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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542601/the-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-in-patients-attending-inner-city-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-community-clinics-in-calgary-canada
#1
Alejandra Ugarte Torres, Angel Chu, Ron Read, Judy MacDonald, Daniel Gregson, Thomas Louie, Johanna Delongchamp, Linda Ward, Joann McClure, Kunyan Zhang, John Conly
BACKGROUND: Although the nares represent the most common carriage site for traditional hospital-associated strains of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), the predominant site of carriage of SA in the community is less certain. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 285 patients attending sexually transmitted diseases and inner-city clinics to evaluate the prevalence, body site colonisation and risk factors associated with carriage of methicillin susceptible SA (MSSA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536702/in-vitro-evaluations-and-in-vivo-toxicity-and-efficacy-studies-of-mfm501-against-mrsa
#2
Saiful Azmi Johari, Mastura Mohtar, Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad, Mohd Fazli Mohammat, Rohana Sahdan, Azman Mohamed, Mohamad Jemain Mohamad Ridhwan
Previously we have discovered a synthetically derived pyrrolidone alkaloid, MFM501, exhibiting good inhibitory activity against 53 MRSA and MSSA isolates with low cytotoxicity against three normal cell-lines with IC50 values at >625 µg/ml. Time-kill assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, in vivo oral acute toxicity test, and mice peritonitis model were carried out in this study. In the time-kill study, MFM501 showed a less than 3 log10 decrease in bacterial colony concentration value (CFU/ml) which represented a bacteriostatic action while displaying a time-dependent inhibitory mechanism...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507105/reduced-vancomycin-susceptibility-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-no-significant-impact-on-mortality-but-increase-in-complicated-infection
#3
Sean B Sullivan, Eloise D Austin, Stephania Stump, Barun Mathema, Susan Whittier, Franklin D Lowy, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) often lead to severe complications despite the availability of effective antibiotics. It remains unclear whether elevated vancomycin MICs are associated with worse outcomes.We conducted a 2-year retrospective cohort study (n=252) of patients with MSSA BSIs at a tertiary care hospital. We defined reduced vancomycin susceptibility (RVS) as a Microscan MIC of 2 mg/L. All strains were genotyped (spa) and assessed for agr functionality...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504093/genetic-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-nasal-samples-of-healthy-ewes-in-tunisia-high-prevalence-of-cc130-and-cc522-lineages
#4
Meriam Ben Said, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Paula Gómez, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Senda Sghaier, Oussama El Fekih, Abdennaceur Hassen, Carmen Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile bacterium, which can infect or colonize a variety of host species. The objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from nasal swabs of 167 healthy ewes sampled from 12 farms in different areas of Tunisia during the period of 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance mechanisms were determined for recovered isolates. S. aureus was detected in 45 out of 167 tested samples (26.9%). All isolates were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and the majority of them were susceptible to tested antibiotics with few exceptions (% of resistance): penicillin (8...
April 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501335/obtaining-of-granular-fertilizers-based-on-ashes-from-combustion-of-waste-residues-and-ground-bones-using-phosphorous-solubilization-by-bacteria-bacillus-megaterium
#5
M Rolewicz, P Rusek, K Borowik
The article presents research results on obtaining phosphorus granulated fertilizers on the basis of microbiologically activated sewage sludge ashes, ground bones and dried blood from meat industry. Granulation tests were carried out using a laboratory pan granulator as well as on an experimental pilot plant. The aim of the studies was to select the proper composition of the mixture of raw materials and binding agents to obtain granulated fertilizers from waste materials such as MSSA and MBM and bacteria lyophilisate...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498647/association-between-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-and-hospital-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-multicenter-cohort-from-japanese-tertiary-care-centers
#6
Takahiro Imaizumi, Takeshi Hasegawa, Atsushi Nomura, Sho Sasaki, Hiroki Nishiwaki, Takaya Ozeki, Hideaki Shimizu, Shun Minatoguchi, Taishi Yamakawa, Masahiko Yazawa, Daisuke Uchida, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Masahito Miyamoto, Tomo Suzuki, Ken'ichiro Koitabashi, Masahide Furusho, Yoshiro Fujita
Multiple studies have shown that Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) has been a major cause of death in hemodialysis patients. We examined whether SAB is a risk for mortality among chronic hemodialysis patients in Japan where the standard vascular access is arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This was a multicenter, retrospective study of maintenance hemodialysis patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2011 to 2013 at tertiary care centers in Japan. The endpoint was hospital mortality. Our cohort contained 32 SAB cases (14 MRSA and 18 MSSA) and 42 non-SAB cases...
