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Spatial epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#1
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811483/the-impact-of-human-population-pressure-on-flying-fox-niches-and-the-potential-consequences-for-hendra-virus-spillover
#2
Michael G Walsh, Anke Wiethoelter, M A Haseeb
Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging pathogen of concern in Australia given its ability to spillover from its reservoir host, pteropid bats, to horses and further on to humans, and the severe clinical presentation typical in these latter incidental hosts. Specific human pressures over recent decades, such as expanding human populations, urbanization, and forest fragmentation, may have altered the ecological niche of Pteropus species acting as natural HeV reservoirs and may modulate spillover risk. This study explored the influence of inter-decadal net human local migration between 1970 and 2000 on changes in the habitat suitability to P...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808240/micro-epidemiology-and-spatial-heterogeneity-of-p-vivax-parasitaemia-in-riverine-communities-of-the-peruvian-amazon-a-multilevel-analysis
#3
Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Dionicia Gamboa, Marcia C Castro, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Hugo Rodriguez, Juan Contreras-Mancilla, Freddy Alava, Niko Speybroeck, Andres G Lescano, Joseph M Vinetz, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
Malaria has steadily increased in the Peruvian Amazon over the last five years. This study aimed to determine the parasite prevalence and micro-geographical heterogeneity of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Four cross-sectional active case detection surveys were conducted between May and July 2015 in four riverine communities in Mazan district. Analysis of 2785 samples of 820 individuals nested within 154 households for Plasmodium parasitaemia was carried out using light microscopy and qPCR...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806916/assessment-of-tuberculosis-spatial-hotspot-areas-in-antananarivo-madagascar-by-combining-spatial-analysis-and-genotyping
#4
Noël Harijaona Ratovonirina, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Solohery Lalaina Razafimahatratra, Mamy Serge Raherison, Guislaine Refrégier, Christophe Sola, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in Madagascar. A crucial element of TB control is the development of an easy and rapid method for the orientation of TB control strategies in the country. Our main objective was to develop a TB spatial hotspot identification method by combining spatial analysis and TB genotyping method in Antananarivo. METHODS: Sputa of new pulmonary TB cases from 20 TB diagnosis and treatment centers (DTCs) in Antananarivo were collected from August 2013 to May 2014 for culture...
August 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798313/spatial-disease-dynamics-of-free-living-pathogens-under-pathogen-predation
#5
Tommi Mononen, Lasse Ruokolainen
The epidemiological dynamics of potentially free-living pathogens are often studied with respect to a specific pathogen species (e.g., cholera) and most studies concentrate only on host-pathogen interactions. Here we show that metacommunity-level interactions can alter conventional spatial disease dynamics. We introduce a pathogen eating consumer species and investigate a deterministic epidemiological model of two habitat patches, where both patches can be occupied by hosts, pathogens, and consumers of free-living pathogens...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794221/revised-time-scales-of-rna-virus-evolution-based-on-spatial-information
#6
Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber de Melo, Rainer G Ulrich, Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographical information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of two European hantaviruses are severely underestimated because of pervasive mutational saturation of nucleotide sequences...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793901/mobility-assessment-of-a-rural-population-in-the-netherlands-using-gps-measurements
#7
Gijs Klous, Lidwien A M Smit, Floor Borlée, Roel A Coutinho, Mirjam E E Kretzschmar, Dick J J Heederik, Anke Huss
BACKGROUND: The home address is a common spatial proxy for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies but mobility may introduce exposure misclassification. Mobility can be assessed using self-reports or objectively measured using GPS logging but self-reports may not assess the same information as measured mobility. We aimed to assess mobility patterns of a rural population in the Netherlands using GPS measurements and self-reports and to compare GPS measured to self-reported data, and to evaluate correlates of differences in mobility patterns...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770215/novel-methods-in-disease-biogeography-a-case-study-with-heterosporosis
#8
Luis E Escobar, Huijie Qiao, Christine Lee, Nicholas B D Phelps
Disease biogeography is currently a promising field to complement epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling theory and methods are a key component. Therefore, applying the concepts and tools from ecological niche modeling to disease biogeography and epidemiology will provide biologically sound and analytically robust descriptive and predictive analyses of disease distributions. As a case study, we explored the ecologically important fish disease Heterosporosis, a relatively poorly understood disease caused by the intracellular microsporidian parasite Heterosporis sutherlandae...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763391/spatial-surveillance-of-childhood-lead-exposure-in-a-targeted-screening-state-an-application-of-generalized-additive-models-in-denver-colorado
#9
Kevin Berg, Stephanie Kuhn, Mike Van Dyke
CONTEXT: The targeted nature of Colorado's childhood lead screening program presents several analytical issues that complicate routine epidemiologic surveillance. OBJECTIVES: To analyze spatial patterns of childhood lead exposure among children younger than 6 years, identifying areas of increased risk along with associated covariates. METHODS: We analyzed a spatial case-control data set of childhood lead poisoning using generalized additive models...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760945/inactivation-of-nitric-oxide-synthesis-exacerbates-the-development-of-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-appps1-mice-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1
#10
Diana Cifuentes, Marine Poittevin, Philippe Bonnin, Anta Ngkelo, Nathalie Kubis, Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Bernard I Lévy
The epidemiological link between hypertension and Alzheimer disease is established. We previously reported that hypertension aggravates the Alzheimer-like pathology in APPPS1 mice (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1, mouse model of Alzheimer disease) with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, in relation with hypertension and nitric oxide deficiency. To provide further insights into the role of nitric oxide in the hypertension-Alzheimer disease cross-talk, we studied the effects of nitric oxide blockade in APPPS1 mice using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) alone or in combination with hydralazine, to normalize blood pressure...
