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Stigma and mental illness

Alexandra Hantzi, Fotios Anagnostopoulos, Eva Alexiou
Based on intergroup contact theory, a proposed comprehensive model of attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help was tested, including both potential barriers to mental health help-seeking (i.e., public stigma and self-stigma of seeking help, prejudicial and essentialist beliefs about mental illness, intergroup anxiety) and potential facilitators (i.e., direct and extended contact with persons with mental illness). Relevant measures were completed by 119 community-dwelling participants. Path analysis showed that direct (but not extended) contact with mental illness, by reducing intergroup anxiety, led to less negative beliefs about mental illness and weaker essentialist beliefs about mental illness (the latter being directly and positively associated with negative beliefs about mental illness)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Fabienne Post, Silvia Pardeller, Beatrice Frajo-Apor, Georg Kemmler, Catherine Sondermann, Armand Hausmann, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Yuya Mizuno, Hiroyuki Uchida, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVES: Improving Quality of Life (QoL) is an important objective in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to examine to which extent resilience, internalized stigma, and psychopathology are correlated to QoL. METHODS: We recruited 60 outpatients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder according to DSM-IV criteria and 77 healthy control subjects from the general community. In patients, symptoms were quantified by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and internalized stigma by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sauharda Rai, Dristy Gurung, Bonnie N Kaiser, Kathleen J Sikkema, Manoj Dhakal, Anvita Bhardwaj, Cori Tergesen, Brandon A Kohrt
INTRODUCTION: Service users' involvement as cofacilitators of mental health trainings is a nascent endeavor in low- and middle-income countries, and the role of families on service user participation in trainings has received limited attention. This study examined how caregivers perceive and facilitate service user's involvement in an antistigma program that was added to mental health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) trainings for primary care workers in Nepal. METHOD: Service users were trained as cofacilitators for antistigma and mhGAP trainings delivered to primary care workers through the REducing Stigma among HealthcAre ProvidErs (RESHAPE) program...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Christy L M Hui, Whitty W T Leung, Andreas K H Wong, Ka Yan Loong, Joy Kok, Amanda Hwang, Edwin H M Lee, Sherry K W Chan, Wing Chung Chang, Eric Y H Chen
AIM: Although the reasons behind the stigmatization of psychosis are manifold, poor mental health literacy among the general public is likely to be a major factor. In Hong Kong, the Early Psychosis Foundation (EPISO) was established in 2007 to tackle this issue by providing educational and mental health promotional activities, among other aims and services. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based interventional programme, the School Tour, developed by EPISO. METHODS: The School Tour differentiates itself from other interventional programmes by supplementing a traditional psychoeducational talk with 2 additional elements: an engaging drama performance and exercise demonstrations...
June 11, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Judy Wanjiru Mbuthia, Manasi Kumar, Fredrik Falkenström, Mary Wangari Kuria, Caleb Joseph Othieno
Background: Mental illness affects every segment of population including young adults. The beliefs held by young patients regarding the causes of mental illness impact their treatment-seeking behaviour. It is pertinent to know the commonly held attributions around mental illness so as to effectively provide psychological care, especially in a resource constrained context such as Kenya. This helps in targeting services around issues such as stigma and extending youth-friendly services...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Fausto Mazzi, Flavia Baccari, Francesco Mungai, Manuela Ciambellini, Lisa Brescancin, Fabrizio Starace
BACKGROUND: People with psychotic illness suffer from reduced quality of life and often from an insufficient level of social inclusion. These variables are associated with several negative outcomes, such as higher neuro-cognitive deficits, negative symptoms, internalised stigma, increased cardiovascular risk and, most importantly, excess mortality. To date, only a minority of social interventions in psychosis have been investigated. Since 2011, the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Modena introduced the "Social Point" program, which provides social inclusion interventions to promote active social participation for patients suffering from severe mental illness...
June 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Vincent Giannetti, Charles F Caley, Khalid M Kamal, Jordan R Covvey, Jerry McKee, Barbara G Wells, Dean M Najarian, Tyler J Dunn, Pratyusha Vadagam
Background Half of Americans experience mental illness during their lifetime. Significant opportunity exists for community pharmacists to deliver services to these patients; however, personal and practice-related barriers may prevent full engagement. Objective To assess the demographics, practice characteristics, service provision, stigma, attitudes and beliefs of a national sample of community pharmacists towards individuals with mental illness. Setting National random sample of 3008 community pharmacists in the USA...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Grace W K Ho, D Bressington, S F Leung, K K C Lam, A Y M Leung, A Molassiotis, J Ligot, C Ranoco, C Sophal, M Valimaki
PURPOSE: Depression literacy refers to the ability to recognize depression and make informed decisions about its treatment. To date, relatively little research has been done to examine depression literacy in the Western Pacific region. Given the pervasiveness of depression and the need to enhance mental health care in this region, it is important to gain a better understanding of depression literacy and health-seeking behaviors in this part of the world. METHODS: This mixed-methods study utilized a convergent parallel design to examine depression literacy and the associated health-seeking attitudes among urban adults from three countries-Cambodia, Philippines, and Fiji...
June 2, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Tomoo Fujii, Manako Hanya, Masanori Kishi, Yuki Kondo, Marshall E Cates, Hiroyuki Kamei
Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders tends to be manifested as negative attitudes or behavior toward the mentally ill. It has negative influences, such as leading to difficulty in establishing trust-based relationships and interfering with medical treatment. In order to reduce such stigma, it is necessary to clarify its extent and characteristics in healthcare professionals. Considering this, an Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted, involving doctors (n = 186), nurses (n = 161), and pharmacists (n = 192) in comparison with the general public (n = 331), and using the Whatley Social Distance Scale (WSDS) and Index of Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (IATM) as stigma-related indices...
