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Spatial epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#1
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731398/management-of-multiple-meningiomas
#2
Georgios Tsermoulas, Mazda K Turel, Jared T Wilcox, David Shultz, Richard Farb, Gelareh Zadeh, Mark Bernstein
OBJECTIVE Multiple meningiomas account for 1%-10% of meningiomas. This study describes epidemiological aspects of the disease and its management, which is more challenging than for single tumors. METHODS A consecutive series of adult patients with ≥ 2 spatially separated meningiomas was reviewed. Patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 were excluded. The authors collected clinical, imaging, histological, and treatment data to obtain information on epidemiology, management options, and outcomes of active treatment and surveillance...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727786/is-there-a-relationship-between-geographic-distance-and-uptake-of-hiv-testing-services-a-representative-population-based-study-of-chinese-adults-in-guangzhou-china
#3
Wen Chen, Fangjing Zhou, Brian J Hall, Joseph D Tucker, Carl Latkin, Andre M N Renzaho, Li Ling
Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727456/constrained-mixed-effect-models-with-ensemble-learning-for-prediction-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentrations-at-a-high-spatiotemporal-resolution
#4
Lianfa Li, Fred Lurmann, Rima Habre, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Frank Gilliland, Jun Wu
Spatiotemporal models to estimate ambient exposures at high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial in large-scale air pollution epidemiological studies that follow participants over extended periods. Previous models typically rely on central-site monitoring data and/or covered short periods, limiting their applications to long-term cohort studies. Here we developed a spatiotemporal model that can reliably predict nitrogen oxide concentrations with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a long time span (>20 years)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721955/spatiotemporal-clustering-of-dengue-cases-in-thiruvananthapuram-district-kerala
#5
Joanna Sara Valson, Biju Soman
BACKGROUND: Dengue cases are increasing in Kerala since 2010. Information on clustering of cases across locations and time periods is vital for disease surveillance and timely control. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to study spatiotemporal clustering of dengue cases and their climatic and physioenvironmental correlates in Thiruvananthapuram district during 2010-2014. METHODS: Health department data on reported cases of dengue were obtained from January 2011 to June 2014...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720886/spatio-temporal-variations-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fevers-in-zhejiang-province-china-from-2005-to-2015
#6
Hua Gu, Wenjie Fan, Kui Liu, Shuwen Qin, Xiuyang Li, Jianmin Jiang, Enfu Chen, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
Typhoid and paratyphoid are two common enteric infectious diseases with serious gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected of the registered cases in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were investigated and high-risk regions were detected with descriptive epidemiological methods and in-depth spatio-temporal statistics. A sharp decline in the incidences of both diseases was observed. The seasonal patterns were identified with typhoid and paratyphoid, one in summer from May to September was observed from 2005 to 2010 and the other lesser one in spring from January to March only observed from 2005 to 2007...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719306/seasonal-variation-in-the-epidemiology-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-across-two-catchment-areas-in-bongo-district-ghana
#7
Kathryn E Tiedje, Abraham R Oduro, Godfred Agongo, Thomas Anyorigiya, Daniel Azongo, Timothy Awine, Anita Ghansah, Mercedes Pascual, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location, and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry season (P < 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719289/what-is-a-hotspot-anyway
#8
Justin Lessler, Andrew S Azman, Heather S McKay, Sean M Moore
AbstractThe importance of spatial clusters, or "hotspots," in infectious disease epidemiology has been increasingly recognized, and targeting hotspots is often seen as an important component of disease-control strategies. However, the precise meaning of "hotspot" varies widely in current research and policy documents. Hotspots have been variously described as areas of elevated incidence or prevalence, higher transmission efficiency or risk, or higher probability of disease emergence. This ambiguity has led to confusion and may result in mistaken inferences regarding the best way to target interventions...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718884/dispersal-host-genotype-and-environment-shape-the-spatial-dynamics-of-a-parasite-in-the-wild
#9
Adam Ekholm, Tomas Roslin, Pertti Pulkkinen, Ayco Jm Tack
Dispersal, environment and genetic variation may all play a role in shaping host-parasite dynamics. Yet, in natural systems, their relative importance remains unresolved. Here, we do so for the epidemiology of a specialist parasite (Erysiphe alphitoides) on the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). For this purpose, we combine evidence from a multi-year field survey and two dispersal experiments, all conducted at the landscape scale. Patterns detected in the field survey suggest that the parasite is structured as a metapopulation, with trees in denser oak stands characterized by higher parasite occupancy, higher colonization rates and lower extinction rates...
