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Stigma and mental illness

Victoria Saigle, Eric Racine
For each one of the approximately 800,000 people who die from suicide every year, an additional twenty people attempt suicide. Many of these attempts result in hospitalization or in contact with other healthcare services. However, many personal, educational, and institutional barriers make it difficult for healthcare professionals to care for suicidal individuals. We reviewed literature that discusses suicidal patients in healthcare settings in order to highlight common ethical issues and to identify knowledge gaps...
April 17, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Preeti K Mahato, Edwin van Teijlingen, Padam Simkhada, Catherine Angell, Jillian Ireland
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is increasingly recognized as a global health problem. However, in many countries, including Nepal, it is difficult to talk about mental health problems due to the stigma associated with it. Hence a training programme was developed to train auxiliary nurse midwives, who otherwise are not trained in mental health as part of their pre-registration training in rural Nepal, on issues related to maternal mental health. After the training programme a selection of auxiliary nurse midwives were interviewed to establish their views on the training, its usefulness and ways to improve it...
April 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Mega Lestari Khoirunnisa, Achir Yani Syuhaimie Hamid, Novy Helena Catharina Daulima
OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia that is likely to persist after hospitalization. This study aimed to describe family experiences in communicating with post-hospitalized family members experiencing social isolation. METHOD: This study used a descriptive phenomenology qualitative approach. The research sample consisted of seven participants selected by a purposive sampling method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with family members of people with schizophrenia who experienced social isolation after hospitalization...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
A Macedo, L Sherr, M Tomlinson, S Skeen, K J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. SETTING: This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jie Li, Yuan-Guang Huang, Mao-Sheng Ran, Yu Fan, Wen Chen, Sara Evans-Lacko, Graham Thornicroft
Comprehensive interventions including components of stigma and discrimination reduction in schizophrenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. We developed a community-based comprehensive intervention to evaluate its effects on clinical symptoms, social functioning, internalized stigma and discrimination among patients with schizophrenia. A randomized controlled trial including an intervention group (n = 169) and a control group (n = 158) was performed. The intervention group received comprehensive intervention (strategies against stigma and discrimination, psycho-education, social skills training and cognitive behavioral therapy) and the control group received face to face interview...
April 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Joanna Yang, Roberto Lopez Cervera, Susannah J Tye, Stephen C Ekker, Chris Pierret
BACKGROUND: Mental illness contributes substantially to global disease burden, particularly when illness onset occurs during youth and help-seeking is delayed and/or limited. Yet, few mental health promotion interventions target youth, particularly those with or at high risk of developing mental illness ("at-risk" youth). Community-based translational research has the capacity to identify and intervene upon barriers to positive health outcomes. This is especially important for integrated care in at-risk youth populations...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Biksegn Asrat, Alem Eskeziya Ayenalem, Tenaw Yimer
Background: This study tried to reflect evidences regarding internalized stigma and assessed risk factors of internalized stigma. Objective: It aims to assess the magnitude, domains, and covariates of internalized stigma among patients with mental illness in southern Ethiopia. Methods: The study was carried out by using a cross-sectional study design at Dilla University Referral Hospital (DURH). A total of 317 patients with mental illness were involved...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Mona Eklund, Martin Bäckström, Lars Hansson
BACKGROUND: The widely used Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSES) has not been evaluated for psychometric properties in Sweden. AIMS: This study aimed at analyzing its factor structure, internal consistency, criterion, convergent and discriminant validity, sensitivity to change, and whether a four-graded Likert-type response scale increased its reliability and validity compared to a yes/no response scale. METHODS: People with mental illness participating in intervention studies to (1) promote everyday life balance (N = 223) or (2) remedy self-stigma (N = 103) were included...
April 1, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Patrick W Corrigan, Nicolas Rüsch, Katrina Scior
A 2016 report from the National Academy of Sciences describes strategies that reduce the stigma of mental illness. Prominent among these are contact between people with and without mental illness and strategic disclosure for lessening both public and self-stigma. The report also recognizes the complexity of stigma in the realm of psychiatric phenomena. As a socially constructed phenomenon, mental illness stigma intersects with race-ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation to affect ways in which it is perceived and experienced...
April 2, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Kristyna Vrbova, Jan Prasko, Michaela Holubova, Milos Slepecky, Marie Ociskova
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the investigation was to explore the relationship between positive or negative symptoms, social anxiety, hope, personality, and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: 57 outpatients took part in this cross-sectional study. The structured interview M.I.N.I. International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised...
