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Stigma and mental illness

Albert Park, Mike Conway, Annie T Chen
Objectives: Social media, including online health communities, have become popular platforms for individuals to discuss health challenges and exchange social support with others. These platforms can provide support for individuals who are concerned about social stigma and discrimination associated with their illness. Although mental health conditions can share similar symptoms and even co-occur, the extent to which discussion topics in online mental health communities are similar, different, or overlapping is unknown...
January 2018: Computers in Human Behavior
Simon M Rice, Rosemary Purcell, Patrick D McGorry
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Aiste Pranckeviciene, Kristina Zardeckaite-Matulaitiene, Rasa Marksaityte, Aukse Endriulaitiene, Douglas R Tillman, David D Hof
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare desire for social distance from people with mental illness in the disciplines of social work and psychology, and among students and professionals having different professional experience. METHODS: 948 respondents (715 students and 233 professionals) from Lithuanian educational and mental health-care institutions participated in an anonymous survey. Social distance was measured using Lithuanian Social Distance Scale which was created for this study...
February 16, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Matthew L Goldman, Brigitta Spaeth-Rublee, Harold Alan Pincus
Extensive evidence documents that people with severe mental illness have higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population and receive lower-quality and higher-cost health care. These trends, at least in part, stem from discrimination, exclusion, widespread stigma, and criminalization of individuals with mental illness. As such, severe mental illness should receive formal, national recognition as a disparities category. Such a designation would have multiple important implications in health policy, services and quality research, and advocacy...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Elizabeth Collier, Maria J Grant
PURPOSE: To illuminate long-term experiences of mental illness from both research and autobiographical accounts. DESIGN: A literature review of English-language papers, 1950-2014, relating to the experience of long-term mental illness indexed in AgeInfo, AMED, ASSIA, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, and PsychINFO. FINDINGS: Twenty-five research papers and nine autobiographic accounts met the review criteria. Thematic analysis revealed nine themes: fear, explanation seeking, stigma, disability, coping strategies, control, support, change and learning, and life history...
February 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
E Morris, C Hippman, G Murray, E E Michalak, J E Boyd, J Livingston, A Inglis, P Carrion, J Austin
BACKGROUND: Serious mental illness (SMI) is profoundly stigmatised, such that there is even an impact on relatives of people with SMI. Aims To develop and validate a scale to comprehensively measure self-stigma among first-degree relatives of individuals with SMI. METHOD: We conducted group interviews focusing on self-stigma with first-degree relatives (n = 20) of people with SMI, from which 74 representative quotations were reframed as Likert-type items. Cognitive interviews with relatives (n = 11) identified 30 items for the Self-Stigma in Relatives of people with Mental Illness (SSRMI) scale...
February 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Arun V Ravindran, Andres Herrera, Tricia L da Silva, Joanna Henderson, Magda Esther Castrillo, Stan Kutcher
Background: High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua. Methods: High school and university students (aged 14-25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n  =  567) and control (wait-list; n  =  346) groups in a non-randomized design...
2018: Global Mental Health
Laura M Hart, Amy J Morgan, Alyssia Rossetto, Claire M Kelly, Andrew Mackinnon, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: teen Mental Health First Aid (tMHFA) is a classroom-based training programme for students aged 15-18 years to improve supportive behaviours towards peers, increase mental health literacy and reduce stigma. This research evaluated tMHFA by comparing it to a matched emergency Physical First Aid (PFA) training programme. METHODS: A cluster-randomised crossover trial matched four public schools in two pairs and then randomised each to first receive tMHFA or PFA for all Year 10 students...
February 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Kristyna Vrbova, Petra Kasalova, Michaela Holubova, Ales Grambal, Klara Machu
Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the impact of self-stigma on the treatment outcomes in patients with anxiety disorders and to find possible mediators of this relationship. Method: Two hundred and nine patients with anxiety disorders, who were hospitalized in a psychotherapeutic department, attended the study. The average age was 39.2±12.4 years; two-thirds were women. Most of the patients used a long-term medication. The participants underwent either cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or short psychodynamic therapy...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kanika Mehrotra, Snigdha Nautiyal, Ahalya Raguram
The present study was undertaken to examine the current level of mental health literacy in family caregivers and to compare the changes over a 23-year period between 1993 and 2016. The current sample consisted of 60 family caregivers of patients with major mental illness from the in-patient and out-patient departments of NIMHANS assessed on the Orientation towards Mental Illness Scale (OMI). This was compared with data of 80 family caregivers from previous study done in 1993. Family caregivers in the current study showed a significant positive trend on comparison with the previous study...