July 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692692/geographic-strain-differentiation-of-schistosoma-japonicum-in-the-philippines-using-microsatellite-markers
#10
Kharleezelle J Moendeg, Jose Ma M Angeles, Ryo Nakao, Lydia R Leonardo, Ian Kendrich C Fontanilla, Yasuyuki Goto, Masashi Kirinoki, Elena A Villacorte, Pilarita T Rivera, Noboru Inoue, Yuichi Chigusa, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
BACKGROUND: Microsatellites have been found to be useful in determining genetic diversities of various medically-important parasites which can be used as basis for an effective disease management and control program. In Asia and Africa, the identification of different geographical strains of Schistosoma japonicum, S. haematobium and S. mansoni as determined through microsatellites could pave the way for a better understanding of the transmission epidemiology of the parasite. Thus, the present study aims to apply microsatellite markers in analyzing the populations of S...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685549/analysis-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-and-its-pathogenic-gene-sequence-based-on-geographic-information-system
#11
Z Tang, X J Xu, X J He, Z S Liang, W B Liang, Y Li, K Gao
This study analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and gene sequences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Guangxi, with the intention of providing a theoretical and technical support for the prevention of HFRS. A map of the incidence of HFRS of different cities in Guangxi was drawn up using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and infection source of HFRS between 2013 and 2016. Guangxi has a low incidence of HFRS, and autumn and winter are the main high-incidence seasons...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680043/molecular-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-cameroon
#12
N F Egbe, A Muwonge, L Ndip, R F Kelly, M Sander, V Tanya, V Ngu Ngwa, I G Handel, A Novak, R Ngandalo, S Mazeri, K L Morgan, A Asuquo, B M de C Bronsvoort
We describe the largest molecular epidemiological study of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in a sub-Saharan African country with higher spatial resolution providing new insights into bTB. Four hundred and ninety-nine samples were collected for culture from 201 and 179 cattle with and without bTB-like lesions respectively out of 2,346 cattle slaughtered at Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs between 2012-2013. Two hundred and fifty-five M. bovis were isolated, identified and genotyped using deletion analysis, Hain® Genotype MTBC, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677479/testing-differences-between-pathogen-compositions-with-small-samples-and-sparse-data
#13
Samuel Soubeyrand, Vincent Garetta, Caroline Monteil, Frederic Suffert, Henriette Goyeau, Julie Berder, Jacques Moinard, Elisabeth Fournier, Didier Bs Tharreau, Cindy Morris, Ivan Sache
The structure of pathogen populations is an important driver of epidemics affecting crops and natural plant communities. Comparing the composition of two pathogen populations consisting of assemblages of genotypes or phenotypes is a crucial, recurrent question encountered in many studies in plant disease epidemiology. Determining if there is a significant difference between two sets of proportions is also a generic question for numerous biological fields. When samples are small and data are sparse, it is not straightforward to provide an accurate answer to this simple question because routine statistical tests may not be exactly calibrated...
