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Acute pancreatic injury

Raghavendra Prasada, Narendra Dhaka, Ajay Bahl, Thakur Deen Yadav, Rakesh Kochhar
BACKGROUND: Organ failure (OF) is the most important predictor of outcome in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Cardiovascular failure (CVSF) occurs in a variable proportion of patients with SAP. We aimed to study myocardial dysfunction in acute pancreatitis (AP) and its impact on the outcome. METHODS: In this prospective study between January 2011 and July 2012, consecutive eligible patients of AP were enrolled. Myocardial function was assessed by measuring CK-MB (creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme) and echocardiography at admission...
March 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Nicolas S Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Sophie Chauvet, Marie Daugan, Samantha Knockaert, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Remi Noe, Olivia May, Marie Frimat, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Sylvia Miescher, Pascal Houillier, Veronique Legros, Florence Gonnet, Olivier P Blanc-Brude, Marion Rabant, Regis Daniel, Jordan D Dimitrov, Lubka T Roumenina
Intravascular erythrocyte destruction, accompanied by the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory components hemoglobin and heme, is a common event in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases with heterogeneous etiology and clinical features. A frequent adverse effect related to massive hemolysis is the renal injury and inflammation. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether heme--a danger-associated molecular pattern--and ligand for TLR4 or upstream hemolysis-derived products are responsible for these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Koushik K Das, Steffen Heeg, Jason R Pitarresi, Maximilian Reichert, Basil Bakir, Shigetsugu Takano, Janel L Kopp, Anja Wahl-Feuerstein, Philip Hicks, Maike Sander, Anil K Rustgi
BACKGROUND: The plasticity of pancreatic acinar cells to undergo acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM) has been demonstrated to contribute to the regeneration of the pancreas in response to injury. Sox9 is critical for ductal cell fate and important in the formation of ADM, most likely in concert with a complex hierarchy of, as yet, not fully elucidated transcription factors. RESULTS: Utilizing a mouse model of acute pancreatitis and three dimensional organoid culture of primary pancreatic ductal cells, we herein characterize the Ets-transcription factor Etv5 as a pivotal regulator of ductal cell identity and ADM that acts upstream of Sox9 and is essential for Sox9 expression in ADM...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Yen-I Chen, Theodore James, Amol Agarwal, Todd H Baron, Takao Itoi, Rastislav Kunda, Jose Nieto, Majidah Bukhari, Olaya Brewer Gutierrez, Omid Sanaei, Robert Moran, Lea Fayad, Mouen A Khashab
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) appears to be promising; however, its role in benign GOO is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-GE in benign GOO. Patients and methods : This was an international retrospective series involving 5 tertiary centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-GE between 1/2013 - 10/2016 for benign GOO were included...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Yu Zhou, Liang Zhao, Fangchao Mei, Yupu Hong, He Xia, Teng Zuo, Youming Ding, Weixing Wang
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, its role in acute lung injury associated with acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) has not yet been elucidated. The present study was undertaken to clarify the effect and potential mechanism of MIF antagonist (S,R)3‑(4‑hydroxyphenyl)‑4,5‑dihydro‑5‑isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO‑1) in the development of acute lung injury in rats with APIP. Eighteen late‑gestation SD rats were randomly assigned to three groups: Sham operation (SO) group, APIP group, and ISO‑1 group...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiaohong Wang, Lei Chu, Chun Liu, Ronglong Wei, Xianglong Xue, Yuefen Xu, Mengjie Wu, Qing Miao
OBJECTIVES: To observe the therapeutic effects of Saussurea involucrata (Sau) injection against severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)-induced brain injury. METHODS: Sodium taurocholate-induced SAP-modeled rats were equally randomized into an SAP model group (SAP group) and a Sau treated group (Sau  +  S group). Healthy rats were equally randomized into a Sau treated group (Sau  +  H group) and a sham operation group (SO group). Serum amylase levels, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) contents were determined by optical turbidimetry, ELISA and nitrate reductase method respectively...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yuxia Xiong, Li Chen, Ling Fan, Lulu Wang, Yejiang Zhou, Dalian Qin, Qin Sun, Jianming Wu, Shousong Cao
Intestinal mucosal immune barrier dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Rhubarb is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine as a laxative in China. It markedly protects pancreatic acinar cells from trypsin-induced injury in rats. Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs) isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, anti-inflammation, antivirus, and anticancer. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FTRAs on the protection of intestinal injury and modification of the intestinal barrier function through regulation of intestinal immune function in rats with SAP...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bin Li, Xiao Han, Xin Ye, Jianbo Ni, Jianghong Wu, Juanjuan Dai, Zengkai Wu, Congying Chen, Rong Wan, Xingpeng Wang, Guoyong Hu
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant and inflammatory mediator involved in multiple inflammatory diseases. Substance P (SP) has been reported to promote production of LTB4 in itch-associated response in vivo and in some immune cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of LTB4 in acute pancreatitis (AP), AP-associated acute lung injury (ALI) and the related mechanisms of LTB4 production in AP. In vivo, murine AP model was induced by caerulein and lipopolysaccharide or L-arginine. The levels of LTB4 and its specific receptor BLT1 were markedly upregulated in both AP models...
