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Spatial epidemiology

Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Tao Xue, Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) on sperm quality and oocyte fertilization have been identified by previous research. However, insufficient human studies tested associations between PM2.5 and decreased fertility rates. METHODS: We associated long-term exposure to PM2.5 and county-level fertility rates reported by 2010 census across China. Exposure assessments were based on PM2.5 maps (2009-2010) with a spatial resolution of 0.1° derived from satellite remote sensing data from another published study...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
A D Garrido Haro, M Barrera Valle, A Acosta, F J Flores
Classic swine fever virus (CSFV) is a Pestivirus from the Flaviviridae family that affects pigs worldwide and is endemic in several Latin American countries. However, there are still some countries in the region, including Ecuador, for which CSFV molecular information is lacking. To better understand the epidemiology of CSFV in the Americas, sequences from CSFVs from Ecuador were generated and a phylodynamic analysis of the virus was performed. Sequences for the full-length glycoprotein E2 gene of twenty field isolates were obtained and, along with sequences from strains previously described in the Americas and from the most representative strains worldwide, were used to analyse the phylodynamics of the virus...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Ignacio Blanco, Isidro Diego, Patricia Bueno, Eloy Fernández, Francisco Casas-Maldonado, Cristina Esquinas, Joan B Soriano, Marc Miravitlles
Existing data on COPD prevalence are limited or totally lacking in many regions of Europe. The geographic information system inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique has proved to be an effective tool in spatial distribution estimation of epidemiological variables, when real data are few and widely separated. Therefore, in order to represent cartographically the prevalence of COPD in Europe, an IDW interpolation mapping was performed. The point prevalence data provided by 62 studies from 19 countries (21 from 5 Northern European countries, 11 from 3 Western European countries, 14 from 5 Central European countries, and 16 from 6 Southern European countries) were identified using validated spirometric criteria...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jeanette M Reyes, Heidi F Hubbard, Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Marc L Serre
Currently in the United States there are no regulatory standards for ambient concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of organic compounds with known carcinogenic species. As such, monitoring data are not routinely collected resulting in limited exposure mapping and epidemiologic studies. This work develops the log-mass fraction (LMF) Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) geostatistical prediction method used to predict the concentration of nine particle-bound PAHs across the US state of North Carolina...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Harindra D Sathkumara, Adam J Merritt, Enoka M Corea, Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Mohan Natesan, Timothy J J Inglis, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed additional associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ2 = 3...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Duong Le Quyen, Nguyen Thanh Le, Cao Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Binh Nguyen, Dong Van Hoang, Jacqui L Montgomery, Simon C Kutcher, Nguyen Hoang Le, Nguyen Tran Hien, Duong Thi Hue Kien, Maia Rabaa, Scott L O'Neill, Cameron P Simmons, Dang Duc Anh, Katherine L Anders
Vietnam is endemic for dengue. We conducted a series of retrospective and prospective studies to characterize the epidemiology of dengue and population mobility patterns in Nha Trang city, Vietnam, with a view to rational design of trials of community-level interventions. A 10-year time series of dengue case notifications showed pronounced interannual variability, as well as spatial heterogeneity in ward-level dengue incidence (median annual coefficient of variation k = 0.47). Of 451 children aged 1-10 years enrolled in a cross-sectional serosurvey, almost one-third had evidence of a past dengue virus (DENV) infection, with older children more likely to have a multitypic response indicative of past exposure to ≥ 1 serotype...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jeffrey R Brook, Eleanor M Setton, Evan Seed, Mahdi Shooshtari, Dany Doiron
BACKGROUND: Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Viktória Čabanová, Martina Miterpáková, Michal Druga, Zuzana Hurníková, Daniela Valentová
Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Simon Pollett, Nidia S Trovão, Yi Tan, John-Sebastian Eden, Rebecca A Halpin, Jayati Bera, Suman R Das, David Wentworth, Victor Ocaña, Silvia M Mendocilla, Carlos Álvarez, Maria E Calisto, Josefina Garcia, Eric Halsey, Julia S Ampuero, Martha I Nelson, Mariana Leguia
The transmission dynamics of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in tropical countries remain unclear. We examined the spatial patterns of HMPV in three ecologically diverse Peruvian locales (Lima, Iquitos and Piura) through phylogenetic analysis of 61 complete genomes, which revealed extensive genetic diversity generated by frequent viral introductions, with little evidence of local persistence. While considerable viral traffic between non-Peruvian countries and Peru was observed, HMPV epidemics in Peruvian locales were more frequently epidemiologically linked with other sites within Peru...
December 29, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Philipp Justus Bless, Claudia Schmutz, Kathrin Sartori, Daniel Mäusezahl
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are important foodborne diseases in Europe, including in Switzerland. In 2014, notification rates for Switzerland were 92.9 per 100 000 population for campylobacteriosis and 15.2 per 100 000 population for salmonellosis. These notification rates originate from laboratory-based surveillance whereby positive test results are reported to the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases. Consequently, notification rates do not directly correspond to the disease burden among the population as the number of positive tests depends on patients' healthcare-seeking behaviour, stool sampling rates and other factors...
