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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#1
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#2
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078559/empirical-combination-of-a-%C3%AE-lactam-to-vancomycin-may-not-improve-outcomes-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-compared-to-vancomycin-monotherapy
#3
G E Park, J-H Ko, S Y Cho, Y E Ha, N Y Lee, C-I Kang, D R Chung, J-H Song, K R Peck
To evaluate effect of empirical combination of a β-lactam to vancomycin and vancomycin monotherapy in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MSSA-B), we conducted a retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical records of individuals who were diagnosed with MSSA-B between January 2005 and February 2015 at a tertiary care center were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups according to empirical antibiotic regimen (BL group, β-lactam; VAN group, vancomycin; BV group, combination of β-lactam and vancomycin), and 30-day all-cause mortality of each group was compared...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066967/artepillin-c-and-phenolic-compounds-responsible-for-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-green-propolis-and-baccharis-dracunculifolia-dc
#4
R S Veiga, S Mendonça, P B Mendes, N Paulino, M J Mimica, A A Lagareiro Netto, I S Lira, B G C López, V Negrão, M C Marcucci
AIMS: This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MSSA - Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C(™) . METHODS AND RESULTS: The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by HPLC analysis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green-propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066112/in-vitro-effectiveness-of-triterpenoids-and-their-synergistic-effect-with-antibiotics-against-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#5
Muhammad Hamza, Maha Nadir, Nadir Mehmood, Adeel Farooq
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of four triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, cycloastragenol, and beta-boswellic acid alone and in combination with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen clinical strains of S. aureus from infected wounds were isolated. Eight were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), and the other eight were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The activity was also seen in reference S...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056831/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-health-care-workers-at-al-shifa-hospital-in-gaza-strip
#6
Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham, Basim Mohammad Ayesh
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem in hospital environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at Al Shifa Hospital, the major hospital in Gaza Strip. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 HCWs...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055287/epidemiology-treatment-and-economics-of-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#7
Kristin E Linder, David P Nicolau, Michael D Nailor
OBJECTIVES: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common bacterial diseases and represent a significant disease burden. The purpose of this study was to describe the real-world management of patients with SSTIs presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Adult patients identified with a primary diagnosis of SSTI determined by ICD-9 codes were assessed from index presentation for up to 30 days. Records were reviewed 30 days prior to inclusion to ensure index hospitalization was captured...
January 5, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041629/prevalence-of-and-outcomes-from-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-among-hospitalized-patients-in-the-united-states-2009-2012
#8
David M Jacobs, Amy Shaver
BACKGROUND: The burden of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is unknown despite being a major cause of mortality. We investigated national estimates of methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) pneumonias and predictors of in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample from 2009-2012. Adult patients with an ICD-9-CM primary diagnosis code for MRSA or MSSA pneumonia were included...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035690/%C3%AE-lactam-therapy-for-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-comparative-review-of-cefazolin-versus-antistaphylococcal-penicillins
#9
Julius Li, Kelly L Echevarria, Kristi A Traugott
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) have been considered the agents of choice for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. Vancomycin has been demonstrated to have poorer outcomes in several studies and is only recommended for patients with severe penicillin allergies. Although cefazolin is considered as an alternative to the ASPs for patients with nonsevere penicillin allergies, cefazolin offers several pharmacologic advantages over ASPs, such as more convenient dosing regimens, and antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly using cefazolin as the preferential agent for MSSA infections as part of cost-saving initiatives...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017539/staphylococcus-aureus-from-the-german-general-population-is-highly-diverse
#10
Karsten Becker, Frieder Schaumburg, Christian Fegeler, Alexander W Friedrich, Robin Köck
OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. METHODS: Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004323/rapid-mrsa-pcr-on-respiratory-specimens-from-ventilated-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-a-tool-to-facilitate-antimicrobial-stewardship
#11
S E Trevino, M A Pence, J Marschall, M H Kollef, H M Babcock, C-A D Burnham
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia in ventilated patients. Our objective was to evaluate the GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI Assay (Xpert MRSA/SA) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) for use in lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens for rapid MRSA detection and to determine the potentially saved antibiotic-days if a culture-based identification method was replaced by this assay. Remnant LRT samples from ventilated patients submitted to the microbiology laboratory for routine culture were tested using conventional culture and Xpert MRSA/SA...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002357/pediatric-sacroiliitis-clinical-and-microbiologic-differences-between-infants-and-children-adolescents
#12
Ambra Donzelli, Eleftheria Samara, Vassiliki Spyropoulou, Céline Juchler, Dimitri Ceroni
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to improve knowledge of pediatric pyogenic sacroiliitis (PSI) in the pediatric population based on a consecutive case series. METHOD: We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study on 16 patients admitted to the emergency department of our Hospital between January 1990 and December 2015 with a confirmed diagnosis of PSI. The patients were divided into 2 groups by age: infants (6 months - 4 years) and children-adolescents (4-16 years)...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999423/characterization-of-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-multicenter-study-in-china
#13
Ying Liu, Zhe Xu, Zhou Yang, Juan Sun, Lin Ma
We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends...
