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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107762/thulium-laser-in-interventional-endoscopy-animal-and-human-studies
#1
Gian E Tontini, Helmut Neumann, Luca Pastorelli, Luisa Spina, Flaminia Cavallaro, Paola Soriani, Alessandro Rimondi, Barbara Bruni, Claudio Clemente, Filippo Fagnani, Pavlos Lagoussis, Luca Carmignani, Maurizio Vecchi
Background and study aims The thulium laser system (TLS) is an emerging surgical tool. The 2-μm wavelength provides a confined coagulation depth (0.2 - 0.4 mm) to reduce the potential for inadvertent injuries. For the first time ever, we assessed TLS feasibility for endoscopic hemostasis ex vivo in pigs. In addition, we performed the first in vivo hemostatic treatments in humans. Patients and methods Tissue damage induced by TLS using different settings and optical fibers was compared to that from argon plasma coagulation (APC) in established ex vivo animal models...
January 20, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107746/induced-differentiation-of-human-gingival-fibroblasts-into-vsmc-like-cells
#2
Xuqian Liu, Jie Wang, Fusheng Dong, Hexiang Li, Yali Hou
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major component of the vascular wall, and they play an essential role in maintaining the basic physiological function and stable structure of the vascular wall. In the present study, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured and induced into VSMC-like cells in vitro to confirm that HGFs with properties of stem cells have the potential for differentiation. The epithelium isolated from patients was extracted from normal human gingiva consisting of epithelium and connective tissue...
January 17, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107744/sensitive-detection-of-t4-polynucleotide-kinase-activity-based-on-multifunctional-magnetic-probes-and-polymerization-nicking-reactions-mediated-hyperbranched-rolling-circle-amplification
#3
Xia Li, Xiaowen Xu, Juan Song, Qingwang Xue, Chenzhong Li, Wei Jiang
T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays critical roles in regulating DNA phosphorylation modes during the repair of DNA lesions. The aberrant activity of T4 PNK has been proven to be associated with a variety of human pathologies. Sensitive detection of T4 PNK activity is critical to both clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Herein, a background-eliminated fluorescence assay for sensitive detection of T4 PNK activity has been developed by multifunctional magnetic probes and polymerization nicking reactions mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA)...
January 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107699/analysis-of-n-nitrosonornicotine-enantiomers-in-human-urine-by-chiral-stationary-phase-liquid-chromatography-nanoelectrospray-ionization-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Jing Yang, Steven G Carmella, Stephen S Hecht
We have developed a chiral stationary phase liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-NSI-HRMS/MS) method to investigate the enantiomeric composition of low parts per trillion amounts of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in the urine of cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. (S)-NNN is the major enantiomer in tobacco and is more carcinogenic than (R)-NNN in rats, but no data are available on the enantiomeric composition of NNN in humans. The method used [(13)C6]NNN as an internal standard and [pyridine-D4]nornicotine to monitor possible artifactual formation of NNN, which was found to be less than 2% of the quantified NNN...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#5
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#6
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107664/safety-and-efficacy-of-cardiopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-post-infarction-left-ventricular-dysfunction-from-cardioprotection-to-functional-repair-in-a-translational-pig-infarction-model
#7
Maximilian Y Emmert, Petra Wolint, Andras Jakab, Sean P Sheehy, Francesco S Pasqualini, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen, Monika Hilbe, Burkhardt Seifert, Benedikt Weber, Chad E Brokopp, Dominika Macejovska, Etem Caliskan, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ruth Schwartlander, Viola Vogel, Volkmar Falk, Kevin Kit Parker, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Simon P Hoerstrup
To date, clinical success of cardiac cell-therapies remains limited. To enhance the cardioreparative properties of stem cells, the concept of lineage-specification through cardiopoietic-guidance has been recently suggested. However, so far, only results from murine studies and from a clinical pilot-trial in chronic heart-failure (CHF) are available, while systematic evidence of its therapeutic-efficacy is still lacking. Importantly, also no data from large animals or for other indications are available. Therefore, we here investigate the therapeutic-efficacy of human cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of post-infarction LV-dysfunction using a translational pig-model...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107608/the-increased-expression-of-tcf3-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-chinese-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
