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Spatial epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550245/amyloid-burden-in-obstructive-sleep%C3%A2-apnea
#1
Chang-Ho Yun, Ho-Young Lee, Seung Ku Lee, Hyun Kim, Hyung Suk Seo, Seong Ae Bang, Sang Eun Kim, Douglas N Greve, Rhoda Au, Chol Shin, Robert J Thomas
To test the hypothesis that excessive amyloid deposition is a biological link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease, we determined whether OSA increases cerebral amyloid burden, relative to controls, using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging. The subjects were adult participants (age 50-65 years) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Polysomnography, brain MRI including 3D images, and a detailed neuro-cognitive function test battery were done in 2011-2012. Nineteen OSA subjects (Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥15/h, 21...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536863/chemical-exposure-and-infant-leukaemia-development-of-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-aop-for-aetiology-and-risk-assessment-research
#2
REVIEW
Olavi Pelkonen, Andrea Terron, Antonio F Hernandez, Pablo Menendez, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
Infant leukaemia (<1 year old) is a rare disease of an in utero origin at an early phase of foetal development. Rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene producing abnormal fusion proteins are the most frequent genetic/molecular findings in infant B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In small epidemiological studies, mother/foetus exposures to some chemicals including pesticides have been associated with infant leukaemia; however, the strength of evidence and power of these studies are weak at best...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529688/the-prevalence-temporal-and-spatial-trends-in-bulk-tank-equivalent-milk-fat-depression-in-irish-milk-recorded-herds
#3
Catherine I Carty, Alan G Fahey, Morgan R Sheehy, Steve Taylor, Ian J Lean, Conor G McAloon, Luke O'Grady, Finbar J Mulligan
BACKGROUND: Milk fat is important in terms of economic value and in its potential to provide information concerning cow diet and health. Under current milk payment schemes in Ireland farmer income is directly linked to milk fat production. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of milk fat depression (MFD) as calculated from test day milk recording data across all milk recording herds from 2004 to 2014 was undertaken. A dataset of 17 million test day records was used to calculate the prevalence of MFD in Irish milk recorded herds and to create a graphical description of the major descriptive epidemiological trends in milk fat depression in time and space in Ireland...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528742/patterns-of-gun-deaths-across-us-counties-1999-2013
#4
Bindu Kalesan, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: We examined the socio-demographic distribution of gun deaths across 3143 counties in 50 United States' states to understand the spatial patterns and correlates of high and low gun deaths. METHODS: We used aggregate counts of gun deaths and population in all counties from 1999 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We characterized four levels of gun violence, as distinct levels of gun death rates of relatively safe, unsafe, violent, and extremely violent counties, based on quartiles of 15-year county-specific gun death rates per 100,000 and used negative binomial regression models allowing clustering by state to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506288/visualizing-statistical-significance-of-disease-clusters-using-cartograms
#5
Barry J Kronenfeld, David W S Wong
BACKGROUND: Health officials and epidemiological researchers often use maps of disease rates to identify potential disease clusters. Because these maps exaggerate the prominence of low-density districts and hide potential clusters in urban (high-density) areas, many researchers have used density-equalizing maps (cartograms) as a basis for epidemiological mapping. However, we do not have existing guidelines for visual assessment of statistical uncertainty. To address this shortcoming, we develop techniques for visual determination of statistical significance of clusters spanning one or more districts on a cartogram...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502018/evolutionary-processes-in-populations-of-cryptosporidium-inferred-from-gp60-sequence-data
#6
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common human infectious diseases globally. The gp60 gene has been adopted as a key marker for molecular epidemiological investigations into this protozoan disease because of the capability to characterize genotypes and detect variants within Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. However, we know relatively little about the potential spatial and temporal variation in population demography that can be inferred from this gene beyond that it is recognized to be under selective pressure...
