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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805257/three-representative-inter-and-intra-subspecific-crosses-reveal-the-genetic-architecture-of-reproductive-isolation-in-rice
#1
Guangwei Li, Xiaoting Li, Yuan Wang, Jiaming Mi, Feng Xing, Dahan Zhang, Qiyan Dong, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Qifa Zhang, Yidan Ouyang
Systematic characterization of genetic and molecular mechanisms in formation of hybrid sterility is of fundamental importance in understanding reproductive isolation and speciation. Using ultra-high-density genetic maps, 43 single-locus QTLs and 223 digenic interactions for embryo-sac, pollen, and spikelet fertility are depicted from three crosses between representative varieties of japonica and two varietal groups of indica, which provide an extensive archive for investigating the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in rice...
August 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805044/nm%C3%AF-improved-re-implementation-of-nm-a-software-for-estimating-gene-dispersal-and-mating-patterns
#2
Igor J Chybicki
This paper introduces the NMπ computer program designed for estimation of plant mating system and seed and pollen dispersal kernels. NMπ is a re-implementation of the NM+ program and provides new features such as support for multi-core processors, explicit treatment of dioecy, the possibility of incorporating uniparentally cytoplasmic markers, the possibility of assessing assortative mating due to phenotypic similarity and inference about offspring genealogies. The probability model of parentage (the neighborhood model) accounts for missing data and genotyping errors, which can be estimated along with regular parameters of the mating system...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804694/a-new-species-of-scutellaria-scutellarioideae-lamiaceae-from-sichuan-province-in-southwest-china
#3
Fei Zhao, En-De Liu, Hua Peng, Chun-Lei Xiang
Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802100/influence-of-il-6-il-33-and-tnf-%C3%AE-on-human-mast-cell-activation-lessons-from-single-cell-analysis-by-flow-cytometry
#4
Nathalie Cop, Didier G Ebo, Chris H Bridts, Jessy Elst, Margo M Hagendorens, Christel Mertens, Margaretha A Faber, Luc S De Clerck, Vito Sabato
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that govern priming and degranulation of human mast cells (MCs) remain elusive. Besides, most of our knowledge is based on experiments from which data only reflect an average of all stimulated cells. This study aims at investigating the effects of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-33, and TNF-α on IgE-dependent and IgE-independent activation of individual MCs. METHODS: MCs were derived from CD34(+) progenitors isolated from 50 mL whole blood from 4 healthy controls and 5 birch pollen allergic patients...
August 12, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798863/pollination-success-following-loss-of-a-frequent-pollinator-the-role-of-compensatory-visitation-by-other-effective-pollinators
#5
Allysa C Hallett, Randall J Mitchell, Evan R Chamberlain, Jeffrey D Karron
Pollinator abundance is declining worldwide and may lower the quantity and quality of pollination services to flowering plant populations. Loss of an important pollinator is often assumed to reduce the amount of pollen received by stigmas of a focal species (pollination success), yet this assumption has rarely been tested experimentally. The magnitude of the effect, if any, may depend on the relative efficiency of the remaining pollinators, and on whether the loss of one pollinator leads to changes in visitation patterns by other pollinators...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798556/a-metabolomic-geographic-and-seasonal-analysis-of-the-contribution-of-pollen-derived-adenosine-to-allergic-sensitization
#6
Geoffrey A Mueller, Peter M Thompson, Eugene F DeRose, Thomas M O'Connell, Robert E London
BACKGROUND: Studies on ragweed and birch pollen extracts suggested that the adenosine content is an important factor in allergic sensitization. However, exposure levels from other pollens and considerations of geographic and seasonal factors have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the metabolite profile of pollen species important for allergic disease, specifically measured the adenosine content, and evaluated exposure to pollen-derived adenosine...