May 12, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495466/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-screening-pcr-adapted-to-locally-emerging-variants-evaluation-of-novel-sccmec-primers
#7
Miriam Herma, Sabine Petersdorf, Birgit Henrich
Infections with multi-resistant bacteria, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), represent a world-wide health-care problem. The original MRSA Screening TaqMan PCR was based on the detection of the SCCmec-orfX-junction as described by the group of Huletsky in 2004. In the recent years, this assay increasingly failed to detect new MRSA variants in swab specimens. In this work, we analyzed the usefulness of 17 additional SCCmec primers to increase PCR sensitivity by testing 290 collected samples with negative PCR results and positive MRSA culture in a retrospective analysis, and 380 samples of the daily routine diagnostics...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486667/genomic-and-epidemiological-evidence-for-community-origins-of-hospital-onset-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#8
Kyle J Popovich, Evan S Snitkin, Bala Hota, Stefan J Green, Ali Pirani, Alla Aroutcheva, Robert A Weinstein
Background.: We examined whether disparities existed in hospital-onset (HO) Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSIs) and used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify factors associated with USA300 transmission networks. Methods.: We evaluated HO methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and HO methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) BSIs for 2009-2013 at 2 hospitals and used an adjusted incidence for modeling. WGS and phylogenetic analyses were performed on a sample of USA300 BSI isolates...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484708/activity-of-fosfomycin-and-daptomycin-containing-bone-cement-on-selected-bacterial-species-being-associated-with-orthopedic-infections
#9
Sigrun Eick, Kevin Hofpeter, Anton Sculean, Claudia Ender, Susann Klimas, Sebastian Vogt, Sandor Nietzsche
The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin). Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483964/towards-elimination-of-pin-tract-infections-novel-antibacterial-coating-on-orthopaedic-wires
#10
Dmitry Gil, Sergey Shuvaev, Anastasia Frank-Kamenetskii, Vladimir Reukov, Christopher Gross, Alexey Vertegel
Novel approaches to prevention of microbial infections after insertion of orthopedic external fixators are in great demand because of extremely high incidence rate of such infections, which can reach up to 100% for longer implant residence times. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial agent with known safety record, broadly used in food and cosmetic industries; however, its use in antimicrobial coatings of medical devices has not been studied in much detail. Here, we report the use of monolaurin as an antibacterial coating on external fixators for the first time...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483961/efficacy-of-ceftaroline-in-a-rat-model-of-endocarditis-against-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-exhibiting-the-cefazolin-high-inoculum-effect
#11
Kavindra V Singh, Truc T Tran, Esteban C Nannini, Vincent H Tam, Cesar A Arias, Barbara E Murray
Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibit an inoculum effect (InE) with cefazolin (CFZ), which has been associated with therapeutic failures in high inoculum infections. We assessed the in vitro activity of ceftaroline (CPT), CFZ and nafcillin (NAF) against 17 type A β-lactamase (βla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including the previously reported TX0117 that exhibits the CFZ InE and its β-lactamase (βla)-cured derivative, TX0117c. Additionally, we determined the pharmacokinetics of CPT in rats after single intramuscular doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg and evaluated the activity of CPT (40 mg/kg, Q 8 h), CFZ and NAF against TX0117 and TX0117c in a rat model of infective endocarditis...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483959/gepotidacin-gsk2140944-in-vitro-activity-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-mbc-mic-kill-kinetics-checkerboard-pae-sme-tests
#12
R K Flamm, D J Farrell, P R Rhomberg, N E Scangarella-Oman, H S Sader
Gepotidacin is a first in class, novel triazaacenaphthylene antibiotic that inhibits bacterial DNA replication and has in vitro activity against susceptible and drug-resistant pathogens. Reference in vitro methods were used to investigate the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) activity of gepotidacin and comparator agents against Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Gepotidacin in vitro activity was also evaluated using time-kill kinetics, broth microdilution checkerboard methods for synergy testing, and for postantibiotic and subinhibitory effects...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480284/similar-clinical-severity-and-outcomes-for-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-pediatric-musculoskeletal-infections
#13
Thomas J An, Michael A Benvenuti, Megan E Mignemi, Jeffrey Martus, James B Wood, Isaac P Thomsen, Jonathan G Schoenecker
BACKGROUND: Prior studies of pediatric musculoskeletal infection have suggested that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections result in worse outcomes compared with infections with methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) strains. Based on these results, clinical prediction algorithms have been developed to differentiate between MRSA and MSSA early in a patient's clinical course. This study compares hospital outcomes for pediatric patients with MRSA and MSSA musculoskeletal infection presenting to the emergency department at a large tertiary care children's hospital...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480283/using-nuclear-medicine-imaging-wisely-in-diagnosing-infectious-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Censullo, Tara Vijayan