Xiaohe Shen, Jizhao Yuan, Mengjie Zhang, Wenhua Li, Bing Ni, Yuzhang Wu, Li Jiang, Weiping Fan, Zhiqiang Tian
OBJECTIVES: Regulatory factors controlling stem cell identity and self-renewal are often active in aggressive cancers and are thought to promote cancer growth and progression. B-cell-specific transcription factor 3 (TCF3/E2A) is a member of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factor family that is central to regulating epidermal and embryonic stem cell identity. It has been reported that TCF3 was connected with the development and progression of a number of human cancers...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107524/the-frequency-spectral-properties-of-electrode-skin-contact-impedance-on-human-head-and-its-frequency-dependent-effects-on-frequency-difference-eit-in-stroke-detection-from-10hz-to-1mhz
#9
Lin Yang, Meng Dai, Canhua Xu, Ge Zhang, Weichen Li, Feng Fu, Xuetao Shi, Xiuzhen Dong
Frequency-difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) reconstructs frequency-dependent changes of a complex impedance distribution. It has a potential application in acute stroke detection because there are significant differences in impedance spectra between stroke lesions and normal brain tissues. However, fdEIT suffers from the influences of electrode-skin contact impedance since contact impedance varies greatly with frequency. When using fdEIT to detect stroke, it is critical to know the degree of measurement errors or image artifacts caused by contact impedance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107502/rnai-based-functional-genomics-identifies-new-virulence-determinants-in-mucormycosis
#10
Trung Anh Trieu, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Patricia Navarro-Rodriguez, Loida Lopez-Fernandez, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Victoriano Garre, Rosa María Ruiz-Vázquez, Francisco E Nicolás
Mucorales are an emerging group of human pathogens that are responsible for the lethal disease mucormycosis. Unfortunately, functional studies on the genetic factors behind the virulence of these organisms are hampered by their limited genetic tractability, since they are reluctant to classical genetic tools like transposable elements or gene mapping. Here, we describe an RNAi-based functional genomic platform that allows the identification of new virulence factors through a forward genetic approach firstly described in Mucorales...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107454/identification-of-novel-short-c-terminal-transcripts-of-human-serpina1-gene
#11
Nerea Matamala, Nupur Aggarwal, Paolo Iadarola, Marco Fumagalli, Gema Gomez-Mariano, Beatriz Lara, Maria Teresa Martinez, Isabel Cuesta, Jan Stolk, Sabina Janciauskiene, Beatriz Martinez-Delgado
Human SERPINA1 gene is located on chromosome 14q31-32.3 and is organized into three (IA, IB, and IC) non-coding and four (II, III, IV, V) coding exons. This gene produces α1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a prototypical member of the serpin superfamily of proteins. We demonstrate that human peripheral blood leukocytes express not only a product corresponding to the transcript coding for the full-length A1AT protein but also two short transcripts (ST1C4 and ST1C5) of A1AT. In silico sequence analysis revealed that the last exon of the short transcripts contains an Open Reading Frame (ORF) and thus putatively can produce peptides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107431/characterization-of-a-broadly-reactive-anti-cd40-agonistic-monoclonal-antibody-for-potential-use-as-an-adjuvant
#12
Cameron Martin, Suryakant D Waghela, Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Andy Ambrus, Jocelyn Bray, Christina Vuong, Vanitha Vinodkumar, Paul J Dominowski, Sharath Rai, Duncan Mwangi, Dennis L Foss, Waithaka Mwangi
Lack of safe and effective adjuvants is a major hindrance to the development of efficacious vaccines. Signaling via CD40 pathway leads to enhanced antigen processing and presentation, nitric oxide expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by antigen presenting cells, and stimulation of B-cells to undergo somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin class switching, and proliferation. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies have shown promising adjuvant qualities in human and mouse vaccine studies. An anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 2E4E4, was identified and shown to have strong agonistic effects on primary cells from multiple livestock species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107429/deficient-cholesterol-esterification-in-plasma-of-apoc2-knockout-zebrafish-and-familial-chylomicronemia-patients