May 28, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Tanya Wright, Tanisha Jowsey, Josephine Stanton, Hinemoa Elder, Suzanne Stevens, Trecia A Wouldes
BACKGROUND: Mothers with severe mental illness are vulnerable and engage with services cautiously due to fears of stigma and custody loss. To develop best practice standards and patient-centred services, the subjective experience of those who use it must inform service improvement and policy. METHOD: This study utilised exploratory concurrent mixed methods design with primarily qualitative data. Women admitted between April 2015 and December 2016 to a newly developed psychiatric Mother Baby Unit (MBU) in New Zealand were invited to participate in this study...
2018: PloS One
Myung-Sun Hyun, Kyoung A Nam, Hyunlye Kim
Families of persons with mental illness (PMIs) are considered important resources for PMIs rather than as contributors to their mental illness. However, these families experience not only the burden of caregiving but also social stigma and discrimination in various aspects of their lives, and their psychosocial needs tend to be overlooked. This was a pilot study to explore the effects of a brief empowerment program on the empowerment and quality of life of families of PMIs in South Korea. A repeated-measures design with a control group and pre/post-follow-up testing was used...
May 30, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Amy J Morgan, Nicola J Reavley, Anna Ross, Lay San Too, Anthony F Jorm
This review evaluates the evidence on what interventions are effective in reducing public stigma towards people with severe mental illness, defined as schizophrenia, psychosis or bipolar disorder. We included 62 randomised controlled trials of contact interventions, educational interventions, mixed contact and education, family psychoeducation programs, and hallucination simulations. Contact interventions led to small-to-medium reductions in stigmatising attitudes (d = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.55) and desire for social distance (d = 0...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon
Multiple studies on insight into one's illness and self-stigma among patients with serious mental illness and their relatives have shown that these constructs are related to one another and that they affect outcome. However, a critical exploration of the items used to assess both constructs raises questions with regard to the possible overlapping and centrality of items. The current study used five different samples to explore the possible overlap and distinction between insight and self-stigma, and to identify central items, via network analyses and principal component factor analysis...
May 24, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Luther Elliott, Alexander S Bennett, Kelly Szott, Andrew Golub
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands as a form of psychopathology that straddles moral and psychiatric domains. Grounded in discrete instances of trauma, PTSD represents an etiological outlier in an era of increased attention to the genetics of mental illness and a prime location for social constructivist analyses of mental illness. This examination of PTSD narratives-as voiced in qualitative interviews and focus groups with 50 veterans of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars living in New York City-attends to the processes through which veterans conceive and navigate PTSD symptoms and diagnoses...
May 23, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Julie Dupouy, Aurore Vergnes, Catherine Laporte, Shérazade Kinouani, Marc Auriacombe, Stéphane Oustric, Marie-Eve Rougé Bugat
BACKGROUND: High levels of stigma towards patients with substance use disorder (SUD) have been found in health professionals and medical students. OBJECTIVES: To assess the capability of residents in general practice to diagnose SUD correctly; to assess their stigmatization of patients with SUD and to assess the correlation between both variables. We hypothesized a negative correlation. METHODS: In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among French residents in general practice, using a self-administered questionnaire...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Mami Kasahara-Kiritani, Tomoko Matoba, Saeko Kikuzawa, Junko Sakano, Katsumi Sugiyama, Chikako Yamaki, Mieko Mochizuki, Yoshihiko Yamazaki
AIM: The purpose was to characterize public perceptions in Japan of mental illness and how they related to stigma-related attitudes for the same. METHODS: Data were obtained using a vignette survey conducted as a part of the Stigma in Global Context - Mental Health Study and contained a nationally representative sample (n = 994). The survey was conducted using a multi-mode approach (face-to-face interviews, the drop-off-and-pick-up, postal collection) from September to December 2006, with a multi-stage probability sample of Japanese residents aged 18-64 years...
May 16, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Eunice C Wong, Rebecca L Collins, Joshua Breslau, M Audrey Burnam, Matthew Cefalu, Elizabeth A Roth
This study examined the role of stigma at two stages of the treatment-seeking process by assessing associations between various types of stigma and perceived need for mental health treatment as well as actual treatment use. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2014 and 2016 California Well-Being Survey, a telephone survey with a representative sample of 1954 California residents with probable mental illness. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that perceived need was associated with less negative beliefs about mental illness (odds ratio [OR] = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Getinet Ayano
BACKGROUND:  Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. AIMS:  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted...
March 29, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Kai Sing Sun, Tai Pong Lam, Dan Wu
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for integration of mental health into primary care for a decade. In Western countries, around 15% to 25% of patients with common mental disorders including mood and anxiety disorders seek help from primary care physicians (PCPs). The rate is only about 5% in China. AIMS: This article reviews the Chinese findings on the barriers to primary care for common mental disorders and how they compared with Western findings...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Fergus Gardiner, E C Gardiner
Studies have identified that there are many barriers to treatment of mental health illnesses in military populations, including the negative-associated stigma. One such barrier includes perceptions of weakness, leading to concerns about leadership and competency and being seen as malingering. Furthermore, similarities can be seen in civilian health professionals, where concerns of negative perceptions can limit reporting and treatment of mental health illnesses. Despite the frequency of stressful events, military and health professionals do not become immune to stress and are often ill prepared to cope with acute stressors that can often build on each other until emotional exhaustion and/or crisis point...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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