In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on efficient and accurate diagnostic testing, exemplified by the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Choosing Wisely" campaign. Nuclear imaging studies can provide early and accurate diagnoses of many infectious disease syndromes, particularly in complex cases where the differential remains broad. This review paper offers clinicians a rational, evidence-based guide to approaching nuclear medicine tests, using an example case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in a patient with multiple potential sources...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477236/pathogen-related-factors-affecting-outcome-of-catheter-related-bacteremia-due-to-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-spanish-multicenter-study
#15
R San-Juan, D Pérez-Montarelo, E Viedma, A Lalueza, J Fortún, E Loza, M Pujol, C Ardanuy, I Morales, M de Cueto, E Resino-Foz, M A Morales-Cartagena, M Fernández-Ruiz, A Rico, M P Romero, M Fernández de Mera, F López-Medrano, M Á Orellana, J M Aguado, F Chaves
Even with appropriate clinical management, complicated methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is frequent. We investigated the influence of molecular characteristics of MSSA strains on the risk of complicated bacteremia (CB) in MSSA-CRB. A multicenter prospective study was conducted in Spain between 2011 and 2014 on MSSA-CRB. Optimized protocol-guided clinical management was required. CB included endocarditis, septic thrombophlebitis, persistent bacteremia and/or end-organ hematogenous spread...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477235/down-regulation-of-the-two-component-system-and-cell-wall-biosynthesis-related-genes-was-associated-with-the-reversion-to-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-daptomycin-non-susceptible-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Y Iwata, K Satou, H Tsuzuku, K Furuichi, Y Senda, Y Sakai-Takemori, T Wada, S Fujita, T Miyake, H Yasuda, N Sakai, S Kitajima, T Toyama, Y Shinozaki, A Sagara, T Miyagawa, A Hara, M Shimizu, Y Kamikawa, S Kaneko, T Wada
Daptomycin (DAP) is widely used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The emergence of DAP non-susceptible MRSA strains during therapy is a major concern in clinical settings. Recent studies revealed that MRSA spontaneously reverts to a subsequent methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain. However, it is not clear whether DAP non-susceptible MRSA has the ability to revert to a susceptible strain. We obtained an MRSA strain pair, DAP non-susceptible strain and subsequent DAP susceptible strain, from a patient...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474179/evaluation-of-sampling-locations-in-pregnant-women-and-newborns-for-the-detection-of-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#17
M Zamfir, A C Adler, S Kolb, A Dammeyer, L Nasri, L Schomacher, B Karlin, M Franitza, S Hörmansdorfer, C Tuschak, G Valenza, U Ochmann, C Herr
Up to now, little has been known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of colonisation of asymptomatic pregnant women with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. In this two-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated the performance and importance of screening at different times and different locations for colonisation in pregnant women and newborns. Between October 2013 and December 2015, four samples were collected from pregnant women, two from newborns at birth and three from 3-day-old newborns...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473710/a-short-artificial-antimicrobial-peptide-shows-potential-to-prevent-or-treat-bone-infections
#18
N Bormann, A Koliszak, S Kasper, L Schoen, K Hilpert, R Volkmer, J Kikhney, B Wildemann
Infection of bone is a severe complication due to the variety of bacteria causing it, their resistance against classical antibiotics, the formation of a biofilm and the difficulty to eradicate it. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring peptides and promising candidates for treatment of joint infections. This study aimed to analyze the effect of short artificial peptides derived from an optimized library regarding (1) antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species, (2) efficacy on biofilms, and (3) effect on osteoblast‑like cells...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469994/molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-bovine-mastitis-between-2014-and-2015
#19
Tianming Li, Huiying Lu, Xing Wang, Qianqian Gao, Yingxin Dai, Jun Shang, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is highly pathogenic and can cause diseases in both humans and domestic animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. This study aimed to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and genotype/phenotype correlation of 212 S. aureus isolates recovered from cases of bovine mastitis from 2014 to 2015 in the Shanghai and Zhejiang areas of China. Nineteen sequence types (STs) were determined by multi-locus sequence typing, while the dominant ST was ST97, followed by ST520, ST188, ST398, ST7, and ST9...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450195/evaluation-of-the-eazyplex-mrsa-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-pleural-and-synovial-fluid
#20
D Henares, P Brotons, X Buyse, I Latorre, H D de Paz, C Muñoz-Almagro
OBJECTIVE: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple and sensitive technique for rapid microbiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and diagnostic performance of the LAMP eazyplex MRSA test for the direct detection and differentiation of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in synovial/pleural fluid. METHODS: Analytical validation included the determination of the limit of detection (LoD) and analytical specificity of the eazyplex MRSA test...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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