic activity comparable to horseradish peroxidase but also can real-time fluorescently indicate the concentration of H2O2 as low as 0...
May 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498544/metabolic-engineering-of-cofactor-flavin-adenine-dinucleotide-fad-synthesis-and-regeneration-in-escherichia-coli-for-production-of-%C3%AE-keto-acids
#19
Ying Hou, Gazi Sakir Hossain, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) plays a vital role in many FAD-dependent enzymatic reactions; therefore, how to efficiently accelerate FAD synthesis and regeneration is an important topic in biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. In this study, a system involving the synthesis pathway and regeneration of FAD was engineered in Escherichia coli to improve α-keto acid production-from the corresponding L-amino acids-catalyzed by FAD-dependent L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD). First, key genes, ribH, ribC, and ribF, were overexpressed and fine-tuned for FAD synthesis...
May 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497966/large-scale-analysis-of-hydrogen-bond-interaction-patterns-in-protein-ligand-interfaces
#20
Eva Nittinger, Therese Inhester, Stefan Bietz, Agnes Meyder, Karen T Schomburg, Gudrun Lange, Robert Klein, Matthias Rarey
Protein-ligand interactions are the fundamental basis for molecular design in pharmaceutical research, biocatalysis, and agrochemical development. Especially hydrogen bonds are known to have special geometric requirements and therefore deserve a detailed analysis. In modeling approaches a more general description of hydrogen bond geometries, using distance and directionality, is applied. A first study of their geometries was performed based on 15 protein structures in 1982. Currently there are about 95 000 protein-ligand structures available in the PDB, providing a solid foundation for a new large-scale statistical analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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