July 5, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675880/comparative-analysis-of-spatio-temporal-exposure-assessment-methods-for-estimating-odor-related-responses-in-non-urban-populations
#14
Manuella Lech Cantuaria, Per Løfstrøm, Victoria Blanes-Vidal
The assessment of air pollution exposures in epidemiological studies does not always account for spatio-temporal variability of pollutants concentrations. In the case of odor studies, a common approach is to use yearly averaged odorant exposure estimates with low spatial resolution, which may not capture the spatio-temporal variability of emissions and therefore distort the epidemiological results. This study explores the use of different exposure assessment methods for time-variant ammonia exposures with high spatial resolution, in rural communities exposed to odors from agricultural and livestock farming activities...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673763/demographic-characterization-and-spatial-cluster-analysis-of-human-salmonella-1-4-5-12-i-infections-in-portugal-a-10year-study
#15
R Seixas, T Nunes, J Machado, L Tavares, S P Owen, F Bernardo, M Oliveira
Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- is presently considered one of the major serovars responsible for human salmonellosis worldwide. Due to its recent emergence, studies assessing the demographic characterization and spatial epidemiology of salmonellosis 1,4,[5],12:i:- at local- or country-level are lacking. In this study, a analysis was conducted over a 10year period, from 2000 to the first quarter of 2011 at the Portuguese National Laboratory in Portugal mainland, with a total of 215 Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- serotyped isolates obtained from human infections by a passive surveillance system...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673302/area-level-socioeconomic-deprivation-and-mortality-differentials-in-thailand-results-from-principal-component-analysis-and-cluster-analysis
#16
Suchunya Aungkulanon, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Kenji Shibuya, Kanitta Bundhamcharoen, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
BACKGROUND: Despite achievement of universal health coverage in Thailand, socioeconomic inequality in health has been a major policy concern. This study examined mortality patterns across different socioeconomic strata in Thailand. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Population and Housing Census on area-level socioeconomic deprivation against the 2010 mortality from the vital registration database at the super-district level. We used principal components analysis to construct a socioeconomic deprivation index and K-mean cluster analysis to group socioeconomic status and cause-specific mortality...
July 3, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672831/air-pollution-monitoring-design-for-epidemiological-application-in-a-densely-populated-city
#17
Kyung-Duk Min, Ho-Jang Kwon, KyooSang Kim, Sun-Young Kim
Introduction: Many studies have reported the association between air pollution and human health based on regulatory air pollution monitoring data. However, because regulatory monitoring networks were not designed for epidemiological studies, the collected data may not provide sufficient spatial contrasts for assessing such associations. Our goal was to develop a monitoring design supplementary to the regulatory monitoring network in Seoul, Korea. This design focused on the selection of 20 new monitoring sites to represent the variability in PM2...
June 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670458/the-work-relatedness-at-a-case-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-a-radiation-oncologist
#18
Bong Hyun Kim, Young-Jun Kwon, Young-Su Ju, Bong Kyu Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Sang-Gil Lee, Yun Kyung Chung
BACKGROUND: Clinicians who perform radiation therapy (RT) are exposed to radiation, which may negatively affect their health. The present study reports a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a healthcare provider who was exposed to radiation at work; we also present a literature review of this topic. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old patient, who had been a radiation oncologist and had been exposed to radiation while performing brachytherapy 10 years ago, complained of chest pain and was suspected of having leukemia based on the results of a blood test in an outpatient clinic...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666412/an-integrated-study-of-human-and-animal-infectious-disease-in-the-lake-victoria-crescent-small-holder-crop-livestock-production-system-kenya
#19
Eric M Fèvre, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, Samuel Kariuki, Claire N Wamae
BACKGROUND: The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design and descriptive epidemiological outputs from an integrated study of human and animal zoonotic and non-zoonotic disease in a rural farming community in western Kenya...
June 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662646/effect-of-transmission-intensity-on-hotspots-and-micro-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Polycarp Mogeni, Irene Omedo, Christopher Nyundo, Alice Kamau, Abdisalan Noor, Philip Bejon
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission intensity is heterogeneous, complicating the implementation of malaria control interventions. We provide a description of the spatial micro-epidemiology of symptomatic malaria and asymptomatic parasitaemia in multiple sites. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 studies conducted between 1996 and 2015 in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa with homestead-level geospatial data. Data from each site were used to quantify spatial autocorrelation and examine the temporal stability of hotspots...
June 30, 2017: BMC Medicine
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