December 21, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999030/prevalence-and-correlates-of-mrsa-and-mssa-nasal-carriage-at-a-ugandan-regional-referral-hospital
#14
Lisa M Bebell, Arnold Ayebare, Yap Boum, Mark J Siedner, Joel Bazira, Steven J Schiff, Joshua P Metlay, David R Bangsberg, Stephen Ttendo, Paul G Firth
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing antimicrobial resistance globally, data are lacking on prevalence and factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and MRSA carriage in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of SA and MRSA nasal carriage and factors associated with carriage among Ugandan regional referral hospital patients. METHODS: We enrolled a cross-section of 500 adults, sampling anterior nares for SA and MRSA carriage using Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998758/the-synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-of-20s-3%C3%AE-acetoxy-5%C3%AE-pregnane-20-16%C3%AE-carbolactone-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-cells
#15
Izabella Jastrzebska, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Wioleta I Brzozowska, Robert Bucki
An efficient procedure for the synthesis of (20S)-3β-acetoxy-5α-pregnane-20,16β-carbolactone is described. Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the lactone against different bacteria such as MSSA, MRSA, E. coli ESBL, P. aeruginosa and clinical isolates of Candida spp., in planktonic and biofilm growth stage were assessed. Additionally, the affinity of this new compound to microbial plasma membrane and hemoglobin release from human red blood cells were determined using fluorometric and colorimetric assay, respectively...
December 18, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993854/activity-of-omadacycline-and-comparator-agents-when-tested-against-staphylococcus-aureus-from-a-surveillance-program-conducted-in-north-america-and-europe
#16
Michael A Pfaller, Paul R Rhomberg, Michael D Huband, Robert K Flamm
Omadacycline is a new broad spectrum aminomethylcycline in late stage clinical development for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired pneumonia (CABP) as a once-daily formulation taken orally or intravenously. In this study, omadacycline and comparator agents were tested against 502 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus selected from a 2014 global surveillance program and compared to the results for 7,740 isolates from a 2010 surveillance program. For the 2014 isolates, testing was completed on 252 isolates from Europe (EU) and 250 isolates from North America (NA)...
December 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977556/pediatric-prostatic-abscess-caused-by-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Catherine E Foster, Kristina G Hulten, Nicolette K Janzen, Sheldon L Kaplan
Prostatic abscesses are infrequently encountered in adults and are exceedingly rare in the pediatric population. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) prostatic abscess and bacteremia.
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974958/frequency-of-antiseptic-resistance-among-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-a-university-hospital-in-central-iran
#18
Nona Taheri, Abdollah Ardebili, Alireza Amouzandeh-Nobaveh, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad
OBJECTIVES: Reduced biocide susceptibility in Staphylococci is associated with various antiseptic resistance genes encoding efflux systems. Our aim was to determine the susceptibility to three disinfectant agents, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG) among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS). METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 60 methicillin-resistant S...
November 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956904/antibacterial-action-of-curcumin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-a-brief-review
#19
REVIEW
Sin-Yeang Teow, Kitson Liew, Syed A Ali, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Suat-Cheng Peh
Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955998/high-level-methicillin-resistance-correlates-with-reduced-staphylococcus-aureus-endothelial-cell-damage
#20
Kati Seidl, Michèle Leemann, Miguel Palheiros Marques, Carole Rachmühl, Nadja Leimer, Federica Andreoni, Yvonne Achermann, Annelies S Zinkernagel
There has been controversy about the intrinsic virulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). To address this discrepancy, the intrinsic virulence of 42 MRSA and 40 MSSA clinical isolates was assessed by testing endothelial cell (EC) damage, a surrogate marker for virulence in blood stream infections. Since these clinical isolates represent a heterogeneous group, well characterized S. aureus laboratory strains with SCCmec loss- and gain-of-function mutations were used in addition...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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