December 28, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Ana M Mejía-Jaramillo
Animal Trypanosomiasis (AT) is one of the most important problems in the Colombian livestock industry reducing its production around 30%. Caribbean and Orinoquia regions play a significant role in the development of this industry, having about 6.9 million cattle and 113,000 buffaloes. Considering the paucity in studies to understand the epidemiological features and control of AT in Colombia, the present study reports the seasonal transmission patterns and phylogeographic traits of the causal agents of AT in cattle and buffaloes from these regions...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
P A Farazi, S Watanabe-Galloway, L Westman, B Rettig, P Hunt, R Cammack, J W Sparks, D W Coulter
BACKGROUND: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) revealed that the incidence of pediatric cancer in Nebraska exceeded the national average during 2009-2013. Further investigation could help understand these patterns. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study investigated pediatric cancer (0-19 years old) age adjusted incidence rates (AAR) in Nebraska using the Nebraska Cancer Registry. SEER AARs were also calculated as a proxy for pediatric cancer incidence in the United States (1990-2013) and compared to the Nebraska data...
December 23, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Gladys Mosomtai, Magnus Evander, Charles Mundia, Per Sandström, Clas Ahlm, Osama Ahmed Hassan, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Moses K Gachari, Tobias Landmann, Rosemary Sang
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. It is caused by RVF virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. The data presented in this article propose environmental layers suitable for mapping RVF vector habitat zones and livestock migratory routes. Using species distribution modelling, we used RVF vector occurrence data sampled along livestock migratory routes to identify suitable vector habitats within the study region which is located in the central and the north-eastern part of Kenya...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Kirstyn Brunker, Philippe Lemey, Denise A Marston, Anthony R Fooks, Ahmed Lugelo, Chanasa Ngeleja, Katie Hampson, Roman Biek
Landscape heterogeneity plays an important role in disease spread and persistence but quantifying landscape influences and their scale-dependence is challenging. Studies have focused on how environmental features or global transport networks influence pathogen invasion and spread, but their influence on local transmission dynamics that underpin the persistence of endemic diseases remains unexplored. Bayesian phylogeographic frameworks that incorporate spatial heterogeneities are promising tools for analysing linked epidemiological, environmental and genetic data...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Joseph K Maina, Peter M Macharia, Paul O Ouma, Robert W Snow, Emelda A Okiro
BACKGROUND: Following the launch of District Health Information System 2 across facilities in Kenya, more health facilities are now capable of carrying out malaria parasitological testing and reporting data as part of routine health information systems, improving the potential value of routine data for accurate and timely tracking of rapidly changing disease epidemiology at fine spatial resolutions. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the current coverage and completeness of reported malaria parasitological testing data in DHIS2 specifically looking at patterns in geographic coverage of public health facilities in Kenya...
2017: Global Health Action
Julio Alvarez, Tory Whitten, Adam J Branscum, Teresa Garcia-Seco, Jeff B Bender, Joni Scheftel, Andres Perez
Q fever is a widely distributed, yet, neglected zoonotic disease, for which domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoirs in some countries. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of its epidemiology, and the source of sporadic cases is often not determined. In this study, we show how Q fever surveillance data in combination with information routinely collected by government agencies in Minnesota during 1997 to 2015 can be used to characterize patterns of occurrence of Q fever illnesses and detect variables potentially associated with increased human illness...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Zhuanzhuan Liu, Zhenhong Zhang, Zetian Lai, Tengfei Zhou, Zhirong Jia, Jinbao Gu, Kun Wu, Xiao-Guang Chen
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that has been an epidemic in China for many years. Aedes albopictus is the dominant Aedes mosquito species and the main vector of dengue in China. Epidemiologically, dengue mainly occurs in Guangdong Province; it does not occur or rarely occurs in other areas of mainland China. This distribution may be associated with climate, mosquito density, and other factors in different regions; however, the effect of temperature on the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for dengue viruses (DENV) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Saif Eddine Djemal, Mariam Siala, Salma Smaoui, Sana Kammoun, Chema Marouane, Javier Bezos, Feriele Messadi-Akrout, Beatriz Romero, Radhouane Gdoura
BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of M. bovis in Tunisia is still underestimated despite the implementation of an eradication program. The lack of data about spatial distribution of the M. bovis population hinders the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) progress. This study represents the largest molecular analysis of M. bovis isolates in Tunisia. It is aimed to upgrade the understanding of bTB epidemiology and the geographical distribution of the infection. Tuberculosis research was performed in cattle (n = 149) with TB-compatible lesions collected over 5 months from a slaughterhouse located in Sfax, Tunisia...
December 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Amanda N B Fontes, Luana N G C Lima, Rosa M S Mota, Rosa L F Almeida, Maria A Pontes, Heitor de S Gonçalves, Cristiane C Frota, Varalakshmi D Vissa, Patrick J Brennan, Ricardo J P S Guimaraes, Carl Kendall, Ligia R F S Kerr, Philip N Suffys
Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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