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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329999/understanding-melanocortin-4-receptor-control-of-neuronal-circuits-toward-novel-therapeutics-for-obesity-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Sang Hyeon Ju, Gyu-Bon Cho, Jong-Woo Sohn
It is well known that melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) and central melanocortin pathways regulate food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis. Importantly, MC4R deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of human obesity. Interestingly, MC4Rs expressed by distinct central nuclei are responsible for the different physiological function of MC4R stimulation. In addition, MC4Rs activate multiple intracellular and/or synaptic signaling molecules for the regulation of neuronal circuits. Therefore, MC4Rs and the downstream signal molecules are plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics against obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#2
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306560/treatment-of-growth-failure-in-the-absence-of-gh-signaling-the-ecuadorian-experience
#3
Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Alexandra Guevara, Carolina Guevara
Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) treatment studies of growth failure in absence of growth hormone (GH) signaling (GH insensitivity -GHI, Laron syndrome -LS, GH Receptor deficiency -GHRD) have taken place in many locations around the globe. Results from these trials are comparable, and slight differences reported can be attributed to specific circumstances at different research sites. rhIGF-I treatment studies of GHI in Ecuador included various trials performed on children belonging to the largest and only homogeneous cohort of subjects with this condition in the world...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299210/cost-effectiveness-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment-centers-in-prevention-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
Sirus Pourkhajoei, Mohsen Barouni, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Saeed Amini, Mohammad Karamouzian, Hamid Sharifi
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the greatest social health problems in many communities in the twenty-first century. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could decrease HIV infection among injection drug users (IDU). The main aim of this paper was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the governmental MMT program to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among IDU. Methods: This analytical study was performed through a before-after assessment during a one-year period...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283154/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-associated-with-anaemia-secondary-to-antiretroviral-drug-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patient
#5
J Vijay Ananth, S Sudharshan, Ambika Selvakumar, Bella J Devaleenal, Kavitha Kalaivani, Jyotirmay Biswas
Papilledema in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is an alarming finding. Any condition giving rise to raised intracranial tension (ICT) can cause papilledema, and in these patients, it could be secondary to opportunistic infections like meningitis to neoplasm. We report a case of a 28-year old female with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, who presented to us, with papilledema. Her fundus examination revealed superficial hemorrhages and Roth's spots along with papilledema...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250325/modern-biotechnology-based-therapeutic-approaches-against-hiv-infection
#6
Muhammad Imran, Yasir Waheed, Ayesha Ghazal, Sajjad Ullah, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhsin Jamal, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Imran, Farman Ullah
The causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since its discovery before 30 years, a number of drugs known as highly active antiretroviral therapy have been developed to suppress the life cycle of the virus at different stages. With the current therapeutic approaches, ending AIDS means providing treatment to 35 million individuals living with HIV for the rest of their lives or until a cure is developed. Additionally, therapy is associated with various other challenges such as potential of drug resistance, toxicity and presence of latent viral reservoir...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#7
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185916/drug-drug-interactions-in-cocaine-users-and-their-clinical-implications
#8
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maria Cristina Caroleo
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can induce development of adverse drug reactions or reduce clinical efficacy of the drugs. In this review, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library we searched articles published until January 10, 2017, and described both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. In this review, the nodal points treated focused on: i) cocaine biochemical metabolism described for both, inactive benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl esters and norcocaine active metabolites...
September 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181236/machine-learning-to-improve-the-effectiveness-of-anrs-in-predicting-hiv-drug-resistance
#9
Yashik Singh
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the major burdens of disease in developing countries, and the standard-of-care treatment includes prescribing antiretroviral drugs. However, antiretroviral drug resistance is inevitable due to selective pressure associated with the high mutation rate of HIV. Determining antiretroviral resistance can be done by phenotypic laboratory tests or by computer-based interpretation algorithms...
