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Spatial epidemiology

Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Thet Thet Mu, Aye Aye Sein, Tint Tint Kyi, Myo Min, Ne Myo Aung, Nicholas M Anstey, Myat Phone Kyaw, Chit Soe, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: There has been an impressive recent reduction in the global incidence of malaria, but the development of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Region threatens this progress. Increasing artemisinin resistance is particularly important in Myanmar, as it is the country in the Greater Mekong Region with the greatest malaria burden. If malaria is to be eliminated in the region, it is essential to define the spatial and temporal epidemiology of the disease in Myanmar to inform control strategies optimally...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Laura Mosimann, Abdallah Traoré, Stephanie Mauti, Monique Léchenne, Brigit Obrist, René Véron, Jan Hattendorf, Jakob Zinsstag
In the framework of the research network on integrated control of zoonoses in Africa (ICONZ) a dog rabies mass vaccination campaign was carried out in two communes of Bamako (Mali) in September 2014. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative tools, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention towards optimization for future scale-up. Actions to control rabies occur on one level in households when individuals take the decision to vaccinate their dogs. However, control also depends on provision of vaccination services and community participation at the intermediate level of social resilience...
October 14, 2016: Acta Tropica
Félix Hernández, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Christoph Ort, Malcolm Reid, Juan V Sancho, Kevin V Thomas, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Ettore Zuccato, Lubertus Bijlsma
The analysis of illicit drugs in urban wastewater is the basis of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and has received much scientific attention because the concentrations measured can be used as a new non-intrusive tool to provide evidence-based and real-time estimates of community-wide drug consumption. Moreover, WBE allows monitoring patterns and spatial and temporal trends of drug use. Although information and expertise from other disciplines is required to refine and effectively apply WBE, analytical chemistry is the fundamental driver in this field...
October 17, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Ulrich Nübel
Driven by progress of DNA sequencing technologies, recent population genomics studies have revealed that several bacterial pathogens constitute 'measurably evolving populations'. As a consequence, it was possible to reconstruct the emergence and spatial spread of drug-resistant bacteria on the basis of temporally structured samples of bacterial genome sequences. Based on currently available data, some general inferences can be drawn across different bacterial species as follows: (1) Resistance to various antibiotics evolved years to decades earlier than had been anticipated on the basis of epidemiological surveillance data alone...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Maike Tahden, Juliane Manitz, Klaus Baumgardt, Gerhard Fell, Thomas Kneib, Guido Hegasy
In 2011, a large outbreak of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in Germany. The City of Hamburg was the first focus of the epidemic and had the highest incidences among all 16 Federal States of Germany. In this article, we present epidemiological characteristics of the Hamburg notification data. Evaluating the epicurves retrospectively, we found that the first epidemiological signal of the outbreak, which was in form of a HUS case cluster, was received by local health authorities when already 99 EHEC and 48 HUS patients had experienced their first symptoms...
2016: PloS One
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Felix Eckstein, Robert Buck, Wolfgang Wirth
OBJECTIVE: The metric accepted by regulatory bodies for determining structural progression in clinical trials of knee osteoarthritis (OA) remains change in radiographic joint space width in the medial femorotibial compartment. However, magnetic resonance imaging has revealed that cartilage loss is spatially heterogeneous, and that it is enigmatic which knee will lose cartilage at which location. Whereas previous reviews have focused on imaging in general, the purpose of this particular perspective is to highlight availability and applications of location-independent analysis methodology in measuring structural progression in epidemiological and interventional clinical trials, and to highlight its specific advantages over existing methodologies...
August 26, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Peter M Atkinson, Claire N Wamae, Eric M Fèvre
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hong Zhu, Shun-Xiang Cai, Jian-Bing Liu, Zu-Wu Tu, Jing Xia, Xiao-Wei Shan, Juan Qiu, Yong Jiang, Ying Xiao, Li Tang, Xi-Bao Huang
BACKGROUND: The province of Hubei is located in the middle of China, near the middle and lower reaches of the River Yangtze, and is an area where schistosomiasis is endemic. It is challenging to control this disease in this environment, and it would be useful to identify clusters of infection and transmission, as well as their distributions during recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in Hubei, in order to facilitate the effective control and elimination of this disease...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Weerapong Thanapongtharm, Catherine Linard, Pornpiroon Chinson, Suwicha Kasemsuwan, Marjolein Visser, Andrea E Gaughan, Michael Epprech, Timothy P Robinson, Marius Gilbert
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census...