May 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499359/cystic-fibrosis-carriership-and-tuberculosis-hints-toward-an-evolutionary-selective-advantage-based-on-data-from-the-brazilian-territory
#7
Lander Bosch, Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck, Tim Nawrot, Isabelle Meyts, Dominique Vanneste, Cleonice Alexandre Le Bourlegat, Julio Croda, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho
BACKGROUND: The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: Applying spatial epidemiology, we studied the link between CF carriership rate and tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil. We corrected for 5 potential environmental and 2 immunological confounders in this relation: monthly income, sanitary provisions, literacy rates, racial composition and population density along with AIDS incidence rates and diabetes mellitus type 2...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499231/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-and-some-cancers-of-unknown-etiology-an-ecological-study
#8
Jesus Gonzalez-Rubio, Enrique Arribas, Raquel Ramirez-Vazquez, Alberto Najera
Simultaneously with the increase of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) in recent decades, there has been increasing concern about their potential relation with the etiology of several tumors. At this time, the techniques of spatial data analysis jointly with the study of the personal exposure to these fields offer a new approach to the problem. This paper presents the results of a preliminary epidemiological study, combining Epidemiology, Statistics and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), in which we analyzed the correlation between exposure to RF-EMF in the city of Albacete (166,000 inhabitants, southeast Spain) and the incidence of several cancers with unspecific causes (lymphomas, and brain tumors)...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498860/genetic-micro-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-papua-indonesia-extensive-p-vivax-diversity-and-a-distinct-subpopulation-of-asymptomatic-p-falciparum-infections
#9
Zuleima Pava, Rintis Noviyanti, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Leily Trianty, Faustina H Burdam, Enny Kenangalem, Retno A S Utami, Yusrifar K Tirta, Farah Coutrier, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt, Sarah Auburn
BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of Plasmodium have potential to inform on transmission dynamics, but few studies have evaluated this on a local spatial scale. We used microsatellite genotyping to characterise the micro-epidemiology of P. vivax and P. falciparum diversity to inform malaria control strategies in Timika, Papua Indonesia. METHODS: Genotyping was undertaken on 713 sympatric P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates from a cross-sectional household survey and clinical studies conducted in Timika...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493872/geographic-distribution-of-vestibular-schwannomas-in-west-scotland-between-2000-2015
#10
Lisa Caulley, Michael Sawada, Kelsey Hinther, Ya-Tung Iris Ko, John A Crowther, Georgios Kontorinis
BACKGROUND: Although the natural history of vestibular schwannomas (VS) has been previously studied, few studies have investigated associated epidemiological factors, primarily because of the lack of large available cohorts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a multi-scale geographical analysis of the period prevalence of VS in West Scotland from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with sporadic VS were identified through the National Health Services of West Scotland database and geocoded to the unit postcode...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486356/epidemiologic-surveillance-of-teenage-birth-rates-in-the-united-states-2006-2012
#11
Raid Amin, Julie Zemaitis Decesare, Jennifer Hans, Kay Roussos-Ross
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the geographic variation in the average teenage birth rates by county in the contiguous United States. METHODS: Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used in this retrospective cohort to count the total number of live births to females aged 15-19 years by county between 2006 and 2012. Software for disease surveillance and spatial cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of high or low teenage births in counties or areas of greater than 100,000 teenage females...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482863/fascioliasis-risk-factors-and-space-time-clusters-in-domestic-ruminants-in-bangladesh
#12
A K M Anisur Rahman, S K Shaheenur Islam, Md Hasanuzzaman Talukder, Md Kumrul Hassan, Navneet K Dhand, Michael P Ward
BACKGROUND: A retrospective observational study was conducted to identify fascioliasis hotspots, clusters, potential risk factors and to map fascioliasis risk in domestic ruminants in Bangladesh. Cases of fascioliasis in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats from all districts in Bangladesh between 2011 and 2013 were identified via secondary surveillance data from the Department of Livestock Services' Epidemiology Unit. From each case report, date of report, species affected and district data were extracted...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481452/hepatitis-b-in-egypt-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-active-infection-from-a-nationwide-survey
#13
Sharif A Ismail, Diego F Cuadros, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: viral hepatitis is a major public health challenge in Egypt but little is known about the epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its geographical distribution, or risk factors for infection in the Egyptian context. This study addresses this deficit using data from a nationally-representative survey. METHODS: cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from men and women aged 15-59 in the Egypt Health Issues Survey (EHIS) 2015, including logistic regression to evaluate the contribution of different factors to risk of HBV infection...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475583/sarcoidosis-in-an-italian-province-prevalence-and-environmental-risk-factors
#14
Deborah Beghè, Luca Dall'Asta, Claudia Garavelli, Augusto Alberto Pastorelli, Marilena Muscarella, Gloria Saccani, Marina Aiello, Ernesto Crisafulli, Massimo Corradi, Paolo Stacchini, Alfredo Chetta, Giuseppina Bertorelli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease whose causes are still unknown and for which epidemiological data are often discordant. The aim of our study is to investigate prevalence and spatial distribution of cases, and identify environmental exposures associated with sarcoidosis in an Italian province. METHODS: After georeferentiation of cases, the area under study was subdivided with respect to Municipality and Health Districts and to the altitude in order to identify zonal differences in prevalence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472697/occurrence-and-fate-of-illicit-drugs-and-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-from-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-costa-rica
#15
Ana Causanilles, Clemens Ruepert, María Ibáñez, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Pim de Voogt
Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central America, Costa Rica, with the aim of extending this knowledge to new world regions. This work is the first to report wastewater-based epidemiological data on the use of illicit drugs in this region of the world. Composite wastewater samples from the influents of two different wastewater treatment facilities and surface water samples from surrounding areas were collected applying the best practice protocol and analysed to investigate the occurrence and fate of selected illicit drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals...