December 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798252/pollen-induced-oxidative-dna-damage-response-regulates-mirnas-controlling-allergic-inflammation
#7
Leopoldo Aguilera-Aguirre, Wenjing Hao, Lang Pan, Xiaoxue Li, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Attila Bacsi, Zsolt Radak, Sanjiv Sur, Allan R Brasier, Xueqing Ba, Istvan Boldogh
A mucosal oxidative burst is a hallmark response to pollen exposure that promotes allergic inflammatory responses. Reactive species constituents of oxidative stress signal via the modification of cellular molecules including nucleic acids. One of the most abundant oxidative genomic base damage is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), which is removed from DNA by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1). OGG1 in complex with 8-oxoG acts as a GDP-GTP exchange factor and induces acute inflammation; however, the mechanism(s) by which OGG1 signaling regulates allergic airway inflammation is not known...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797243/polymorphism-and-structure-of-style-specific-arabinogalactan-proteins-as-determinants-of-pollen-tube-growth-in-nicotiana
#8
Andrzej K Noyszewski, Yi-Cheng Liu, Koichiro Tamura, Alan G Smith
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube growth and fertilization are key processes in angiosperm sexual reproduction. The transmitting tract (TT) of Nicotiana tabacum controls pollen tube growth in part by secreting pistil extensin-like protein III (PELPIII), transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein and 120 kDa glycoprotein (120 K) into the stylar extracellular matrix. The three arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are referred to as stylar AGPs and are the focus of this research. The transmitting tract regulates pollen tube growth, promoting fertilization or rejecting pollen tubes...
August 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795376/arabidopsis-prk6-interacts-specifically-with-atropgef8-12-and-induces-depolarized-growth-of-pollen-tubes-when-overexpressed
#9
Yuexuan Yu, Jiali Song, Xiaohui Tian, Haiwen Zhang, Legong Li, Huifen Zhu
The pollen receptor kinases (PRK) are critical regulators of pollen tube growth. The Arabidopsis genome encodes eight PRK genes, of which six are highly expressed in pollen tubes. The potential functions of AtPRK1 through AtPRK5, but not of AtPRK6, in pollen growth were analyzed in tobacco. Herein, AtPRK6 was cloned, and its function was identified. AtPRK6 was expressed specifically in pollen tubes. A yeast two-hybrid screen of AtPRK6 against 14 Arabidopsis Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs) showed that AtPRK6 interacted with AtRopGEF8 and AtRopGEF12...
August 8, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795187/erratum-to-the-long-pollen-tube-journey-and-in-vitro-pollen-germination-of-phalaenopsis-orchids
#10
Jhun-Chen Chen, Su-Chiung Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794889/ambient-ozone-and-asthma-hospital-admissions-in-texas-a-time-series-analysis
#11
Julie E Goodman, Ke Zu, Christine T Loftus, Ge Tao, Xiaobin Liu, Sabine Lange
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated associations between asthma emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions (HAs), and ambient ozone (O3) across the US, but not in Texas. We investigated the relationship between O3 and asthma HAs, and the potential impacts of outdoor pollen, respiratory infection HAs, and the start of the school year in Texas. METHODS: We obtained daily time-series data on asthma HAs and ambient O3 concentrations for Dallas, Houston, and Austin, Texas for the years 2003-2011...
2017: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793403/wind-dynamics-influence-on-south-spain-airborne-olive-pollen-during-african-intrusions
#12
H García-Mozo, M A Hernández-Ceballos, M M Trigo, C Galán
Given its proximity to northern Africa, southern Spain is regularly affected by high-altitude African intrusions. This determines a well-defined wind dynamics at surface levels. Although this weather event-mainly recorded in spring and summer-coincides with the flowering season of many wind pollinated species, its potential influence on long term airborne pollen transport has been not investigated in detail. We analyse their influence on olive pollen transport at surface level in south Spain. Daily and bi-hourly olive pollen data from 2010 to 2015, recorded at two sites 150km apart, Málaga (coast) and Córdoba (inland), were analysed together with 1) air masses at 300m above ground level (m...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792980/evolutionary-implications-of-heterochromatin-and-rdna-in-chromosome-number-and-genome-size-changes-during-dysploidy-a-case-study-in-reichardia-genus
#13
Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev, Bernard Godelle, Vlatka Zoldos, Joan Vallès, Teresa Garnatje, Oriane Hidalgo