March 1, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Bianca Manago, Bernice A Pescosolido, Sigrun Olafsdottir
AIMS: Quantitative survey research findings reveal that Western countries have lower rates of public stigma surrounding mental illness than other nations. However, qualitative media research across selected Western countries reports differences in stigmatising messages. Here, we take an in-depth look at country-level data exploring both similarities and differences in this stigma across three countries. Specifically, we use previous findings on global differences in public stigma and media to examine whether there is a correspondence between themes in newspaper reporting and variations in attitudes across seven stigma dimensions...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Lucie Kalisova, Jiri Michalec, Demetra Hadjipapanicolaou, Jiri Raboch
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess sociodemographic factors and factors connected with treatment of mental illness and to decide whether they can influence the level of self-stigma. METHOD: Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, family status, level of employment, level of education) and characteristics related to illness and treatment (diagnosis, length of treatment, adherence to treatment) were gathered in a group of patients in stable mental condition, without acute symptoms of mental illness...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Dominiek Coates, Christine Saleeba, Deborah Howe
There continues to be call for greater community awareness actions and strategies to reduce stigma and enhance mental health literacy nationally and internationally. To identify local barriers to help-seeking and perceptions around stigma, we developed a 'mental health attitudes and beliefs' survey which was administered at a range of community events on the Central Coast in New South Wales, Australia. The aim was for the results of this survey to inform the development of strategies that enhance local help-seeking behaviours that are sensitive to the role of age, gender and Indigenous status...
March 27, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Beverley McNamara, Anne Same, Lorna Rosenwax, Brian Kelly
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia are at risk of receiving poorer end of life care than other patients. They are often undertreated, avoid treatment and are about half as likely to access palliative care. There are limited options for end of life care for this under-serviced group in need. This study aims to address the paucity of research by documenting possible need, experiences of health care service use and factors affecting palliative care use for people with schizophrenia who have advanced life limiting illness...
March 27, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Bruna Sordi Carrara, Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura
Integrative review about self-stigma among people with mental illness and its relationship with health services. A total of 149 articles were found in four databases. After screening, 9 articles were selected for complete reading and data extraction. The studies identified that higher levels of self-stigma result in lower levels of adherence to treatment and that lower levels of self-stigma result in greater adherence to treatment. Active participation and engagement in the aspects of care facilitate the empowerment of people with mental illness for better adherence to treatment, reduction of self-stigma and increase of recovery possibilities...
April 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Amy Degnan, Katherine Berry, Susannah James, Dawn Edge
The absence of assessment tools incorporating different cultural models of mental illness is a major barrier to recruiting ethnic minorities into clinical trials, reducing generalisability of findings and potentially increasing disparities in access to evidence-based care. This study aimed to develop and validate a new Knowledge about Psychosis (KAP) self-report measure and a culturally-adapted version for African-Caribbean people (CaKAP). Content and face validity were achieved through consultations with experts in psychosis and a focus group with service users, carers, and community members...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sang Yup Lee
Although having a mental illness has become common, many people tend to hide their illness and avoid seeking treatment. One of the reasons for not seeking treatment is the stigma of mental illness. Celebrity confessions about their experiences of mental illness can reduce such stigma, because the public obtains more knowledge about the illness and becomes more familiar with it. However, little research has been conducted on the influence of a celebrity's confession about mental illness on the public's health behaviors related to the illness...
March 22, 2018: Health Communication
Yao-Hui Huang, Yao-Yu Lin, Shih-Kai Lee, Ming-Feng Lee, Ching-Lan Esther Lin
BACKGROUND: The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. PURPOSE: To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. METHODS: This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP)...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
E Bethan Davies, Emmeline Beever, Cris Glazebrook
BACKGROUND: Medical students face many barriers to seeking out professional help for their mental health, including stigma relating to mental illness, and often prefer to seek support and advice from fellow students. Improving medical students' mental health literacy and abilities to support someone experiencing a mental health problem could reduce barriers to help seeking and improve mental health in this population. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an evidence-based intervention designed to improve mental health literacy and ability to respond to someone with a mental health problem...
March 21, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Kendall Cortelyou-Ward, Timothy Rotarius, Jed C Honrado
Mental ill-health is a public health threat that is prevalent throughout the United States. Tens of millions of Americans have been diagnosed along the continuum of mental ill-health, and many more millions of family members and friends are indirectly affected by the pervasiveness of mental ill-health. Issues such as access and the societal stigma related to mental health issues serve as deterrents to patients receiving their necessary care. However, technological advances have shown the potential to increase access to mental health services for many patients...
March 19, 2018: Health Care Manager
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