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Human deficiency syndrome drugs

Ovokeroye A Abafe, Jana Späth, Jerker Fick, Stina Jansson, Chris Buckley, Annegret Stark, Bjoern Pietruschka, Bice S Martincigh
South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Anne von Mässenhausen, Wulf Tonnus, Nina Himmerkus, Simon Parmentier, Danish Saleh, Diego Rodriquez, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Rosalind L Ang, Joel M Weinberg, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Adrian Zierleyn, Jan Ulrich Becker, Blandine Baratte, Nathalie Desban, Stéphane Bach, Ina Maria Schiessl, Shoko Nogusa, Siddharth Balachandran, Hans Joachim Anders, Adrian T Ting, Markus Bleich, Alexei Degterev, Karl Kunzelmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Douglas R Green, Christian Hugo, Andreas Linkermann
Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1/3) have best been described for their role in mediating a regulated form of necrosis, referred to as necroptosis. During this process, RIPK3 phosphorylates mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) to cause plasma membrane rupture. RIPK3-deficient mice have recently been demonstrated to be protected in a series of disease models, but direct evidence for activation of necroptosis in vivo is still limited. Here, we sought to further examine the activation of necroptosis in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and from TNFα-induced severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), two models of RIPK3-dependent injury...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lin Zhou, Liang Zhou, Li-da Su, Sheng-Long Cao, Ya-Jun Xie, Na Wang, Chong-Yu Shao, Ya-Nan Wang, Jia-Huan Zhou, John K Cowell, Ying Shen
Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is an inherited syndrome caused by mutations in the leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene. It is known that glutamatergic transmission is altered in LGI1 mutant mice and seizures can be reduced by restoring LGI1 function. Yet, the mechanism underlying ADLTE is unclear. Here, we propose that seizures in male LGI1-/- mice are due to non-synaptic epileptiform activity in cortical neurons. We examined the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in the temporal cortex of male LGI1-/- mice and found that the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michael G Anderson, Kacie J Meyer, Adam Hedberg-Buenz, John H Fingert
Animal models are powerful tools for studying diseases that affect the eye, such as exfoliation syndrome (XFS). Two types of animal models have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of XFS and glaucoma. One class of models is engineered to have key features of a disease by alteration of their genome (genotype-driven animal models). LOXL1 is the first gene known to increase the risk for developing XFS in humans. Two transgenic mouse models with altered Loxl1 genes have been generated to study XFS. One strain of mice, Loxl1 deficient mice, also known as Loxl1 knock-out mice, have had the Loxl1 gene removed from their genomes...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Sang Hyeon Ju, Gyu-Bon Cho, Jong-Woo Sohn
It is well known that melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) and central melanocortin pathways regulate food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis. Importantly, MC4R deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of human obesity. Interestingly, MC4Rs expressed by distinct central nuclei are responsible for the different physiological function of MC4R stimulation. In addition, MC4Rs activate multiple intracellular and/or synaptic signaling molecules for the regulation of neuronal circuits. Therefore, MC4Rs and the downstream signal molecules are plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics against obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Alexandra Guevara, Carolina Guevara
Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) treatment studies of growth failure in absence of growth hormone (GH) signaling (GH insensitivity -GHI, Laron syndrome -LS, GH Receptor deficiency -GHRD) have taken place in many locations around the globe. Results from these trials are comparable, and slight differences reported can be attributed to specific circumstances at different research sites. rhIGF-I treatment studies of GHI in Ecuador included various trials performed on children belonging to the largest and only homogeneous cohort of subjects with this condition in the world...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Sirus Pourkhajoei, Mohsen Barouni, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Saeed Amini, Mohammad Karamouzian, Hamid Sharifi
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the greatest social health problems in many communities in the twenty-first century. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could decrease HIV infection among injection drug users (IDU). The main aim of this paper was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the governmental MMT program to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among IDU. Methods: This analytical study was performed through a before-after assessment during a one-year period...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
J Vijay Ananth, S Sudharshan, Ambika Selvakumar, Bella J Devaleenal, Kavitha Kalaivani, Jyotirmay Biswas
