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Accessory pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217655/regulation-of-lipolytic-response-and-energy-balance-by-melanocortin-2-receptor-accessory-protein-mrap-in-adipocytes
#1
Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Latoya E Campbell, Elena A De Filippis, Jun Liu
MRAP is highly expressed in adrenal gland and adipose tissue. In adrenal cells, MRAP is essential for ACTH-induced activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), leading to glucocorticoid production and secretion. Although ACTH was known to stimulate PKA-dependent lipolysis, the functional involvement of MRAP in adipocyte metabolism remains incompletely defined. Herein, we found that knockdown or overexpression of MRAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced or increased ACTH-induced lipolysis, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217619/microrna-4331-promotes-tgev-induced-mitochondrial-damage-via-targeting-rb1-up-regulating-il1rap-and-activating-p38-mapk-pathway-in-vitro
#2
Xiaomin Zhao, Xiaoyuan Bai, Lijuan Guan, Juejun Li, Xiangjun Song, Xuelian Ma, Jianxiong Guo, Zhichao Zhang, Qian Du, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the coronaviridae family, could cause fatal diarrhea of piglets and result in numerous economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that TGEV infection could lead to mitochondrial damage and up-regulate miR-4331 level. So miR-4331 may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To explore the potential role of miR-4331 in mitochondrial damage, we adopted a strategy consisting of quantitative proteomic analysis of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells in response to miR-4331 and TGEV infection...
December 7, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216460/getting-a-handle-on-neuropharmacology-by-targeting-receptor-associated-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Michael P Maher, Jose A Matta, Shenyan Gu, Mark Seierstad, David S Bredt
Targeted therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders requires selective modulation of dysfunctional neuronal pathways. Receptors relevant to CNS disorders typically have associated proteins discretely expressed in specific neuronal pathways; these accessory proteins provide a new dimension for drug discovery. Recent studies show that targeting a TARP auxiliary subunit of AMPA receptors selectively modulates neuronal excitability in specific forebrain pathways relevant to epilepsy. Other medicinally important ion channels, gated by glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine, also have associated proteins, which may be druggable...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203664/structural-insights-into-how-gtp-dependent-conformational-changes-in-a-metallochaperone-ureg-facilitate-urease-maturation
#4
Man Hon Yuen, Yu Hang Fong, Yap Shing Nim, Pak Ho Lau, Kam-Bo Wong
The ability of metallochaperones to allosterically regulate the binding/release of metal ions and to switch protein-binding partners along the metal delivery pathway is essential to the metallation of the metalloenzymes. Urease, catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, contains two nickel ions bound by a carbamylated lysine in its active site. Delivery of nickel ions for urease maturation is dependent on GTP hydrolysis and is assisted by four urease accessory proteins UreE, UreF, UreG, and UreH(UreD)...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187814/olfaction-and-pheromones-uncanonical-sensory-influences-and-bulbar-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Jorge A Larriva-Sahd
The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families) have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187201/sirt1-interaction-with-active-smad2-modulates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-regulated-transcription
#6
Eva María García-Vizcaíno, Sergio Liarte, José Luis Alonso-Romero, Francisco José Nicolás
BACKGROUND: The simplicity of Transforming Growth Factor ß (TGFβ) signaling pathway, linear and non-amplified, hardly sustains its variety of responses. This is often justified by the complex regulation showed by Smad proteins, TGFβ signaling intracellular transducers, object of post-translational modifications that modulate TGFβ-dependent transcription. Protein acetylation is emerging as a compelling mechanism affecting the activities of significant transcription factors, including p53, FOXO or NF-kB...
November 29, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183286/first-gene-ontology-enrichment-analysis-based-on-bacterial-coregenome-variants-insights-into-adaptations-of-salmonella-serovars-to-mammalian-and-avian-hosts
#7
Arnaud Felten, Meryl Vila Nova, Kevin Durimel, Laurent Guillier, Michel-Yves Mistou, Nicolas Radomski
BACKGROUND: Many of the bacterial genomic studies exploring evolution processes of the host adaptation focus on the accessory genome describing how the gains and losses of genes can explain the colonization of new habitats. Consequently, we developed a new approach focusing on the coregenome in order to describe the host adaptation of Salmonella serovars. METHODS: In the present work, we propose bioinformatic tools allowing (i) robust phylogenetic inference based on SNPs and recombination events, (ii) identification of fixed SNPs and InDels distinguishing homoplastic and non-homoplastic coregenome variants, and (iii) gene-ontology enrichment analyses to describe metabolic processes involved in adaptation of Salmonella enterica subsp...
