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Spatial epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327792/vegetation-loss-and-the-2016-oropouche-fever-outbreak-in-peru
#1
Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Luis E Escobar
BACKGROUND: Oropouche virus causes Oropouche fever, an arboviral disease transmitted mainly by midges of the genus Culicoides and Culex mosquitoes. Clinical presentation of Oropouche fever in humans includes fever, headache, rash, myalgia, and in rare cases spontaneous bleeding and aseptic meningitis. Landscape change has been proposed as a driver of Oropouche fever emergence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the landscape epidemiology of the Oropouche fever outbreak that began in April 2016 in Cusco, Peru...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327632/assessment-of-residential-environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-from-agricultural-fields-in-the-netherlands
#2
Maartje Brouwer, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Jan Duyzer, Henk Kramer, Gerard Hazeu, Geert de Snoo, Anke Huss
We developed a spatio-temporal model for the Netherlands to estimate environmental exposure to individual agricultural pesticides at the residential address for application in a national case-control study on Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on agricultural land use and pesticide use were combined to estimate environmental exposure to pesticides for the period 1961 onwards. Distance categories of 0-50 m, >50-100 m, >100-500 m and >500-1000 m around residences were considered. For illustration purposes, exposure was estimated for the control population (n=607) in the PD case-control study...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320594/epidemiological-survey-of-human-brucellosis-in-inner-mongolia-china-2010-2014-a-high-risk-groups-based-survey
#3
Cao Ning, Guo Shuyi, Yan Tao, Zhu Hao, Xingguang Zhang
Brucellosis, a zoonosis which can seriously harm public health. Inner Mongolia is known as an endemic region of human brucellosis in China. The aim of this study is to present the epidemic of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2014, and to provide the evidence of preventing from brucellosis in endemic areas. The study included 838,956 participants by cluster random sampling from 2010 to 2014. The contents of this study included questionnaire survey and serological testing. The seropositive rate was calculated based on the serological testing results, tested to determine whether the participants were infected by brucellosis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319125/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-gun-violence-in-syracuse-new-york-2009-2015
#4
David A Larsen, Sandra Lane, Timothy Jennings-Bey, Arnett Haygood-El, Kim Brundage, Robert A Rubinstein
Gun violence in the United States of America is a large public health problem that disproportionately affects urban areas. The epidemiology of gun violence reflects various aspects of an infectious disease including spatial and temporal clustering. We examined the spatial and temporal trends of gun violence in Syracuse, New York, a city of 145,000. We used a spatial scan statistic to reveal spatio-temporal clusters of gunshots investigated and corroborated by Syracuse City Police Department for the years 2009-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302261/cities-and-mental-health
#5
Oliver Gruebner, Michael A Rapp, Mazda Adli, Ulrike Kluge, Sandro Galea, Andreas Heinz
BACKGROUND: More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. METHODS: This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. RESULTS: Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas...
February 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296281/understanding-african-swine-fever-infection-dynamics-in-sardinia-using-a-spatially-explicit-transmission-model-in-domestic-pig-farms
#6
L Mur, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, E Fernández-Carrión, C Jurado, S Rolesu, F Feliziani, A Laddomada, B Martínez-López
African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence...
March 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292624/differential-neuropsychological-functioning-between-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-and-without-conduct-disorder
#7
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses...
March 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289255/transmission-dynamics-critical-questions-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics
This article overviews the dynamics of disease transmission in one-host-one-parasite systems. Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a 'transmission triangle'. Multiple transmission modes and their epidemiological consequences are often not understood because the direct measurement of transmission is difficult. However, its different components can be analysed using nonlinear transmission functions, contact matrices and networks. A particular challenge is to develop such functions for spatially extended systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280581/cultural-factors-that-affected-the-spatial-and-temporal-epidemiology-of-kuru
#9
J T Whitfield, W H Pako, J Collinge, M P Alpers
Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278188/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-southern-california-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri-invasion
#10
Brett R Bayles, Shyam M Thomas, Gregory S Simmons, Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell, Mathew P Daugherty
Biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. Characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. In 2008, D. citri first began expanding northward from Mexico into parts of Southern California...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274759/insulin-deficiency-a-possible-link-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#11
Ghazaleh Nameni, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ghazaleh Hajilouian, Parviz Shahabi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies proposed a linear connection between developing dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obesity. Adiposity, insulin resistance and dementia indicated probable mechanistic links in this process. Indeed, it has been known that optimum insulin action in the brain plays critical role in cognitive function; whereas, insulin resistance in obese individuals finally leads to insulin deficiency in central nervous system (CNS) and down regulation of the efficiency of insulin uptake from periphery into CSF...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273217/epidemiology-of-urolithiasis-consultations-in-the-para%C3%A3-ba-valley
#12
Guilherme Ricardo Nunes Silva, Luiz Carlos Maciel
OBJECTIVE: to know the epidemiological profile of patients with urolithiasis in the Paraíba Valley region, identifying its prevalence and spatial distribution. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional study, by residence location in the Paraíba Valley, on morbidity data due to urolithiasis obtained from the DATASUS, covering the period between 2010 and 2012. We aimed at identifying the general, male and female prevalence of urolithiasis, the distribution by age, type of visit, year season and spatial distribution...