February 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Valeria Cremonini, Nicola Pagnucci, Franco Giacometti, Ivan Rubbi
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Defines stigma as the process of social oppression barring persons with mental illness from enjoying social interaction through discrimination, exclusion and denial of human and social rights. Modern stereotypes still portray the mentally ill as guilty, unpredictable and violent. Observational studies report how healthcare professionals, including nurses, are often part of the stigma. Such phenomenon belittles the needs of people seeking mental care...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Bianca Brijnath, Josefine Antoniades
This article applies the framework of moral experience to examine the cultural experience of stigma with Indian-Australians and Anglo-Australians living with depression in Melbourne, Australia. To date few studies have examined this dynamic in relation to mental illness and culture, and no studies have applied this framework in a culturally comparative way. Based on 58 in-depth interviews with people with depression recruited from the community, we explicate how stigma modulates what is at stake upon disclosure of depression, participants' lived experience following that disclosure, and how practices of health-seeking become stigmatised...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Brandon A Kohrt, Mark J D Jordans, Elizabeth L Turner, Kathleen J Sikkema, Nagendra P Luitel, Sauharda Rai, Daisy R Singla, Jagannath Lamichhane, Crick Lund, Vikram Patel
Background: Non-specialist healthcare providers, including primary and community healthcare workers, in low- and middle-income countries can effectively treat mental illness. However, scaling-up mental health services within existing health systems has been limited by barriers such as stigma against people with mental illness. Therefore, interventions are needed to address attitudes and behaviors among non-specialists. Aimed at addressing this gap, REducing Stigma among HealthcAre Providers to ImprovE mental health services (RESHAPE) is an intervention in which social contact with mental health service users is added to training for non-specialist healthcare workers integrating mental health services into primary healthcare...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Elizabeth Flood-Grady, Jody Koenig Kellas
Guided by Communicated Narrative Sense-making Theory (CNSM), the current study investigated mental illness (MI) narratives told within families and the lessons younger members learned from these stories. Individual, semi-structured interviews with young adults (N = 24) revealed that family members, mainly parents, share stories about the MIs of individual family members and narratives reflected themes of struggle and caution. Participants reported learning important lessons from these MI narratives (i.e., MI awareness, importance of understanding MI)...
February 2, 2018: Health Communication
D M Gomez, C Gunarathna, S Gunarathna, K Gnanapragasam, Raveen Hanwella
Background: Mental illness contributes significantly to the global disease burden. There is great diversity in the manner in which mentally ill patients seek help as this is influenced by their beliefs and the opinion of the family-social support unit. The stigma associated with mental illness is a barrier to effective therapy in Sri Lanka where systematic public awareness programmes are minimal. Objective: To study the help-seeking behaviour and its impact on patients attending a psychiatry clinic of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka...
December 26, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
Nathalie Oexle, Patrick W Corrigan
People with mental illness are often members of multiple stigmatized social groups. Therefore, experienced disadvantage might not be determined solely by mental illness stigma. Nevertheless, most available research does not consider the effects and implications of membership in multiple stigmatized social groups among people with mental illness. Reflecting on intersectionality theory, the authors discuss two intersectional effects determining disadvantage among people with mental illness who are members of multiple stigmatized social groups, namely double disadvantage and prominence...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Z Xu, B Lay, N Oexle, T Drack, M Bleiker, S Lengler, C Blank, M Müller, B Mayer, W Rössler, N Rüsch
AIMS: Compulsory admission can be experienced as devaluing and stigmatising by people with mental illness. Emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation and stigma-related stress may affect recovery, but longitudinal data are lacking. We, therefore, examined the impact of stigma-related emotional reactions and stigma stress on recovery over a 2-year period. METHOD: Shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation, stigma stress, self-stigma and empowerment, as well as recovery were assessed among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalisation...
January 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Ziyan Xu, Mario Müller, Barbara Lay, Nathalie Oexle, Thekla Drack, Marco Bleiker, Silke Lengler, Christina Blank, Stefan Vetter, Wulf Rössler, Nicolas Rüsch
People with severe mental illness and a history of involuntary hospitalization may experience stigma-related stress and suffer negative consequences as a result. However, the long-term impact of stigma stress on suicidality in this population remains unknown. This longitudinal study therefore examined stigma stress, self-stigma, self-esteem and suicidal ideation among 186 individuals with mental illness and recent involuntary hospitalization. After adjusting for age, gender, diagnoses and symptoms, more stigma stress at baseline predicted suicidal ideation after 2 years, mediated by increased self-stigma and decreased self-esteem after 1 year...
January 27, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Kristin Kosyluk, Jennifer Marshall, Diana Rivera Macias, Donald Andrus, Daniela Guerra, Megan Robinson, Antonia Ostos, Stephanie Chapman
This Is My Brave (TIMB) is a contact-based mental illness stigma reduction program, set in theaters, meant to reduce stigma, increase beliefs about empowerment and recovery, and improve attitudes towards treatment seeking for mental health concerns. The authors conducted the first empirical evaluation of TIMB using a pre-post survey design. Approximately 481 audience members of TIMB performances were invited to complete a survey of stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness, beliefs about recovery and empowerment, and willingness to seek treatment at pre-and post-performance...
January 25, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Nawaraj Upadhaya, Mark J D Jordans, Dristy Gurung, Ruja Pokhrel, Ramesh P Adhikari, Ivan H Komproe
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drugs play an important role in the treatment of mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Despite the advancement of the use of psycho-pharmaceuticals in the developed countries, the psychotropic drug production and supply chain management in low- and middle- income countries are still poorly developed. This study aims to explore the perceptions of stakeholders involved in all stages of the psychotropic drug supply chain about the need, quality, availability and effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, as well as barriers to their supply chain management...
January 24, 2018: Globalization and Health
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