November 28, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180446/quantitative-ligand-and-receptor-binding-studies-reveal-the-mechanism-of-interleukin-36-il-36-pathway-activation
#8
Li Zhou, Viktor Todorovic, Steve Kakavas, Bernhard Sielaff, Limary Medina, Leyu Wang, Ramkrishna Sadhukhan, Henning Stockmann, Paul L Richardson, Enrico DiGiammarino, Chaohong Sun, Victoria Scott
IL-36 cytokines signal through the IL-36 re-ceptor (IL-36R) and a shared subunit, IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). The activation mechanism for the IL-36 pathway is proposed to be similar to that of IL-1 in that an IL-36R agonist (IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ) forms a binary complex with IL-36R, which then recruits IL-1RAcP. Recent studies have shown that IL-36R interacts with IL-1RAcP even in the absence of an agonist. To elucidate the IL-36 activation mechanism, we considered all possible binding events for IL-36 ligands/receptors and examined these events in direct binding assays...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175156/il-33-st2-pathway-as-a-rational-therapeutic-target-for-cns-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Li-Xia Du, Yan-Qing Wang, Guo-Qiang Hua, Wen-Li Mi
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family that is produced by many different types of tissues including the central nervous system (CNS). IL-33 mediates its effects via its heterodimeric receptor complex, comprised of ST2 and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcp). As a pleiotropic nuclear cytokine, IL-33 is a crucial actor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, allergic diseases, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. Recently, accumulated evidence show that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a crucial and diverse role in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, infectious diseases, traumatic CNS injury, chronic pain, etc...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165431/spinal-accessory-nerve-preservation-in-modified-neck-dissections-surgical-and-functional-outcomes
#10
V Popovski, A Benedetti, D Popovic-Monevska, A Grcev, A Stamatoski, J Zhivadinovik
The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) or XI cranial nerve is frequently encountered during neck surgery, and as such is at risk of iatrogenic injury, resulting in "shoulder syndrome". Modified neck dissection (MND) with preservation of the SAN is based on desire to minimise the functional deformity associated with section of the eleventh nerve. The aim of this study was to analyse the intra-operative variations of the spinal accessory nerve pathway and to evaluate shoulder dysfunction postoperatively. The cross-sectional demonstration analysis was created through the medical records retrospectively of 165 consecutive patients who underwent neck dissections at our institution in the past 5 years with attention to ultrasound and MRI preoperative findings, type of neck dissection, type of identification and dissection of SAN, postoperative morbidity and survival rate...
October 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163049/tagging-of-endogenous-bk-channels-with-a-fluorogen-activating-peptide-reveals-%C3%AE-4-mediated-control-of-channel-clustering-in-cerebellum
#11
Christopher P Pratt, Dika A Kuljis, Gregg E Homanics, Jianjun He, Dmytro Kolodieznyi, Srikanth Dudem, Mark A Hollywood, Alison L Barth, Marcel P Bruchez
BK channels are critical regulators of neuronal activity, controlling firing, neurotransmitter release, cerebellar function, and BK channel mutations have been linked to seizure disorders. Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. Fluorogen-activating peptides (FAPs) are well-suited for trafficking and physiological studies due to the binding of malachite green (MG)-based dyes with sub-nanomolar affinity to the FAP, resulting in bright, photostable, far-red fluorescence...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147584/il-33-acts-to-express-schaffer-collateral-ca1-ltp-and-regulate-learning-and-memory-by-targeting-myd88
#12
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is recognized to transmit a signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex ST2/interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) bearing activation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). High-frequency stimulation to the Schaffer collateral induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from wild-type control mice. Schaffer collateral/CA1 LTP in IL-33-deficient mice was significantly suppressed, which was neutralized by application with IL-33. Similar suppression of the LTP was found with MyD88-deficient mice but not with ST2-deficient mice...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147512/on-the-performance-of-a-photosystem-ii-reaction-centre-based-photocell
#13
Richard Stones, Hoda Hossein-Nejad, Rienk van Grondelle, Alexandra Olaya-Castro
The photosystem II reaction centre is the photosynthetic complex responsible for oxygen production on Earth. Its water splitting function is particularly favoured by the formation of a stable charge separated state via a pathway that starts at an accessory chlorophyll. Here we envision a photovoltaic device that places one of these complexes between electrodes and investigate how the mean current and its fluctuations depend on the microscopic interactions underlying charge separation in the pathway considered...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142289/comprehensive-genomic-analysis-of-a-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacterium-pantoea-agglomerans-strain-p5
