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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924485/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-men-uncommonly-low-testosterone-levels
#1
Ana Coelho Gomes, José Maria Aragüés, Sílvia Guerra, Joana Fernandes, Mário Rui Mascarenhas
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is common and occurs prematurely in HIV-infected men. However, HH with very low testosterone has not been described. Three men with normal pubertal development and HIV1 diagnosis at the ages of 22, 34 and 35 years. All complained of decreased libido, anejaculation and erectile dysfunction thirteen years, six months and one year after HIV diagnosis, respectively. Two had depressive syndrome and two were treated with antiretroviral therapy. Laboratory tests revealed isolated HH in all...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872867/multidrug-anti-hiv-amorphous-solid-dispersions-nature-and-mechanisms-of-impacts-of-drugs-on-each-other-s-solution-concentrations
#2
Hale Çigdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Durga Dahal, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Drug therapy has been instrumental in prolonging the lives of patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to combat development of resistance, therapies involving three or more drugs in combination are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to suppress HIV and prevent development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is desirable for multidrug combinations to be co-formulated into single dosage forms where possible, to promote patient convenience and adherence to dosage regimens, for which when amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is particularly well-suited...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860717/development-of-idursulfase-therapy-for-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#3
REVIEW
David Ah Whiteman, Alan Kimura
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare, multisystemic, progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme. Accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate results in a broad range of disease manifestations that are highly variable in presentation and severity; notably, approximately two-thirds of individuals are affected by progressive central nervous system involvement. Historically, management of this disease was palliative; however, during the 1990s, I2S was purified to homogeneity for the first time, leading to cloning of the corresponding gene and offering a means of addressing the underlying cause of MPS II using enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842263/screening-of-an-fda-approved-compound-library-identifies-levosimendan-as-a-novel-anti-hiv-1-agent-that-inhibits-viral-transcription
#4
Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Maxime Jean, Huachao Huang, Sydney Simpson, Netty G Santoso, Jian Zhu
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been proven to efficiently inhibit ongoing replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and significantly improve the health outcome in patients of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, cART is unable to cure HIV-1/AIDS. Even in presence of cART there exists a residual viremia, contributed from the viral reservoirs of latently infected HIV-1 proviruses; this constitutes a major hurdle. Currently, there are multiple strategies aimed at eliminating or permanently silence these HIV-1 latent reservoirs being intensely explored...
August 24, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835460/lack-of-trex1-causes-systemic-autoimmunity-despite-the-presence-of-antiretroviral-drugs
#5
Martin Achleitner, Martin Kleefisch, Alexander Hennig, Katrin Peschke, Anastasia Polikarpova, Reinhard Oertel, Benjamin Gabriel, Livia Schulze, Dirk Lindeman, Alexander Gerbaulet, Uwe Fiebig, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch, Axel Roers, Rayk Behrendt
Biallelic mutations of three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) cause the lupus-like disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in which accumulation of a yet unknown endogenous DNA substrate of TREX1 triggers a cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-dependent type I IFN response and systemic autoimmunity. Products of reverse transcription originating from endogenous retroelements have been suggested to be a major substrate for TREX1, and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) were proposed as a therapeutic option in autoimmunity ensuing from defects of TREX1...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#6
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730446/intracellular-reassociation-of-rna-dna-hybrids-that-activates-rnai-in-hiv-infected-cells
#7
Angelica N Martins, Weina Ke, Vaishnavi Jawahar, Morriah Striplin, Caryn Striplin, Eric O Freed, Kirill A Afonin
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 2014, it was estimated that 1.2 million people died from AIDS-related illnesses. RNA interference-based therapy to block HIV replication is a field that, as of now, is without any FDA-approved drugs available for clinical use. In this chapter we describe a protocol for testing and utilizing a new approach that relies on reassociation of RNA-DNA hybrids activating RNAi and blocking HIV replication in human cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#8
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
August 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668339/-ten-years-experience-with-the-first-approved-biosimilar-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-drug-in-normal-clinical-practice
#9
Juan Pedro López-Siguero, Margarida Palla García, Elena Martínez Busto, Francisco José Rebollo, Manuel Pombo
INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is the first biosimilar drug approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2006, using the biosimilar registration process. It was authorised for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency, and growth disorders associated with Turner's syndrome, chronic renal failure, Prader-Willi syndrome, and growth disorders in children/adolescents born small for gestational age, and replacement therapy in adults with pronounced growth hormone deficiency...
