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Accessory pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663684/adult-neurogenesis-in-the-central-olfactory-pathway-of-dendrobranchiate-and-caridean-shrimps-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-deutocerebral-proliferative-system-in-reptant-decapods
#1
Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661139/genome-analysis-of-the-freshwater-planktonic-vulcanococcus-limneticus-sp-nov-reveals-horizontal-transfer-of-nitrogenase-operon-and-alternative-pathways-of-nitrogen-utilization
#2
Andrea Di Cesare, Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Nathan A M Chrismas, Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, Michaela M Salcher, Cristiana Callieri
BACKGROUND: Many cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, playing a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling. Little is known about freshwater unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. at the genomic level, despite being recognised of considerable ecological importance in aquatic ecosystems. So far, it has not been shown whether these unicellular picocyanobacteria have the potential for nitrogen fixation. Here, we present the draft-genome of the new pink-pigmented Synechococcus-like strain Vulcanococcus limneticus...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661000/regulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#3
Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624167/proteasome-storage-granules-protect-proteasomes-from-autophagic-degradation-upon-carbon-starvation
#4
Richard Scott Marshall, Richard David Vierstra
26S proteasome abundance is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the elimination of excess or inactive particles by autophagy. In yeast, this proteaphagy occurs upon nitrogen starvation but not carbon starvation, which instead stimulates the rapid sequestration of proteasomes into cytoplasmic puncta termed proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Here, we show that PSGs help protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation. Both the core protease and regulatory particle sub-complexes are sequestered separately into PSGs via pathways dependent on the accessory proteins Blm10 and Spg5, respectively...
April 6, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622376/mahaim-fiber-mediated-tachycardia
#5
Gustavo Lima da Silva, Nuno Cortez-Dias, Ana Bernardes, João Sousa
We present the case of a previously healthy 42-year-old man who attended the emergency department due to a sudden onset of rapid and regular palpitations. The ECG showed 190 bpm, wide QRS with left bundle branch block tachycardia. He was started on amiodarone with progression to 230 bpm, wide QRS tachycardia with multiple morphologies, followed by spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm, normal PR interval and rS pattern in LIII. The echocardiogram was negative for structural heart disease. The electrophysiological study demonstrated the presence of an accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction and no retrograde conduction...
April 2, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619598/pcr-array-profiling-of-antiviral-genes-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cells-expressing-human-coronavirus-oc43-structural-and-accessory-proteins
#6
Meshal Beidas, Wassim Chehadeh
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a respiratory virus that usually causes a common cold. However, it has the potential to cause severe infection in young children and immunocompromised adults. Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were shown to express proteins with the potential to evade early innate immune responses. However, the ability of HCoV-OC43 to antagonise the intracellular antiviral defences has not yet been investigated. The potential role of the HCoV-OC43 structural (M and N) and accessory proteins (ns2a and ns5a) in the alteration of antiviral gene expression was investigated in this study...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618167/recombinant-protein-susceptibility-to-proteolysis-in-the-plant-cell-secretory-pathway-is-ph-dependent
#7
Philippe V Jutras, Marie-Claire Goulet, Pierre-Olivier Lavoie, Marc-André D'Aoust, Frank Sainsbury, Dominique Michaud
Cellular engineering approaches have been proposed to mitigate unintended proteolysis in plant protein biofactories, involving the design of protease activity-depleted environments by gene silencing or in situ inactivation with accessory protease inhibitors. Here, we assessed the impact of Influenza virus M2 proton channel on host protease activities and recombinant protein processing in the cell secretory pathway of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transient co-expression assays with M2 and GFP variant pHluorin were first conducted to illustrate the potential of proton export from the Golgi lumen to promote recombinant protein yield...
April 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601948/microarray-analysis-of-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-for-key-gene-screening-key-pathway-identification-and-drug-prediction
#8
Lina Wei, Chunlei Xin, Wenjuan Wang, Cuifang Hao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to screen key genes and pathways involved in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and predict drugs for treatment of obese PCOS via bioinformatics approaches. METHODS: Microarray dataset GSE10946 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 7 cumulus cell samples from obese PCOS patients and 6 lean control samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between obese PCOS and controls were obtained using Bayesian test after data preprocessing, followed by functional enrichment analyses for DEGs...
