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N Piper Jenks, M Pardos de la Gandara, B M D'Orazio, J Correa da Rosa, R G Kost, C Khalida, K S Vasquez, C Coffran, M Pastagia, T H Evering, C Parola, T Urban, S Salvato, F Barsanti, B S Coller, J N Tobin
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs) in the community in the United States of America. Community Health Centers (CHC) serve as primary care providers for thousands of immigrants in New York. METHODS: As part of a research collaborative, 6 New York City-area CHCs recruited patients with SSTIs. Characterization was performed in all S. aureus isolates from wounds and nasal swabs collected from patients...
October 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jonathan I Huz, Krishna Mukkamala, Ivelisse Rodriguez Pagan, David Ritterband, Mahendra Shah, Ronald C Gentile, Michael Engelbert
PURPOSE: To compare the antibiotic susceptibilities and visual acuity (VA) outcomes in endophthalmitis caused by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) versus methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). METHODS: The records of 34 cases of S. aureus endophthalmitis at The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary from Jan 1997 to June 2011 were reviewed. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles over time and VA at presentation and at 3, 6, and ≥12 months were recorded. S. aureus isolates were grouped based on oxacillin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Yancheng Yang, Zhen Hu, Weilong Shang, Qiwen Hu, Junmin Zhu, Jie Yang, Huagang Peng, Xiaopeng Zhang, Hui Liu, Yanguang Cong, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for ∼40% of staphylococcal infections in China. However, the molecular characterization of MSSA is not well described. In this study, 124 MSSA strains collected in 2013 from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwestern China, were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene detection, and antibiotic-resistant gene detection...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
A Deny, C Loiez, V Deken, S Putman, A Duhamel, J Girard, G Pasquier, C Chantelot, E Senneville, H Migaud
: Factors that predict the occurrence of a surgical site infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are not well known; however this information could be used to modify the recommended antimicrobial prophylaxis. We carried out a retrospective study of S. aureus infections on orthopedic implants to determine: (1) whether epidemiological factors can be identified that predict a MRSA infection, (2) the impact of these factors as evidenced by the odds ratio (OR). HYPOTHESIS: Risk factors for a MRSA infection can be identified from a cohort of patients with S...
October 12, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Anca Meda Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei, Krisztina Szalman, Edit Szekely
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. CASE: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review.The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bryce T Fukunaga, Wesley K Sumida, Deborah A Taira, James W Davis, Todd B Seto
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in almost half of all deaths caused by antibiotic resistant organisms. Current evidence suggests that MRSA infections are associated with antibiotic use. This study examined state-level data to determine whether outpatient antibiotic use was associated with hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report was used to obtain HA-MRSA infection rates...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Luis A Estrella, Javier Quinones, Matthew Henry, Ryan M Hannah, Robert K Pope, Theron Hamilton, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Eric Hall, Biswas Biswajit
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are difficult to treat. Bacteriophage (phage) represent a potential alternate treatment for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. In this study, 7 novel phage with broad lytic activity for S. aureus were isolated and identified. Screening of a diverse collection of 170 clinical isolates by efficiency of plating (EOP) assays shows that the novel phage are virulent and effectively prevent growth of 70-91% of MRSA and methicillin sensitive S...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Matthew P Cheng, Alexandre P Cheng, Emily G McDonald, Todd C Lee
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus aureus are clinically significant and are often treated with empiric methicillin resistance (MRSA) coverage. However, vancomycin has associated harms. We hypothesized that MRSA screening correlated with resistance in S. aureus bacteremia and could help determine empiric vancomycin requirement. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive S. aureus bacteremias over a five-year period at two tertiary care hospitals. MRSA colonization was evaluated in three ways: as tested within 30 days of bacteremia (30-Day criteria), as tested within 30 days but accounting for any prior positive results (ever positive criteria), or if the patient was known positive with patients with unknown MRSA status being labeled negative (known positive criteria)...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Arzu Karlı, Nurşen Belet, Keramettin Yanık, Özlem Köken, Mesut Kılıç, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Gülnar Şensoy