February 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
K Takada, C A Palm, S E Epstein, L D Cowgill
BACKGROUND: Renal replacement therapies can be life-saving for dogs with severe acute kidney injury (AKI), however, comorbidities including pancreatitis might affect outcome. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) measurements consistent with pancreatitis (≥400 μg/L) in dogs undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) for treatment of AKI and to determine whether there were associations between 30-days outcomes and Spec cPL measurements...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Yan Shen, Li Wen, Rui Zhang, Zeliang Wei, Na Shi, Qiuyang Xiong, Qing Xia, Zhihua Xing, Zhi Zeng, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful and burdensome exocrine pancreatic disorder with no specific drug treatment. Diosgenyl saponin extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright were reported to protect against experimental models of AP and diosgenin or its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the effects of diosgenin and its spiroacetal ring opened analog dihydrodiosgenin (Dydio) have not yet been determined in AP. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Various concentrations of diosgenin and Dydio were tested for sodium taurocholate hydrate (Tauro)-induced necrosis in freshly isolated murine pancreatic acinar cells...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Kenta Morita, Takahiro Suzuki, Yuya Nishimura, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Chiya Numako, Kazuyoshi Sato, Masao Nakayama, Ryohei Sasaki, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Polyacrylic acid (PAA)-modified titanium peroxide nanoparticles (PAA-TiOx NPs) are promising radiosensitizers. PAA-TiOx NPs were synthesized from commercial TiO2 nanoparticles that were modified with PAA and functionalized by H2O2 treatment. To realize practical clinical uses for PAA-TiOx NPs, their tissue distribution and acute toxicity were evaluated using healthy mice and mice bearing tumors derived from xenografted MIAPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Healthy mice were injected with PAA-TiOx NPs at 25 mg/kg body weight via the tail vein, and tumor-bearing mice were injected either into the tumor locally or via the tail vein...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Luqiao Huang, Yingjian Jiang, Zhenqing Sun, Zhengyu Gao, Jiang Wang, Dianliang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction can be caused by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). It is normally associated with changes to mucosal autophagy and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between autophagy and oxidative stress on the intestinal mucosal barrier of SAP rat model. METHODS: SAP was induced by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate (5%) into the biliopancreatic duct...
February 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Qinglan Zhao, Yi Wei, Stephen J Pandol, Lingyin Li, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by severe inflammation and acinar cell death. Transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173 or STING) is a pattern recognition receptor on immune cells that recognizes cytosolic nucleic acids and transmits signals that activate production of interferons and the innate immune response. We investigated whether leukocyte STING signaling mediates inflammation mice with AP. METHODS: We induced AP in C57BL/6J mice (control) and C57BL/6J-Tmem173gt/J mice (STING-knockout mice) by injection of cerulein or placement on choline-deficient DL-ethionine supplemented diet...
February 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
Min-Jung Park, Sapna Iyer, Xiang Xue, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Shufang Gu, David Moons, Steven W Pipe, John A Williams, Diane M Simeone, Yatrik M Shah, M Bishr Omary
We investigated whether intra-pancreatic coagulation, with deposition of the fibrinogen-γ dimer (Fib-γD) and hypoxia, affect the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. Pancreata of mice with AP induced by administration of cerulein or by L-arginine, or from patients with AP, had increased deposition of Fib-γD compared to control pancreata. Heparin administration protected mice from cerulein-induced AP and prevented Fib-γD formation. Cerulein administration resulted in activation and stabilization of HIF1-alpha in pancreata of ODD-luc HIF1-alpha reporter mice...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
Ming-Wei Liu, Rui Wei, Mei-Xian Su, Hui Li, Tian-Wen Fang, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, Panax notoginseng has been used to treat oxidative stress-related diseases for a long time. Panax notoginseng saponins is an extract from Panax notoginseng Ledeb. Its therapeutic potential is related to antioxidant activity, but related mechanisms are still unclear. The study aims to assess the protection effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in the taurocholate-induced rat model of acute pancreatitis (AP) and explore underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was established in rats induced with taurocholate...
February 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Calum C Bain, Stephen J Jenkins
For decades, it has been known that the serous cavities, which include the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavities, harbour large numbers of macrophages. In particular, due to the ease of isolating these cells, the peritoneal cavity has been used as a convenient source of macrophages to examine many facets of macrophage biology over the last 50-60 years. Despite this, it is only recently that the true heterogeneity of serous cavity mononuclear phagocyte compartment, which includes macrophages and dendritic cells, has been revealed...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Xiuli Yin, Xiaofei Lei, Changqing Xu, Jing Yang, Yingying Zhao, Kun Li
RATIONALE: Esophageal variceal bleeding caused by portal hypertension is massive and life-threatening to those patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can effectively stop bleeding. But the process of puncture may lead to bile duct injury and even form fistulas between the hepatic artery and bile duct. PATIENT CONCERNS: The case report illustrated a 52-year-old Chinese female patient who underwent TIPS...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kentaro Nakamura, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Akina Sasayama, Taketo Yamaji
It has been demonstrated that an immune-modulating enteral formula enriched with whey peptides and fermented milk (IMF) had anti-inflammatory effects in some experimental models when it was administered before the induction of inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the IMF administration after the onset of systemic inflammation and investigated whether the IMF could improve the remote organ injuries in an acute pancreatitis (AP) model. Mice were fasted for 12 hours and then fed a choline-deficient and ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE diet) for 24 hours to induce pancreatitis...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Masataka Kikuyama, Naofumi Shirane, Shinya Kawaguchi, Shuzou Terada, Tsuyoshi Mukai, Ken Sugimoto
AIM: To investigate whether an uncovered self-expandable metal stent (UCSEMS) with a large diameter could prevent recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent treatment with an UCSEMS with a 14-mm diameter (Niti-S 14). Retrospectively, we evaluated technical and functional success rate, RBO rate, time to RBO, survival time, and adverse events in these patients. RESULTS: Stent placement success and functional success were achieved in all patients...
January 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jamal A Ibdah
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading to the development of acute liver injury observed in patients with AFLP...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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