March 27, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599293/tagf-mediated-repression-of-bacterial-type-vi-secretion-systems-involves-a-direct-interaction-with-the-cytoplasmic-protein-fha
#9
Jer-Sheng Lin, Panayiota Pissaridou, Hsin-Hui Wu, Ming-Daw Tsai, Alain Filloux, Erh-Min Lai
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivers effectors into eukaryotic host cells or toxins into bacterial competitor for survival and fitness. The T6SS is positively regulated by the threonine phosphorylation pathway (TPP) and negatively by the T6SS-accessory protein TagF. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying TagF-mediated T6SS repression in two distinct bacterial pathogens, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that in A. tumefaciens, T6SS toxin secretion and T6SS-dependent antibacterial activity are suppressed by a two-domain chimeric protein consisting of TagF and PppA, a putative phosphatase...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593177/molecular-pathogenesis-of-familial-wolff-parkinson-white-syndrome
#10
Miyamotoa Licht
Familial Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease and consists of a small percentage of WPW syndrome which exhibits ventricular pre-excitation by development of accessory atrioventricular pathway. A series of mutations in PRKAG2 gene encoding gamma2 subunit of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as the cause of familial WPW syndrome. AMPK is one of the most important metabolic regulators of carbohydrates and lipids in many types of tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589903/changes-in-protein-dynamics-in-escherichia-coli-sufs-reveal-a-possible-conserved-regulatory-mechanism-in-type-ii-cysteine-desulfurase-systems
#11
Dokyong Kim, Harsimran Singh, Yuyuan Dai, Guangchao Dong, Laura S Busenlehner, Franklin Wayne Outten, Patrick A Frantom
In the Suf Fe-S cluster assembly pathway, the activity of the cysteine desulfurase, SufS, is regulated by interactions with the accessory sulfotransferase protein, SufE. SufE has been shown to stimulate SufS activity, likely through inducing conformational changes in the SufS active site that promote the desulfurase step and by acting as an efficient persulfide acceptor in the transpersulfuration step. Previous results point toward an additional level of regulation through a 'half-sites' mechanism that affects the stoichiometry and affinity for SufE as the dimeric SufS shifts between desulfurase and transpersulfuration activities...
March 28, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573995/investigation-of-ventricular-pre-excitation-electrocardiographic-pattern-in-two-horses-clinical-presentation-and-potential-causes
#12
Judit Viu, Lara Armengou, Annelies Decloedt, Eduard Jose-Cunilleras
Two horses referred to the Unitat Equina, Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, for unrelated clinical problems, and with no previous history of cardiac disease exhibited an intermittent ventricular pre-excitation electrocardiographic pattern during hospitalization. Both animals showed decreased plasma total and ionized magnesium concentrations, but no other relevant electrolyte disturbances were detected. Altered interventricular septal motion associated with ventricular pre-excitation beats (VPBs) was detected on M-mode echocardiography in both horses...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557687/passive-accessory-joint-mobilization-in-the-multimodal-management-of-chronic-dysesthesia-following-thalamic-stroke
#13
Kristina Griffin, Michael O'Hearn, Carla C Franck, Carol A Courtney
STUDY DESIGN: Case Report. PURPOSE: Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability. Dysesthesia, an unpleasant sensory disturbance, is common following thalamic stroke and evidence-based interventions for this impairment are limited. The purpose of this case report was to describe a decrease in dysesthesia following manual therapy intervention in a patient with history of right lacunar thalamic stroke. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old female presented with tingling and dysesthesia in left hemisensory distribution including left trunk and upper/lower extremities, limiting function...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556151/iatrogenic-ventricular-fibrillation-after-direct-current-cardioversion-of-preexcited-atrial-fibrillation-caused-by-inadvertent-t-wave-synchronization
#14
Michael R Kaufmann, Matthew S McKillop, Thomas A Burkart, Mark Panna, Jamie B Conti, William M Miles
Direct-current cardioversion is an important means of managing arrhythmias. During treatment, carefully synchronizing energy delivery to the QRS complex is necessary to avoid ventricular fibrillation caused by a shock during the vulnerable period of ventricular repolarization, that is, a shock on the T wave. The presence of an accessory pathway and ventricular preexcitation can lead to difficulty in distinguishing the QRS complex from the T wave because of bizarre, wide, irregular QRS complexes and prominent repolarization...