May 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470570/assessing-cyanobacterial-harmful-algal-blooms-as-risk-factors-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Nathan Torbick, Beth Ziniti, Elijah Stommel, Ernst Linder, Angeline Andrew, Tracie Caller, Jim Haney, Walter Bradley, Patricia L Henegan, Xun Shi
Reoccurring seasonal cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) persist in many waters, and recent work has shown links between CHAB and elevated risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Quantifying the exposure levels of CHAB as a potential risk factor for ALS is complicated by human mobility, potential pathways, and data availability. In this work, we develop phycocyanin concentration (i.e., CHAB exposure) maps using satellite remote sensing across northern New England to assess relationships with ALS cases using a spatial epidemiological approach...
May 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468671/assessing-real-time-zika-risk-in-the-united-states
#17
Lauren A Castro, Spencer J Fox, Xi Chen, Kai Liu, Steven E Bellan, Nedialko B Dimitrov, Alison P Galvani, Lauren Ancel Meyers
BACKGROUND: Confirmed local transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) in Texas and Florida have heightened the need for early and accurate indicators of self-sustaining transmission in high risk areas across the southern United States. Given ZIKV's low reporting rates and the geographic variability in suitable conditions, a cluster of reported cases may reflect diverse scenarios, ranging from independent introductions to a self-sustaining local epidemic. METHODS: We present a quantitative framework for real-time ZIKV risk assessment that captures uncertainty in case reporting, importations, and vector-human transmission dynamics...
May 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468266/accessing-disadvantaged-pregnant-women-in-houston-texas-and-characterizing-biomarkers-of-metal-exposure-a-feasibility-study
#18
Kristina W Whitworth, Inkyu Han, Masoud Afshar, Yuan Mei, Pamela D Berens, Shreela V Sharma, Elaine Symanski
Abstract: Communities of color or low socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by metal exposure given spatial variability of the ambient levels of these contaminants. Despite this, there is little research characterizing metal concentrations in blood among disadvantaged populations in the U.S., especially among pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable and difficult to access. Thus, we conducted a pilot study among disadvantaged pregnant women in Houston, Texas to assess willingness to participate in key activities of an epidemiologic study and characterize exposures to 16 metals...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468073/-characteristics-on-the-onset-features-of-scarlet-fever-in-beijing-2006-2015
#19
S S Wu, C N Ma, X M Peng, D T Zhang, Q Y Wang, P Yang
Objective: This study aimed to explore the incidence trends and onset features of scarlet fever during the years of epidemic, from 2006 to 2015, in Beijing. Methods: Spatial, temporal and population distributions, prognosis of the reported cases and surveillance data on scarlet fever and other streptococcal infections (including the patients of streptococcal infection, tonsillitis and isthmitis) were analyzed by the descriptive epidemiological methods. Results: A total of 27 987 scarlet fever cases were reported from 2006 to 2015, with the incidence rates as 7...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461151/mapping-the-distribution-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-mainland-china
#20
Ruo-Xi Sun, Sheng-Jie Lai, Yang Yang, Xin-Lou Li, Kun Liu, Hong-Wu Yao, Hang Zhou, Yu Li, Li-Ping Wang, Di Mu, Wen-Wu Yin, Li-Qun Fang, Hong-Jie Yu, Wu-Chun Cao
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has become an increasing public health threat in recent years, ranging from Europe, through far-eastern Russia to Japan and northern China. However, the neglect of its expansion and scarce analyses of the dynamics have made the overall disease burden and the risk distribution of the disease being unclear in mainland China. In this study, we described epidemiological characteristics of 2117 reported human TBE cases from 2006 to 2013 in mainland China. About 99% of the cases were reported in forest areas of northeastern China, and 93% of reported infections occurred during May-July...
April 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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