Papilledema in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is an alarming finding. Any condition giving rise to raised intracranial tension (ICT) can cause papilledema, and in these patients, it could be secondary to opportunistic infections like meningitis to neoplasm. We report a case of a 28-year old female with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, who presented to us, with papilledema. Her fundus examination revealed superficial hemorrhages and Roth's spots along with papilledema...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Muhammad Imran, Yasir Waheed, Ayesha Ghazal, Sajjad Ullah, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhsin Jamal, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Imran, Farman Ullah
The causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since its discovery before 30 years, a number of drugs known as highly active antiretroviral therapy have been developed to suppress the life cycle of the virus at different stages. With the current therapeutic approaches, ending AIDS means providing treatment to 35 million individuals living with HIV for the rest of their lives or until a cure is developed. Additionally, therapy is associated with various other challenges such as potential of drug resistance, toxicity and presence of latent viral reservoir...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2 ) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maria Cristina Caroleo
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can induce development of adverse drug reactions or reduce clinical efficacy of the drugs. In this review, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library we searched articles published until January 10, 2017, and described both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. In this review, the nodal points treated focused on: i) cocaine biochemical metabolism described for both, inactive benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl esters and norcocaine active metabolites...
September 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Yashik Singh
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the major burdens of disease in developing countries, and the standard-of-care treatment includes prescribing antiretroviral drugs. However, antiretroviral drug resistance is inevitable due to selective pressure associated with the high mutation rate of HIV. Determining antiretroviral resistance can be done by phenotypic laboratory tests or by computer-based interpretation algorithms...
October 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar, Tomohiro Kotaki, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Meilani Meilani, Tigor Yeheskiel, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and affect the Indonesian economy. Papua province has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the country; however, epidemiological data are limited. Therefore, in order to reveal the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province, sero- and molecular epidemiological studies of HIV were conducted. METHODS: serological tests were conducted on 157 healthy individuals from the general population residing in Paniai, Papua...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Allya P Koesoema, Arni Ariani, Yoke S Irawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko
While progress has been made to slow down its spread and increase uptake of treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a highly significant health problem for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Specifically, almost half of new HIV patients in Asia Pacific were children. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission faces complex socioeconomic and other problems. With the increasing growth of mobile technologies in LMICs, especially in Asia Pacific, mHealth, the application of mobile technology for health applications, has a significant potential to help alleviate these problems...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ludmila Perelygina, Timo Hautala, Mikko Seppänen, Adebola Adebayo, Kathleen E Sullivan, Joseph Icenogle
Persistent rubella virus (RV) infection has been associated with various pathologies such as congenital rubella syndrome, Fuchs's uveitis, and cutaneous granulomas in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PID). Currently there are no drugs to treat RV infections. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved drug for parasitic infections, and has been recently shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activities. Here we found that empiric 2-month therapy with oral NTZ was associated in the decline/elimination of RV antigen from lesions in a PID patient with RV positive granulomas, while peginterferon treatment had no effect...
September 30, 2017: Antiviral Research
Koollawat Chupradit, Sutpirat Moonmuang, Sawitree Nangola, Kuntida Kitidee, Umpa Yasamut, Marylène Mougel, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations...
September 29, 2017: Viruses
Ana Coelho Gomes, José Maria Aragüés, Sílvia Guerra, Joana Fernandes, Mário Rui Mascarenhas
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is common and occurs prematurely in HIV-infected men. However, HH with very low testosterone has not been described. Three men with normal pubertal development and HIV1 diagnosis at the ages of 22, 34 and 35 years. All complained of decreased libido, anejaculation and erectile dysfunction thirteen years, six months and one year after HIV diagnosis, respectively. Two had depressive syndrome and two were treated with antiretroviral therapy. Laboratory tests revealed isolated HH in all...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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