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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350624/application-of-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-for-analyzing-ocular-surface-particles-on-schirmer-strips
#1
Anuroop Avula, Anat Galor, Patricia Blackwelder, Melissa Carballosa-Gautam, Abigail S Hackam, Bennie Jeng, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the application of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) for analyzing Schirmer strips for particle concentration, size, morphology, and type distribution. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. Patients were prospectively recruited from the Miami Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System eye clinic, and they underwent a complete ocular surface examination. The size, type, and chemical composition of particulate matter on Schirmer strips (from the left eye) were analyzed using SEM/EDS...
March 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344920/six-years-of-instand-e-%C3%A2-v-sige-proficiency-testing-an-evaluation-of-in-vitro-allergy-diagnostics
#2
N Wojtalewicz, S Goseberg, K Kabrodt, I Schellenberg
BACKGROUND: Even though allergies are an important health issue, wide manufacturer-dependent differences in the detected amounts of allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) have repeatedly been found. These discrepancies hinder diagnostics and research into clinically significant cutoff points for life-threatening symptoms. METHODS: To evaluate whether the reported differences have led to changes in diagnostic testing, we analyzed data from six years of round robin testing (RRT, also known as proficiency testing) at the Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Qualitätssicherung in medizinischen Laboratorien e...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342864/oslbd37-and-oslbd38-two-class-ii-type-lbd-proteins-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-heading-date-by-controlling-the-expression-of-ehd1-in-rice
#3
Chaonan Li, Shanshan Zhu, Huan Zhang, Liping Chen, Maohong Cai, Jiachang Wang, Juntao Chai, Fuqing Wu, Zhijun Cheng, Xiuping Guo, Xin Zhang, Jianmin Wan
LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors which are involved in many biological process of plant development, including lateral organ development, photomorphogenesis, pathogen response, pollen development and plant regeneration. Here, we report new functions of LBD proteins that participate in the regulation of heading date and yield in rice. OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 are two class II type LBD proteins, function as transcriptional activators. Overexpression of OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 separately causes delayed heading date and increased yield...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341528/molecular-diagnosis-of-allergy-to-anisakis-simplex-and-gymnorhynchus-gigas-fish-parasites
#4
A Armentia, J Santos, Z Serrano, B Martín, S Martín, J Barrio, S Fernández, M González-Sagrado, F Pineda, R Palacios
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to Anisakis simplex. There are fish parasites other than Anisakis simplex whose allergenicity has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess IgE hypersensitivity caused by fish parasite allergens in patients with gastro-allergic symptoms after consumption of fish, shellfish or cephalopods, compared with healthy subjects, pollen allergic individuals and children with digestive symptoms after eating marine food...
March 21, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339862/a-new-insight-into-the-evolution-and-functional-divergence-of-sweet-transporters-in-chinese-white-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri
#5
Jiaming Li, Mengfan Qin, Xin Qiao, Yinsheng Cheng, Xiaolong Li, Huping Zhang, Jun Wu
SWEET genes are a recently identified plant gene family that play an indispensable role in sugar efflux. However, no systematic study has been performed in pear. In this research, 18 SWEET transporters identified in pear, almost twice the number found in woodland strawberry and Japanese apricot, were divided into four clades. Conserved motifs and six exons of the SWEET transporters were found in six species. SWEET transporters contained seven transmembrane segments (TMSs) that evolved from an internal duplication of an ancestral three-TMSs unit, connected by TMS4...
March 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339807/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-arabidopsis-pollen-germination
#6
Jörg Hirsche, José M García Fernández, Edith Stabentheiner, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch
Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination...
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339550/the-tension-sensitive-ion-transport-activity-of-msl8-is-critical-for-its-function-in-pollen-hydration-and-germination
#7
Eric S Hamilton, Elizabeth S Haswell
All cells respond to osmotic challenges, including those imposed during normal growth and development. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels provide a conserved mechanism for regulating osmotic forces by conducting ions in response to increased membrane tension. We previously demonstrated that the MS ion channel MscS-Like 8 (MSL8) is required for pollen to survive multiple osmotic challenges that occur during the normal process of fertilization, and that it can inhibit pollen germination. However, it remained unclear whether these physiological functions required ion flux through a mechanically gated channel provided by MSL8...