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of musculoskeletal infections. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin produced by S. aureus and is an important virulence factor. PVL-positive S. aureus infections have been associated with soft tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. In this case report, the clinical course of a 13-year-old boy who was admitted with right hip pain and fever, diagnosed with a gluteal abscess and incidentally discovered multiple cavitary pulmonary lesions, and had a methicillin susceptible and PVL-producing S...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
S Hraiech, J Bordes, J L Mège, X de Lamballerie, R Charrel, Y Bechah, B Pastorino, C Guervilly, J M Forel, M Adda, J M Rolain, H Lepidi, D Raoult, S Lehingue, L Papazian
OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in intensive care unit patients may increase mortality and favour bacterial pneumonia. We developed a murine model to compare the severity of staphylococcal pneumonia after CMV reactivation and in CMV-negative mice. METHODS: Balb/c mice were primo-infected with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV n=90) or received saline (control n=90). After latency, all mice underwent caecal ligation and puncture to trigger MCMV reactivation in MCMV primary-infected mice...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Pritha Ghosh, Oommen K Mathew, Ramanathan Sowdhamini
BACKGROUND: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with their cognate RNA(s) to form large biomolecular assemblies. They are versatile in their functionality and are involved in a myriad of processes inside the cell. RBPs with similar structural features and common biological functions are grouped together into families and superfamilies. It will be useful to obtain an early understanding and association of RNA-binding property of sequences of gene products. Here, we report a web server, RStrucFam, to predict the structure, type of cognate RNA(s) and function(s) of proteins, where possible, from mere sequence information...
October 7, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
K-H Song, S-I Jung, S Lee, S Park, S M Kiem, S H Lee, Y G Kwak, Y K Kim, H-C Jang, Y-S Kim, H-I Kim, C J Kim, K-H Park, N J Kim, M-D Oh, H B Kim
Cefazolin treatment failure has been observed in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with a cefazolin inoculum effect (CIE). However, data on the characteristics and risk factors for the acquisition of CIE-positive MSSA infection are scarce. CIE positivity was measured as an MIC ≥ 16 μg/ml with a high inoculum (∼5 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The blaZ gene type was assessed through sequence analysis. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for the acquisition of CIE-positive MSSA infection were assessed...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Aimée Kissou, Soufiane Sanou, Armel Poda, Carole G Kyelem, Jérôme Solassol, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Philippe Van De Perre, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Sylvain Godreuil
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
A C Fluit, M D Jansen, T Bosch, W T M Jansen, L Schouls, M J Jonker, C H E Boel
The distinct epidemiology of original hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and early community-associated MRSA is largely unexplained. S. aureus carries either 5 or 6 rRNA operon copies. Evidence is provided for a scenario in which MRSA has adapted to the hospital environment by rRNA operon loss (6 to 5 copies) due to antibiotic pressure. Early CA-MRSA in contrast results from wild-type MSSA that acquired mecA without loss of a rRNA operon. Of the HA-MRSA isolates (n=77) 67...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Karl O A Yu, Adrienne G Randolph, Anna A Agan, Wai-Ki Yip, Edward Truemper, Scott Weiss, Kate Ackerman, Adam Schwarz, John Guiliani, Mark W Hall, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
BACKGROUND:  Development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia after a respiratory viral infection is frequently fatal in children. In mice, S. aureus α-toxin directly injures pneumocytes and increases mortality, whereas α-toxin blockade mitigates disease. The role of α-toxin in pediatric staphylococcal-viral co-infection is unclear. METHODS:  We enrolled children across 34 North American pediatric intensive care units with acute respiratory failure and suspected influenza infection...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Geoffrey Omuse, Kristien Nel Van Zyl, Kim Hoek, Shima Abdulgader, Samuel Kariuki, Andrew Whitelaw, Gunturu Revathi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown to vary across different countries. In order to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA in a setting, it is important to define its population structure using molecular tools as different clones have been found to predominate in certain geographical locations...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Y L Gong, Z C Yang, S P Yin, M X Liu, C Zhang, X Q Luo, Y Z Peng
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogen isolated from severely burned patients with bloodstream infection, so as to provide reference for the clinical treatment of these patients. Methods: Blood samples of 162 severely burned patients (including 120 patients with extremely severe burn) with bloodstream infection admitted into our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2014 were collected. Pathogens were cultured by fully automatic blood culture system, and API bacteria identification panels were used to identify pathogen...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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