In this study we showed that constitutive heterochromatin, GC-rich DNA and rDNA are implicated in chromosomal rearrangements during the basic chromosome number changing (dysploidy) in Reichardia genus. This small Mediterranean genus comprises 8-10 species and presents three basic chromosome numbers (x = 9, 8 and 7). To assess genome evolution and differentiation processes, studies were conducted in a dysploid series of six species: R. dichotoma, R. macrophylla and R. albanica (2n = 18), R. tingitana and R. gaditana (2n = 16), and R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792972/three-dimensional-ultrastructural-study-of-the-anther-of-silene-latifolia-infected-with-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#14
Hiroki Kawamoto, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
When Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects a male Silene latifolia, M. lychnidis-dioicae smut spores develop in the pollen sac instead of pollen. In contrast, when M. lychnidis-dioicae infects a female S. latifolia, the female flowers become male-like, promoting stamen formation. However, it is unclear when and how M. lychnidis-dioicae invades the anther. It is important to investigate not only whether hyphae exist when the apical meristem tissue differentiates into flowers and anthers, but also whether hyphae exist when stamen filaments form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792676/the-messenger-matters-pollinator-functional-group-influences-mating-system-dynamics
#15
Jennifer J Weber
The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792633/evolutionarily-diverse-syp1-qa-snares-jointly-sustain-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#16
Daniel Slane, Ilka Reichardt, Farid El Kasmi, Martin Bayer, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion is effected by SNARE proteins that reside on adjacent membranes and form bridging trans-SNARE complexes. Qa-SNARE members of the Arabidopsis SYP1 family are involved in membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or during cell plate formation. Three SYP1 family members have been classified as pollen-specific as inferred from gene expression profiling studies and two of them, SYP124 and SYP125, are confined to angiosperms. The SYP124 gene appears genetically unstable whereas its sister gene SYP125 shows essentially no variation among Arabidopsis accessions...
August 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791484/loss-of-gcs1-hap2-does-not-affect-the-ovule-targeting-behavior-of-pollen-tubes
#17
Taro Takahashi, Ken Honda, Toshiyuki Mori, Tomoko Igawa
KEY MESSAGE : hap2-1 pollen tube ovule targeting. Upon pollination, a pollen grain germinates to produce a pollen tube, which grows through the style to deliver two immobile sperm cells to the female gametophyte. Double fertilization is completed after the pollen tube enters an ovule. GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1 (GCS1)/HAPLESS 2 (HAP2) contributes to the fusion of gametes at fertilization and has been suggested to affect pollen tube guidance. However, there is controversy over the role of GCS1/HAP2 in pollen tube guidance because of conflicting results from different studies...
August 8, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791037/adaptation-of-the-pivotal-differential-genome-pattern-for-the-induction-of-intergenomic-chromosome-recombination-in-hybrids-of-synthetic-amphidiploids-within-triticeae-tribe
#18
Michal T Kwiatek, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Halina Wisniewska
A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790088/transitions-from-distyly-to-homostyly-are-associated-with-floral-evolution-in-the-buckwheat-genus-fagopyrum
#19
Ling-Yun Wu, Bo Wang, Daniel J Schoen, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Documenting trait transitions among species with dimorphic flowers can help to test whether similar patterns of selection are responsible for divergence in floral traits among different species. Heterostyly is thought to promote outcrossing. Theory suggests that the evolutionary transition from heterostylous to homostylous flowers should be accompanied by a reduction in floral size in which pollen size and style length are expected to covary. Patterns of such correlated floral trait evolution have not, however, been widely examined...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783252/the-polyketide-synthase-ospks2-is-essential-for-pollen-exine-and-ubisch-body-patterning-in-rice
#20
Xiaolei Zhu, Jing Yu, Jianxin Shi, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Sagit Meir, Asaph Aharoni, Dawei Xu, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Lipid and phenolic metabolism are important for pollen exine formation. In Arabidopsis, polyketide synthases (PKSs) are essential for both sporopollenin biosynthesis and exine formation. Here, we characterized the role of a polyketide synthase (OsPKS2) in male reproduction of rice (Oryza sativa). Recombinant OsPKS2 catalyzed the condensation of fatty acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to generate triketide and tetraketide α-pyrones, the main components of pollen exine. Indeed, the ospks2 mutant had defective exine patterning and was male sterile...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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