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Global Mental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216969/legal-issues-for-transgender-people-a-review-of-persistent-threats
#1
Jamison Green
Background The legal status of transgender (trans) people is in constant flux. Over the past 70 years, gradually increasing transgender visibility, national and global advocacy, and, more recently, widespread Internet access, communication, and broadening support from allies, have all contributed to successful campaigns that have improved transgender lives and legitimised transgender. Still, traumatic interactions with the legal system or policing agencies remain plentiful. This is a very general overview of the most common legal issues confronting trans people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215576/fasting-plasma-glucose-self-appraised-diet-quality-and-depressive-symptoms-a-us-representative-cross-sectional-study
#2
Erin Hoare, Sarah R Dash, Pia Varsamis, Garry L Jennings, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#3
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202665/the-social-determinants-of-refugee-mental-health-in-the-post-migration-context-a-critical-review
#4
Michaela Hynie
With the global increase in the number of refugees and asylum seekers, mental health professionals have become more aware of the need to understand and respond to the mental health needs of forced migrants. This critical review summarizes the findings of recent systematic reviews and primary research on the impact of post-migration conditions on mental disorders and PTSD among refugees and asylum seekers. Historically, the focus of mental health research and interventions with these populations has been on the impact of pre-migration trauma...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202662/addressing-mental-health-needs-of-refugees
#5
Cécile Rousseau
Throughout history, refugees have alternatively been seen as entitled victims of adversity or as threats or abusers of host countries scarce resources. Within the present globalized context, ambivalent public perceptions of refugees are shattering the protective nature of the post migratory environment in refugee receiving countries. This raises new challenges for refugees' mental health and calls for systemic responses to address both pre-migratory trauma and losses and post migratory adversities. Recent evidence on the effectiveness of mental health treatment for refugees confirms the utility of trauma-focused psychotherapy and the limits of psychopharmacology for stress related disorders in this group...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202599/bereaved-parents-health-status-during-the-first-6-months-after-their-child-s-death
#6
Nancy Dias, Debra Brandon, Joan E Haase, Paula Tanabe
PURPOSE: To examine bereaved parents' physical, mental, and social health during the first 6 months after their child's (<12 years) death from a life-threatening illness. BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bereaved parents have higher mortality and morbidity rates when compared to nonbereaved parents. Acute illnesses, hospitalizations, and medication changes are highest in the first 6 months. An understanding of bereaved parents' health risk indicators can help inform development of health promotion and disease prevention measures...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202423/suicide-and-self-harm-in-nepal-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Suresh Thapaliya, Pawan Sharma, Kapil Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Suicide and self harm behavior has become a major public health issue in recent years in Nepal. This small south Asian country was ranked 7th by suicide rate globally by the 2014 World Health Organization report with an estimated 6,840 suicides annually, or 24.9 suicides per 100,000 people. We decided to explore the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and self harm, modes of attempt, associated risk factors and trends in specific population. METHODOLOGY: Two researchers independently reviewed 47 studies published in the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed electronic Database and Google Scholar till December 2016...
December 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201658/closing-the-gap-decentralising-mental-health-care-to-primary-care-centres-in-one-rural-district-of-rwanda
#8
B Nyirandagijimana, J K Edwards, E Venables, E Ali, C Rusangwa, H Mukasakindi, R Borg, M Fabien, M Tharcisse, A Nshimyiryo, P H Park, G J Raviola, S L Smith
Setting: Programmes that integrate mental health care into primary care settings could reduce the global burden of mental disorders by increasing treatment availability in resource-limited settings, including Rwanda. Objective: We describe patient demographics, service use and retention of patients in care at health centres (HC) participating in an innovative primary care integration programme, compared to patients using existing district hospital-based specialised out-patient care. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected data from six health centres and one district hospital from October 2014 to March 2015...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197414/integrated-mental-health-care-and-vocational-rehabilitation-to-improve-return-to-work-rates-for-people-on-sick-leave-because-of-depression-and-anxiety-the-danish-ibbis-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Rie Poulsen, Andreas Hoff, Jonas Fisker, Carsten Hjorthøj, Lene Falgaard Eplov
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are among the largest contributors to the global burden of disease and have negative effects on both the individual and society. Depression and anxiety are very likely to influence the individual's work ability, and up to 40% of the people on sick leave in Denmark have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts...
December 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197404/integrated-mental-health-care-and-vocational-rehabilitation-to-improve-return-to-work-rates-for-people-on-sick-leave-because-of-exhaustion-disorder-adjustment-disorder-and-distress-the-danish-ibbis-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Rie Poulsen, Jonas Fisker, Andreas Hoff, Carsten Hjorthøj, Lene Falgaard Eplov
BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease and cause negative effects on both the individual and society. Stress-related disorders influence the individual's workability and cause early retirement pensions in Denmark. There is no clear evidence that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts...