January 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338823/transporters-involved-in-ph-and-k-homeostasis-affect-pollen-wall-formation-male-fertility-and-embryo-development
#8
Senthilkumar Padmanaban, Daniel D Czerny, Kara A Levin, Alexander R Leydon, Robert T Su, Timothy K Maugel, Yanjiao Zou, Salil Chanroj, Alice Y Cheung, Mark A Johnson, Heven Sze
Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338822/gene-expression-atlas-of-pigeonpea-and-its-application-to-gain-insights-into-genes-associated-with-pollen-fertility-implicated-in-seed-formation
#9
Lekha T Pazhamala, Shilp Purohit, Rachit K Saxena, Vanika Garg, L Krishnamurthy, Jerome Verdier, Rajeev K Varshney
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, mainly used for its protein rich seeds. To link the genome sequence information with agronomic traits resulting from specific developmental processes, a Cajanus cajan gene expression atlas (CcGEA) was developed using the Asha genotype. Thirty tissues/organs representing developmental stages from germination to senescence were used to generate 590.84 million paired-end RNA-Seq data. The CcGEA revealed a compendium of 28 793 genes with differential, specific, spatio-temporal and constitutive expression during various stages of development in different tissues...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#10
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337836/plant-transcription-factors-from-the-homeodomain-leucine-zipper-family-i-role-in-development-and-stress-responses
#11
REVIEW
María Florencia Perotti, Pamela Anahí Ribone, Raquel Lía Chan
In front of stressful conditions plants display adaptation mechanisms leading to changes in their morphology, physiology, development and molecular composition. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in these complex adaptation processes. This work is focused in the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) family of TFs, unique to plants. First discovered in 1991, they were identified and isolated from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants showing high structural similarity and diversified functions...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337390/an-rbcl-reference-library-to-aid-in-the-identification-of-plant-species-mixtures-by-dna-metabarcoding
#12
Karen L Bell, Virginia M Loeffler, Berry J Brosi
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: DNA metabarcoding has broad-ranging applications in ecology, aerobiology, biosecurity, and forensics. A bioinformatics pipeline has recently been published for identification using a comprehensive database of ITS2, one of the common plant DNA barcoding markers. There is, however, no corresponding database for rbcL, the other primary marker used in plants. METHODS: Using publicly available data, we compiled a reference library of rbcL sequences and trained databases for use with UTAX and RDP classifier algorithms...
March 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337140/antioxidant-and-anti-tyrosinase-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-from-rape-bee-pollen-and-inhibitory-melanogenesis-by-camp-mitf-tyr-pathway-in-b16-mouse-melanoma-cells
#13
Liping Sun, Yan Guo, Yanxin Zhang, Yongliang Zhuang
Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335016/trna-derived-small-rnas-target-transposable-element-transcripts
#14
German Martinez, Sarah G Choudury, R Keith Slotkin
tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are 18-26 nucleotide small RNAs that are not random degradation products, but are rather specifically cleaved from mature tRNA transcripts. Abundant in stressed or viral-infected cells, the function and potential targets of tRFs are not known. We identified that in the unstressed wild-type male gamete containing pollen of flowering plants, and analogous reproductive structure in non-flowering plant species, tRFs accumulate to high levels. In the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana, tRFs are processed by Dicer-like 1 and incorporated into Argonaute1 (AGO1), akin to a microRNA...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334485/pollinator-identity-and-spatial-isolation-influence-multiple-paternity-in-an-annual-plant
#15
Matthew K Rhodes, Jeremie B Fant, Krissa A Skogen
The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae)...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334177/genetic-and-environmental-integration-of-the-hawkmoth-pollination-syndrome-in-ruellia-humilis-acanthaceae
#16
John S Heywood, Joseph S Michalski, Braden K McCann, Amber D Russo, Kara J Andres, Allison R Hall, Tessa C Middleton
Background and Aims: The serial homology of floral structures has made it difficult to assess the relative contributions of selection and constraint to floral integration. The interpretation of floral integration may also be clouded by the tacit, but largely untested, assumption that genetic and environmental perturbations affect trait correlations in similar ways. In this study, estimates of both the genetic and environmental correlations between components of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome are presented for chasmogamous flowers of Ruellia humilis , including two levels of control for serial homology...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332480/honey-bee-hairs-and-pollenkitt-are-essential-for-pollen-capture-and-removal
#17
Guillermo J Amador, Marguerite Matherne, D'Andre Waller, Megha Mathews, Stanislav N Gorb, David L Hu
While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs...
March 23, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331779/reply-to-the-efsa-2016-on-the-relevance-of-recent-publications-hofmann-et-al-2014-2016-on-environmental-risk-assessment-and-management-of-bt-maize-events-mon810-bt11-and-1507
#18
EDITORIAL
Maren Kruse-Plass, Frieder Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
In this commentary, we respond to a report of the EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) that criticises the outcomes of two studies published in this journal (Hofmann et al. Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2; Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3). Both publications relate to the environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize, including maize events MON810, Bt11 and maize 1507. The results of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2), using standardised pollen mass filter deposition measurements, indicated that the EFSA Panel model had underestimated pollen deposition and, hence, exposure of non-target organisms to Bt-maize pollen...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331591/synergistic-effects-of-floral-phytochemicals-against-a-bumble%C3%A2-bee-parasite
#19
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Floral landscapes comprise diverse phytochemical combinations. Individual phytochemicals in floral nectar and pollen can reduce infection in bees and directly inhibit trypanosome parasites. However, gut parasites of generalist pollinators, which consume nectar and pollen from many plant species, are exposed to phytochemical combinations. Interactions between phytochemicals could augment or decrease effects of single compounds on parasites. Using a matrix of 36 phytochemical treatment combinations, we assessed the combined effects of two floral phytochemicals, eugenol and thymol, against four strains of the bumblebee gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331576/bumblebees-require-visual-pollen-stimuli-to-initiate-and-multimodal-stimuli-to-complete-a-full-behavioral-sequence-in-close-range-flower-orientation
#20
Saskia Wilmsen, Robin Gottlieb, Robert R Junker, Klaus Lunau
Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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