July 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760266/comparing-multilevel-and-multiscale-convolution-models-for-small-area-aggregated-health-data
#11
Mehreteab Aregay, Andrew B Lawson, Christel Faes, Russell S Kirby, Rachel Carroll, Kevin Watjou
In spatial epidemiology, data are often arrayed hierarchically. The classification of individuals into smaller units, which in turn are grouped into larger units, can induce contextual effects. On the other hand, a scaling effect can occur due to the aggregation of data from smaller units into larger units. In this paper, we propose a shared multilevel model to address the contextual effects. In addition, we consider a shared multiscale model to adjust for both scale and contextual effects simultaneously. We also study convolution and independent multiscale models, which are special cases of shared multilevel and shared multiscale models, respectively...
August 2017: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756447/a-spatial-dashboard-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-new-south-wales
#12
Hamish Robertson, Nick Nicholas, Amit Dhagat, Joanne Travaglia
This paper illustrates a proof of concept scenario for the application of comprehensive data visualisation methods in the rapidly changing aged care sector. The scenario we explored is population ageing and the dementias with an emphasis on the spatial effects of change over time at the Statistical Area 2 (SA2) level for the state of New South Wales. We did this using a combination of methods, culminating in the use of the Tableau software environment to explore the intersections of demography, epidemiology and their formal cost of care implications...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750032/spatial-characteristics-and-the-epidemiology-of-human-infections-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-five-waves-from-2013-to-2017-in-zhejiang-province-china
#13
Haocheng Wu, XinYi Wang, Ming Xue, Melanie Xue, Chen Wu, Qinbao Lu, Zheyuan Ding, Xiaoping Xv, Junfen Lin
BACKGROUND: The five-wave epidemic of H7N9 in China emerged in the second half of 2016. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics among the five waves, estimating the possible infected cases and inferring the extent of the possible epidemic in the areas that have not reported cases before. METHODS: The data for the H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017 was obtained from the China Information Network System of Disease Prevention and Control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746354/spatio-temporal-epidemiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-in-nepal-2007-2015
#14
Dhan Kumar Pant, Tenzin Tenzin, Rakesh Chand, Barun Kumar Sharma, Padam Raj Bist
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health problem in Nepal. For the effective management and surveillance of JE, a clear understanding of its epidemiology is essential. Therefore, we conducted descriptive and spatial analyses to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of JE in human in Nepal. From 2007 to 2015, 1,823 JE cases were reported with a cumulative mean incidence of 0.735/100,000 population and a case fatality rate of 6.6%. The death rate in the up-to-24 years of age group was 74%. The JE cases were most commonly reported in the age group of 1-14 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738782/space-and-space-time-distributions-of-dengue-in-a-hyper-endemic-urban-space-the-case-of-girardot-colombia
#15
Mauricio Fuentes-Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a widely spread vector-borne disease. Dengue cases in the Americas have increased over the last few decades, affecting various urban spaces throughout these continents, including the tourism-oriented city of Girardot, Colombia. Interactions among mosquitoes, pathogens and humans have recently been examined using different temporal and spatial scales in attempts to determine the roles that social and ecological systems play in dengue transmission. The current work characterizes the spatial and temporal behaviours of dengue in Girardot and discusses the potential territorial dynamics related to the distribution of this disease...
July 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#16
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731398/management-of-multiple-meningiomas
#17
Georgios Tsermoulas, Mazda K Turel, Jared T Wilcox, David Shultz, Richard Farb, Gelareh Zadeh, Mark Bernstein
OBJECTIVE Multiple meningiomas account for 1%-10% of meningiomas. This study describes epidemiological aspects of the disease and its management, which is more challenging than for single tumors. METHODS A consecutive series of adult patients with ≥ 2 spatially separated meningiomas was reviewed. Patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 were excluded. The authors collected clinical, imaging, histological, and treatment data to obtain information on epidemiology, management options, and outcomes of active treatment and surveillance...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727786/is-there-a-relationship-between-geographic-distance-and-uptake-of-hiv-testing-services-a-representative-population-based-study-of-chinese-adults-in-guangzhou-china
#18
Wen Chen, Fangjing Zhou, Brian J Hall, Joseph D Tucker, Carl Latkin, Andre M N Renzaho, Li Ling
Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727456/constrained-mixed-effect-models-with-ensemble-learning-for-prediction-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentrations-at-high-spatiotemporal-resolution
#19
Lianfa Li, Fred Lurmann, Rima Habre, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Frank D Gilliland, Jun Wu
Spatiotemporal models to estimate ambient exposures at high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial in large-scale air pollution epidemiological studies that follow participants over extended periods. Previous models typically rely on central-site monitoring data and/or covered short periods, limiting their applications to long-term cohort studies. Here we developed a spatiotemporal model that can reliably predict nitrogen oxide concentrations with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a long time span (>20 years)...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721955/spatiotemporal-clustering-of-dengue-cases-in-thiruvananthapuram-district-kerala
#20
Joanna Sara Valson, Biju Soman
BACKGROUND: Dengue cases are increasing in Kerala since 2010. Information on clustering of cases across locations and time periods is vital for disease surveillance and timely control. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to study spatiotemporal clustering of dengue cases and their climatic and physioenvironmental correlates in Thiruvananthapuram district during 2010-2014. METHODS: Health department data on reported cases of dengue were obtained from January 2011 to June 2014...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
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