December 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197403/setting-priorities-for-knowledge-translation-of-cochrane-reviews-for-health-equity-evidence-for-equity
#11
Peter Tugwell, Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Jennifer Vincent, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Rachel Churchill, Don deSavigny, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Tomas Pantoja
BACKGROUND: A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194696/family-focused-care-for-refugees-and-displaced-populations-global-opportunities-for-family-therapists
#12
Jo Ellen Patterson, Hana H Abu-Hassan, Susanna Vakili, Ashley King
Recent global crises have created a significant increase in the number of people leaving their countries. Distress experienced by these refugees often leads to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and can also result in psychotic disorders, substance abuse, and interpersonal violence. The World Health Organization leads the organizing of refugee services as part of a larger initiative to provide mental health services to citizens in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has identified challenges in providing care, including a provider shortage, issues with how refugees access and receive care and a lack of uniformity in mental health services...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194005/patient-characteristics-length-of-stay-and-functional-improvement-for-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-population-study-of-inpatient-care-in-ontario-2005-to-2015
#13
Sheng Chen, April Collins, Kelly Anderson, Kwame McKenzie, Sean Kidd
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia and associated illnesses account for a large proportion of mental illness burden and health care expenditures, with the majority of expense involving inpatient care. To date, the literature exploring factors associated with length of stay (LOS) and functional improvement during inpatient care is underdeveloped. In response, this study examined the association between patient characteristics, LOS, and functional improvement using Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (OMHRS) data from 2005 to 2015...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191208/emotional-distress-and-dysfunctional-illness-perception-are-associated-with-low-mental-and-physical-quality-of-life-in-chinese-breast-cancer-patients
#14
Lili Tang, Kurt Fritzsche, Rainer Leonhart, Ying Pang, Jinjiang Li, Lili Song, Irmela Fischer, Maike Koch, Alexander Wuensch, Ricarda Mewes, Rainer Schaefert
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and physical as well as psychological variables in Chinese breast cancer patients. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study enrolled 254 Chinese breast cancer patients in different stages and treatment phases. They answered standard instruments assessing QOL (EORTC), somatic symptom severity (PHQ-15), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), health-related anxiety (WI-7), illness perception (BIPQ), and sense of coherence (SOC-9)...
December 1, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190726/socio-demographic-health-related-and-individual-correlates-of-diagnostic-self-testing-by-lay-people-results-from-a-representative-survey-in-germany
#15
Pinar Kuecuekbalaban, Silke Schmidt, Manfred Beutel, Kerstin Weidner, Martina de Zwaan, Elmar Braehler, Holger Muehlan
INTRODUCTION: A broad range of self-tests (testing for e.g. HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C) have become available and can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the prevalence of self-testing, (b) identify the most frequently used self-tests, and (c) explore the associations between socio-demographic, health-related and individual factors with self-testing. METHODS: A face-to-face plus paper-pencil cross-sectional survey was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190179/patient-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-at-the-point-of-care-with-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#16
Joseph R Henderson, Elizabeth Kiernan, Jennifer L McNeer, Angie Mae Rodday, Katherine Spencer, Tara O Henderson, Susan K Parsons
PURPOSE: Advances in health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measurement enable point-of-care assessments. We incorporated the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Global Health Scale in routine outpatient evaluations of adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients and survivors at two geographically distinct U.S. institutions. METHODS: AYAs (18-39 years old) completed the 10-question PROMIS Global. Summary subscale scores for Global Physical Health (GPH) and Global Mental Health (GMH) were produced using established scoring algorithms (standardized mean = 50, standard deviation = 10)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189033/comparing-treatment-response-between-lgbq-and-heterosexual-individuals-attending-a-cbt-and-dbt-skills-based-partial-hospital
#17
Courtney Beard, Norik Kirakosian, Alexandra L Silverman, Jeffrey P Winer, Lauren P Wadsworth, Thröstur Björgvinsson
OBJECTIVE: Despite a greater need for mental health treatment in individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual minority identities (LGBQ+), no prior study has examined mental health treatment outcomes for LGBQ+ populations receiving standard care. We compared individuals identifying as LGBQ+ or heterosexual on treatment outcomes following a partial hospital program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). METHOD: A total of 441 participants (19% LGBQ+; mean age = 34...
December 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188865/dietary-diversity-and-cognitive-function-among-elderly-people-a-population-based-study
#18
Z Yin, Z Fei, C Qiu, M S Brasher, V B Kraus, W Zhao, X Shi, Y Zeng
OBJECTIVES: To explore associations of dietary diversity with cognitive function among Chinese elderly. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012, data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. SETTING: community-based setting in the 23 provinces in China. SUBJECTS: 8,571 elderly participants, including 2984 younger elderly aged 65-79 and 5587 oldest old aged 80+ participated in this study...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186155/using-iterative-learning-to-improve-understanding-during-the-informed-consent-process-in-a-south-african-psychiatric-genomics-study
#19
Megan M Campbell, Ezra Susser, Sumaya Mall, Sibonile G Mqulwana, Michael M Mndini, Odwa A Ntola, Mohamed Nagdee, Zukiswa Zingela, Stephanus Van Wyk, Dan J Stein
Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC) was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184582/challenges-of-nurses-empowerment-in-the-management-of-patient-aggression-a-qualitative-study
#20
Tahereh Ramezani, Sakineh Gholamzadeh, Camellia Torabizadeh, Farkhondeh Sharif, Laaya Ahmadzadeh
Background: Patients' aggression in the mental care setting is a global health problem with major psychological, physical, and economic consequences; nurse empowerment to manage this aggressive behavior is an important step in psychiatric nursing. The aim of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses' experiences of the challenges of empowerment in the management of patients' aggression. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was performed among 20 nurses working in a major referral psychiatric center in Iran during 2014-2016...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
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