June 28, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663935/differential-gene-expression-analysis-by-rna-seq-reveals-the-importance-of-actin-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-erythroleukemia-cells
#10
Vanessa Fernández-Calleja, Pablo Hernández, Jorge B Schvartzman, Mario García de Lacoba, Dora B Krimer
Development of drug resistance limits the effectiveness of anticancer treatments. Understanding the molecular mechanisms triggering this event in tumor cells may lead to improved therapeutic strategies. Here we used RNA-seq to compare the transcriptomes of a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL) and a derived cell line with induced resistance to differentiation (MEL-R). RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 596 genes (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value < 0.05) that were differentially expressed by more than two-fold, of which 81...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634152/ensuring-inclusion-of-adolescent-key-populations-at-higher-risk-of-hiv-exposure-recommendations-for-conducting-biological-behavioral-surveillance-surveys
#11
Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu
Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576573/rapid-development-of-vaccines-against-emerging-pathogens-the-replication-deficient-simian-adenovirus-platform-technology
#12
Sarah C Gilbert, George M Warimwe
Despite the fact that there had been multiple small outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, when a large outbreak occurred in 2014 there were no vaccines or drugs available for use. Clinical development of multiple candidate vaccines was then initiated in parallel with attempts to contain the outbreak but only one vaccine was eventually tested in a phase III trial. In order to be better prepared for future outbreaks of known human pathogens, platform technologies to accelerate vaccine development should be employed, allowing vaccine developers to take advantage of detailed knowledge of the vaccine platform and facilitating rapid progress to clinical trials and eventually to vaccine stockpiles...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573089/pakistan-needs-to-speed-up-its-human-immunodeficiency-virus-control-strategy-to-achieve-targets-in-fast-track-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-response
#13
Yasir Waheed, Hasnain Waheed
In last fifteen years remarkable success in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is achieved globally. The number of HIV infections has decreased and the number of people on antiretroviral therapy is increased. This all is possible by strong political commitments and heavy investments in the fight against HIV. Pakistan is among few Asian countries in which HIV cases are increasing year by year since 1990. There are 94000 cases of HIV in Pakistan and only 14000 are registered with government...
May 12, 2017: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#14
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535936/lipids-in-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-aids-and-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Fabrice Dumas, Evert Haanappel
Lipids play a central role in many infectious diseases. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and tuberculosis are two of the deadliest infectious diseases to have struck mankind. The pathogens responsible for these diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rely on lipids and on lipid membrane properties to gain access to their host cells, to persist in them and ultimately to egress from their hosts. In this Review, we discuss the life cycles of these pathogens and the roles played by lipids and membranes...
May 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496958/prevalence-of-hiv-aids-among-iranian-prisoners-a-review-article
#16
REVIEW
Morteza Akbari, Maryam Akbari, Ahmad Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Hassan Joulaei, Maryam Nasiriyan, Maryam Hesampour, Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, prisoners are more at risk of being infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as hepatitis C and B in comparison with other risk groups. The combination of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), addiction and prison are factors that threaten the health of our society. Influence of risky behaviors is so common on transmission of AIDS into prisoners' bodies. This study used available information and reports to investigate the prevalence of HIV in Iranian prisons...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474549/haart-in-hiv-aids-treatments-future-trends
#17
Da Yong Lu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Bin Xu, Jian Ding, Ting-Ren Lu, Hong Ying Wu
AIDS (acquired immune deficient syndrome) is a deadly human viral infectious disease caused by HIV (human immune-deficient virus) infection. Almost every AIDS patient losses his/her life before mid 1990s. AIDS was once the 1st disease killer in US (1993). After one decade hard work, antiviral drug cocktails-high active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have been invented for almost all HIV infection treatments. Due to the invention of HAART, 80-90% HIV/AIDS patients still effectively response to HAART for deadly AIDS episode controls and life saving...
May 5, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#18
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444859/roles-of-samhd1-in-antiviral-defense-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li
The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV-2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1-mediated restriction of retroviral replication...
April 25, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427224/ponatinib-promotes-a-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-of-merlin-nf2-deficient-human-schwann-cells
#20
Alejandra M Petrilli, Jeanine Garcia, Marga Bott, Stephani Klingeman Plati, Christine T Dinh, Olena R Bracho, Denise Yan, Bing Zou, Rahul Mittal, Fred F Telischi, Xue-Zhong Liu, Long-Sheng Chang, D Bradley Welling, Alicja J Copik, Cristina Fernández-Valle
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC)...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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