October 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093230/sero-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-in-papua-province-indonesia
#11
Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar, Tomohiro Kotaki, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Meilani Meilani, Tigor Yeheskiel, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and affect the Indonesian economy. Papua province has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the country; however, epidemiological data are limited. Therefore, in order to reveal the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province, sero- and molecular epidemiological studies of HIV were conducted. METHODS: serological tests were conducted on 157 healthy individuals from the general population residing in Paniai, Papua...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060439/design-of-an-mhealth-system-for-maternal-and-children-hiv-care
#12
Allya P Koesoema, Arni Ariani, Yoke S Irawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko
While progress has been made to slow down its spread and increase uptake of treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a highly significant health problem for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Specifically, almost half of new HIV patients in Asia Pacific were children. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission faces complex socioeconomic and other problems. With the increasing growth of mobile technologies in LMICs, especially in Asia Pacific, mHealth, the application of mobile technology for health applications, has a significant potential to help alleviate these problems...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974385/inhibition-of-rubella-virus-replication-by-the-broad-spectrum-drug-nitazoxanide-in-cell-culture-and-in-a-patient-with-a-primary-immune-deficiency
#13
Ludmila Perelygina, Timo Hautala, Mikko Seppänen, Adebola Adebayo, Kathleen E Sullivan, Joseph Icenogle
Persistent rubella virus (RV) infection has been associated with various pathologies such as congenital rubella syndrome, Fuchs's uveitis, and cutaneous granulomas in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PID). Currently there are no drugs to treat RV infections. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved drug for parasitic infections, and has been recently shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activities. Here we found that empiric 2-month therapy with oral NTZ was associated in the decline/elimination of RV antigen from lesions in a PID patient with RV positive granulomas, while peginterferon treatment had no effect...
September 30, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961190/current-peptide-and-protein-candidates-challenging-hiv-therapy-beyond-the-vaccine-era
#14
REVIEW
Koollawat Chupradit, Sutpirat Moonmuang, Sawitree Nangola, Kuntida Kitidee, Umpa Yasamut, Marylène Mougel, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations...
September 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924485/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-men-uncommonly-low-testosterone-levels
#15
Ana Coelho Gomes, José Maria Aragüés, Sílvia Guerra, Joana Fernandes, Mário Rui Mascarenhas
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is common and occurs prematurely in HIV-infected men. However, HH with very low testosterone has not been described. Three men with normal pubertal development and HIV1 diagnosis at the ages of 22, 34 and 35 years. All complained of decreased libido, anejaculation and erectile dysfunction thirteen years, six months and one year after HIV diagnosis, respectively. Two had depressive syndrome and two were treated with antiretroviral therapy. Laboratory tests revealed isolated HH in all...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872867/multidrug-anti-hiv-amorphous-solid-dispersions-nature-and-mechanisms-of-impacts-of-drugs-on-each-other-s-solution-concentrations
#16
Hale Çiğdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Durga Dahal, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Drug therapy has been instrumental in prolonging the lives of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to combat development of resistance, therapies involving three or more drugs in combination are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to suppress HIV and prevent development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is desirable for multidrug combinations to be coformulated into single dosage forms where possible, to promote patient convenience and adherence to dosage regimens, for which amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is particularly well-suited...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860717/development-of-idursulfase-therapy-for-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#17
REVIEW
David Ah Whiteman, Alan Kimura
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare, multisystemic, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme. Accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate results in a broad range of disease manifestations that are highly variable in presentation and severity; notably, approximately two-thirds of individuals are affected by progressive central nervous system involvement. Historically, management of this disease was palliative; however, during the 1990s, I2S was purified to homogeneity for the first time, leading to cloning of the corresponding gene and offering a means of addressing the underlying cause of MPS II using enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842263/screening-of-an-fda-approved-compound-library-identifies-levosimendan-as-a-novel-anti-hiv-1-agent-that-inhibits-viral-transcription
#18
Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Maxime Jean, Huachao Huang, Sydney Simpson, Netty G Santoso, Jian Zhu
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been proven to efficiently inhibit ongoing replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and significantly improve the health outcome in patients of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, cART is unable to cure HIV-1/AIDS. Even in presence of cART there exists a residual viremia, contributed from the viral reservoirs of latently infected HIV-1 proviruses; this constitutes a major hurdle. Currently, there are multiple strategies aimed at eliminating or permanently silence these HIV-1 latent reservoirs being intensely explored...
October 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835460/lack-of-trex1-causes-systemic-autoimmunity-despite-the-presence-of-antiretroviral-drugs
#19
Martin Achleitner, Martin Kleefisch, Alexander Hennig, Katrin Peschke, Anastasia Polikarpova, Reinhard Oertel, Benjamin Gabriel, Livia Schulze, Dirk Lindeman, Alexander Gerbaulet, Uwe Fiebig, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch, Axel Roers, Rayk Behrendt
Biallelic mutations of three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) cause the lupus-like disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in which accumulation of a yet unknown endogenous DNA substrate of TREX1 triggers a cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-dependent type I IFN response and systemic autoimmunity. Products of reverse transcription originating from endogenous retroelements have been suggested to be a major substrate for TREX1, and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) were proposed as a therapeutic option in autoimmunity ensuing from defects of TREX1...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#20
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
November 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
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