February 2018: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552725/age-dependent-decrease-in-glomeruli-and-receptor-cells-containing-%C3%AE-1-2-fucose-glycan-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-system-but-not-in-the-vomeronasal-system
#15
Daisuke Kondoh, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) project axons to glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively and undergo continuous turnover throughout life. Alpha1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity and plays important roles in the formation of the olfactory system during development. We previously confirmed the localization of α1-2Fuc glycan in the olfactory system of 3- to 4-month-old mice but whether such localization persists throughout life remains unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550833/a-case-of-lown-ganong-levine-syndrome-due-to-an-accessory-pathway-of-james-fibers-or-enhanced-atrioventricular-nodal-conduction-eavnc
#16
Juanita Hunter, Emmanouil Tsounias, John Cogan, Ming-Lon Young
BACKGROUND Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome, includes a short PR interval, normal QRS complex, and paroxysmal tachycardia. The pathophysiology of this syndrome includes an accessory pathway connecting the atria and the atrioventricular (AV) node (James fiber), or between the atria and the His bundle (Brechenmacher fiber). Similar features are seen in enhanced atrioventricular nodal conduction (EAVNC), with the underlying pathophysiology due to a fast pathway to the AV node, and with the diagnosis requiring specific electrophysiologic criteria...
March 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547744/telomerase-activity-and-telomere-on-stem-progeny-senescence
#17
REVIEW
Balal Brazvan, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Kobra Velaei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Zeynab Aliyari Serej, Ayyub Ebrahimi, Mohammad Ghorbani, Omid Cheraghi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
The end of linear chromosomes is formed of a special nucleoprotein heterochromatin structure with repetitive TTAGGG sequences called telomere. Telomere length is regulated by a special enzyme called telomerase, a specific DNA polymerase that adds new telomeric sequences to the chromosome ends. Telomerase consists of two parts; the central protein part and the accessory part which is a RNA component transported by the central part. Regulation of telomere length by this enzyme is a multi-stage process. Telomere length elongation is strongly influenced by the level of telomerase and has a strong correlation with the activity of telomerase enzyme...
March 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547022/hypothesis-role-for-ammonia-neutralization-in-the-prevention-and-reversal-of-heart-failure
#18
Oscar H L Bing
Ammonia plays a central role in the life and death of all living organisms and has been studied for over one hundred years. Ammonia is necessary for growth and development but it is toxic in excess and, as a result, differing methods of ammonia neutralization have evolved. Following physiological and pathological stress to the heart, tissue ammonia levels rise. Local ammonia neutralization may be inadequate and excess ammonia may exert its toxic effects. Phenylbutyrate (PBA), which is FDA approved for the treatment of elevated blood ammonia in urea cycle disorders, provides an accessory pathway for ammonia clearance...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545119/regulation-of-ampa-receptor-trafficking-and-exit-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#19
REVIEW
Joseph E Pick, Edward B Ziff
A fundamental property of the brain is its ability to modify its function in response to its own activity. This ability for self-modification depends to a large extent on synaptic plasticity. It is now appreciated that for excitatory synapses, a significant part of synaptic plasticity depends upon changes in the post synaptic response to glutamate released from nerve terminals. Modification of the post synaptic response depends, in turn, on changes in the abundances of AMPA receptors in the post synaptic membrane...
March 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545069/ascorbic-acid-increases-svct2-localization-at-the-plasma-membrane-by-accelerating-its-trafficking-from-early-secretory-compartments-and-through-the-endocytic-recycling-pathway
#20
A Covarrubias-Pinto, A I Acuña, G Boncompain, E Pápic, P V Burgos, F Perez, M A Castro
Ascorbic acid (Asc) is an antioxidant molecule essential for physiological functions. The concentration of extracellular Asc increases during synaptic transmission and renal reabsorption. These phenomena induce an increase of the Sodium-dependent-Vitamin-C-transporter 2 (SVCT2) at plasma membrane (PM) localization, as we previously demonstrated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate intracellular SVCT2 trafficking kinetics in response to Asc. We observed two peaks of SVCT2 localization and function at the PM (at 5-10min, "acute response", and 30-60min, "post-acute response") when cells were incubated with Asc...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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