October 6, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Maria Luisa Danzetta, Rossana Bruno, Francesca Sauro, Lara Savini, Paolo Calistri
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the most important zoonotic Transboundary Animal Diseases able to cross international borders and cause devastating effect on animal health and food security. Climate changes and the presence of competent vectors in the most of the current RVF-free temperate countries strongly support the inclusion of RVF virus (RVFV) among the most significant emerging viral threats for public and animal health. The transmission of RVFV is driven by complex eco-climatic factors making the epidemiology of RVF infection difficult to study and to understand...
September 11, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Oscar Daniel Salomón, Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo, María Soledad Santini, Domingo Javier Liotta, Zaida Estela Yadón
A retrospective analytical method is presented, based on theoretical eco-epidemiology, applied on a subnational spatial scale. This method was used here to describe scenarios for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the Argentine province of Misiones- bordering Brazil and Paraguay-and formed the basis for recommendations for surveillance and control appropriate to the subnational scale. An exhaustive search of the literature on leishmaniasis in the province was carried out. Three scenarios for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were found, corresponding to three periods: from 1920 to 1997, during which the transmission of CL distributed over time and space was confirmed; 1998 to 2005, during which there were focal outbreaks of CL; and 2006 to 2014, during which outbreaks were also reported and the geographical dispersion of VL was documented...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Francine Baumann, Michele Carbone
Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Jorge A Falcón-Lezama, Ruth A Martínez-Vega, Pablo A Kuri-Morales, José Ramos-Castañeda, Ben Adams
Dengue is a growing public health problem in tropical and subtropical cities. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, and the main strategy for epidemic prevention and control is insecticide fumigation. Effective management is, however, proving elusive. People's day-to-day movement about the city is believed to be an important factor in the epidemiological dynamics. We use a simple model to examine the fundamental roles of broad demographic and spatial structures in epidemic initiation, growth and control. We show that the key factors are local dilution, characterised by the vector-host ratio, and spatial connectivity, characterised by the extent of habitually variable movement patterns...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Emma Gracia-Lor, Ettore Zuccato, Sara Castiglioni
The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Brian P Yurk
The dispersal patterns of animals moving through heterogeneous environments have important ecological and epidemiological consequences. In this work, we apply the method of homogenization to analyze an advection-diffusion (AD) model of directed movement in a one-dimensional environment in which the scale of the heterogeneity is small relative to the spatial scale of interest. We show that the large (slow) scale behavior is described by a constant-coefficient diffusion equation under certain assumptions about the fast-scale advection velocity, and we determine a formula for the slow-scale diffusion coefficient in terms of the fast-scale parameters...
September 27, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
M Cordioli, C Pironi, E De Munari, N Marmiroli, P Lauriola, A Ranzi
The epidemiological research benefits from an accurate characterization of both spatial and temporal variability of exposure to air pollution. This work aims at proposing a method to combine the high spatial resolution of Land Use Regression (LUR) models with the high temporal resolution of fixed site monitoring data, to model spatiotemporal variability of NO2 over a wide geographical area in Northern Italy. We developed seasonal LUR models to reconstruct the spatial distribution of a scaling factor that relates local concentrations to those measured at two reference central sites, one for the northern flat area and one for the southern mountain area...
September 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maria Cristina Monti, Davide Guido, Cristina Montomoli, Claudia Sardu, Alessandro Sanna, Salvatore Pretti, Lorena Lorefice, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Paolo Valera, Eleonora Cocco
BACKGROUND: South-Western Sardinia (SWS) is a high risk area for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with high prevalence and spatial clustering; its population is genetically representative of Sardinians and presents a peculiar environment. We evaluated the MS environmental risk of specific heavy metals (HM) and geographical factors such as solar UV exposure and urbanization by undertaking a population-based cross-sectional study in SWS. METHODS: Geochemical data on HM, UV exposure, urbanization and epidemiological MS data were available for all SWS municipalities...
2016: PloS One
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