December 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270154/pandemics-pathogenicity-and-changing-molecular-epidemiology-of-cholera-in-the-era-of-global-warming
#13
REVIEW
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Zannatun Nur, Nazia Hassan, Lorenz von Seidlein, Susanna Dunachie
BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative, non-spore forming curved rod is found in diverse aquatic ecosystems around the planet. It is classified according to its major surface antigen into around 206 serogroups, of which O1 and O139 cause epidemic cholera. A recent spatial modelling technique estimated that around 2.86 million cholera cases occur globally every year, and of them approximately 95,000 die. About 1.3 billion people are currently at risk of infection from cholera. Meta-analysis and mathematical modelling have demonstrated that due to global warming the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria, leishmaniasis, meningococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, dengue and chikungunya will increase in the coming years in the tropics and beyond...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267769/the-long-term-spatial-temporal-trends-and-burden-of-esophageal-cancer-in-one-high-risk-area-a-population-registered-study-in-feicheng-china
#14
Xiubin Sun, Deli Zhao, Yi Liu, Yunxia Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Jialin Wang, Fuzhong Xue
BACKGROUND: Feicheng County is a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in Shandong province, China. It is important to determine the long-term spatio-temporal trends in epidemiological characteristics and the burden of esophageal cancer, especially since the implementation of the national esophageal cancer screening program for early detection and treatment in 2005. METHODS: The data collected in Feicheng County from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the whole-population cancer registry system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264732/epidemiology-of-escherichia-coli-serogroups-o26-o103-o111-and-o145-in-very-young-bobby-calves-in-the-north-island-new-zealand
#15
H Irshad, A L Cookson, D J Prattley, J Marshall, N P French
The prevalence and spatial distribution of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111 and O145 in calves 70% similarity) using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Mapping of the farms showed the presence of farms positive for O26, O103 and O145 in three important dairy producing regions of the North Island. Calves positive for O103 were more likely to be positive for O26 and vice versa (P = 0·04). Similarly, calves positive for O145 were more likely to be positive for O103 and vice versa (P = 0·03). This study demonstrates that non-O157 E...
March 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260344/-applying-temporally-adjusted-land-use-regression-models-to-estimate-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-during-pregnancy
#16
Y J Zhang, F X Xue, Z P Bai
The impact of maternal air pollution exposure on offspring health has received much attention. Precise and feasible exposure estimation is particularly important for clarifying exposure-response relationships and reducing heterogeneity among studies. Temporally-adjusted land use regression (LUR) models are exposure assessment methods developed in recent years that have the advantage of having high spatial-temporal resolution. Studies on the health effects of outdoor air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been increasingly carried out using this model...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254582/a-cross-sectional-epidemiological-study-of-domestic-animals-related-to-human-leptospirosis-cases-in-nicaragua
#17
Byron J Flores, Tania Pérez-Sánchez, Héctor Fuertes, Jessica Sheleby-Elías, José Luis Múzquiz, William Jirón, Christianne Duttmann, Nabil Halaihel
Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua...
February 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253254/novel-non-invasive-algorithm-to-identify-the-origins-of-re-entry-and-ectopic-foci-in-the-atria-from-64-lead-ecgs-a-computational-study
#18
Erick A Perez Alday, Michael A Colman, Philip Langley, Henggui Zhang
Atrial tachy-arrhytmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), are characterised by irregular electrical activity in the atria, generally associated with erratic excitation underlain by re-entrant scroll waves, fibrillatory conduction of multiple wavelets or rapid focal activity. Epidemiological studies have shown an increase in AF prevalence in the developed world associated with an ageing society, highlighting the need for effective treatment options. Catheter ablation therapy, commonly used in the treatment of AF, requires spatial information on atrial electrical excitation...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244744/land-use-regression-models-for-ultrafine-particles-in-six-european-areas
#19
Erik van Nunen, Roel Vermeulen, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Alex Ineichen, Mark Davey, Medea Imboden, Regina Ducret-Stich, Alessio Naccarati, Daniela Raffaele, Andrea Ranzi, Cristiana Ivaldi, Claudia Galassi, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ariadna Curto, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Marta Cirach, Leda Chatzi, Mariza Kampouri, Jelle Vlaanderen, Kees Meliefste, Daan Buijtenhuijs, Bert Brunekreef, David Morley, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Gerard Hoek
Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244241/folate-receptors-and-neural-tube-closure
#20
REVIEW
Hirotomo Saitsu
Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most common human congenital malformations, affecting 0.5-8/1000 of live births. Human clinical trials have shown that periconceptional folate supplementation significantly decreases the occurrence of NTD in offspring. However, the mechanism by which folate acts on NTD remains largely unknown. Folate receptor (Folr) is one of the three membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of folates. Recent studies suggest that mouse Folr1 (formerly referred to as Fbp1) is essential for neural tube closure...
February 28, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
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