#14
Vahid Shariati J, Mohammad Ali Malboobi, Zeinab Tabrizi, Elahe Tavakol, Parviz Owilia, Maryam Safari
In this study, we provide a comparative genomic analysis of Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and 10 closely related strains based on phylogenetic analyses. A next-generation shotgun strategy was implemented using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 technology followed by core- and pan-genome analysis. The genome of P. agglomerans strain P5 contains an assembly size of 5082485 bp with 55.4% G + C content. P. agglomerans consists of 2981 core and 3159 accessory genes for Coding DNA Sequences (CDSs) based on the pan-genome analysis...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127698/coincident-proximal-and-distal-retrograde-left-atrial-activation-one-or-two-accessory-pathways
#15
Layth Saleh, Steven M Markowitz, Jim W Cheung, George Thomas, Christopher F Liu, James E Ip, Bruce B Lerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125828/comprehensive-analysis-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-fibroblasts-by-rna-sequencing-reveals-altered-levels-of-protein-synthesis-factors-and-solute-carriers
#16
Jill Sergesketter Napierala, Yanjie Li, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Lauren A Hauser, David R Lynch, Marek Napierala
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease usually caused by large homozygous expansions of GAA repeat sequences in intron 1 of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients homozygous for GAA expansions have low FXN mRNA and protein levels when compared with heterozygous carriers or healthy controls. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, and many FRDA phenotypes result from deficiencies in cellular metabolism due to lowered expression of FXN Presently, there is no effective treatment for FRDA, and biomarkers to measure therapeutic trial outcomes and/or to gauge disease progression are lacking...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125655/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-autoantigenic-and-total-antibody-concentrations-results-from-a-danish-case-control-study-of-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-childhood-type-1-diabetes-and-their-healthy-siblings
#17
Steffen Ullitz Thorsen, Christian B Pipper, Jesper Johannesen, Henrik Bindesbøl Mortensen, Flemming Pociot, Jannet Svensson
BACKGROUND: B cells have recently entered the stage as an important accessory player in type 1 diabetes (T1D) etiopathogenesis. Experimental studies suggest regulatory functions of vitamin D on B cells. However, only a few human studies, with considerable methodological limitations, have been conducted within this field. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate if higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were inversely associated with β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A)...
November 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124822/advanced-cell-culture-models-for-diamond-blackfan-anemia-and-other-erythroid-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Anna Rita Migliaccio, Lilian Varricchio
In vitro surrogate models of human erythropoiesis made many contributions to our understanding of the extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of this process in vivo and how they are altered in erythroid disorders. In the past, variability among the levels of hemoglobin F produced by adult erythroblasts generated in vitro by different laboratories identified stage of maturation, fetal bovine serum and accessory cells as "confounding factors", i.e. parameters intrinsically wired in the experimental approach that bias the results observed...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111459/myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-induced-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-upregulation-of-ros-through-a-tlr4-nox4-pathway
#19
Huaicheng Chen, Zongming Song, Shilong Ying, Xi Yang, Wei Wu, Qiufan Tan, Xin Ju, Wencan Wu, Xin Zhang, Jia Qu, Yi Wang
Retinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is common in many ophthalmic diseases. Recent studies have shown that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in ischemic retinal injury. Activation of TLRs requires specific accessory proteins such as myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2), which facilitate in ligand responsiveness. Therefore, inhibiting MD2 may be a novel approach to modulate TLR4 signaling and deleterious downstream effects in ischemic retinal injury. We used human Müller MIO-M1 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to establish an in vitro I/R model of oxidative injury and tested the therapeutic effect of inhibiting MD2...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110758/apol1-renal-risk-variants-fertile-soil-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A Winkler
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
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