#13
Chao Liu, Daniel Gaudet, Yury I Miller
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107390/melanoma-cell-adhesion-and-migration-is-modulated-by-the-uronyl-2-o-sulfotransferase
#14
Katerina Nikolovska, Dorothe Spillmann, Jörg Haier, Andrea Ladányi, Christian Stock, Daniela G Seidler
Although the vast majority of melanomas are characterized by a high metastatic potential, if detected early, melanoma can have a good prognostic outcome. However, once metastasised, the prognosis is bleak. We showed previously that uronyl-2-O sulfotransferase (Ust) and 2-O sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) are involved in cell migration. To demonstrate an impact of 2-O sulfation in metastasis we knocked-down Ust in mouse melanoma cells. This significantly reduced the amount of Ust protein and enzyme activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107386/regulation-of-pi-2b-pilus-expression-in-hypervirulent-streptococcus-agalactiae-st-17-bm110
#15
Bruno Périchon, Noémi Szili, Laurence du Merle, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Myriam Gominet, Samuel Bellais, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) "hypervirulent" ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107194/transdifferentiation-of-human-male-germline-stem-cells-to-hepatocytes-in-vivo-via-the-transplantation-under-renal-capsules
#16
Zheng Chen, Minghui Niu, Min Sun, Qingqing Yuan, Chencheng Yao, Jingmei Hou, Hong Wang, Liping Wen, Hongyong Fu, Fan Zhou, Zheng Li, Zuping He
Here we proposed a new concept that human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can transdifferentiate into hepatocytes in vivo. We first established liver injury model of mice by carbon tetrachloride to provide proper environment for human SSC transplantation. Liver mesenchymal cells were isolated from mice and identified phenotypically. Human SSC line was recombined with liver mesenchymal cells, and they were transplanted under renal capsules of nude mice with liver injury. The grafts expressed hepatocyte hallmarks, including ALB, AAT, CK18, and CYP1A2, whereas germ cell and SSC markers VASA and GPR125 were undetected in these cells, implicating that human SSCs were converted to hepatocytes...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107158/human-trafficking-in-areas-of-conflict-health-care-professionals-duty-to-act
#17
Christina Bloem, Rikki E Morris, Makini Chisolm-Straker
Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107157/who-is-in-your-waiting-room-health-care-professionals-as-culturally-responsive-and-trauma-informed-first-responders-to-human-trafficking
#18
Rochelle Rollins, Anna Gribble, Sharon E Barrett, Clydette Powell
Evidence-based practice standards are not yet well defined for assisting potential victims of human trafficking. Nonetheless, health care professionals are learning to be first responders in identifying, treating, and referring potential victims. As more public and private sector resources are used to train health care professionals about human trafficking, more evaluation and research are needed to develop an effective standard of care. Adopting a public health lens and using the "National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care" can guide critical decision making and actions...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107101/enhancing-human-milk-production-with-domperidone-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants
#19
Elizabeth V Asztalos, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Orlando P da Silva, Shinya Ito, Alex Kiss, David Knoppert
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm infants often are at risk of expressing an inadequate amount of milk for their infants and the use of galactogogues is often considered. Domperidone is a widely used galactogogue with little information available to guide clinicians regarding initiation, timing, and duration of treatment. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether administration of domperidone within the first 21 days after delivery would lead to a higher proportion of mothers achieving a 50% increase in the volume of milk at the end of 14 days of treatment compared with mothers receiving placebo...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106890/assessment-of-a-new-hydrophilic-acrylic-supplementary-iol-for-sulcus-fixation-in-pseudophakic-cadaver-eyes
#20
N Reiter, L Werner, J Guan, J Li, K T Tsaousis, N Mamalis, S Srinivasan
PurposeManagement of refractive errors after cataract surgery includes spectacles or contact lens, secondary laser vision correction, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, or piggyback lens implantation. We evaluated for the first time a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL designed for supplementary sulcus fixation in postmortem pseudophakic human eyes.MethodsPseudophakic human cadaver eyes were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to assess position of the primary IOL. Eyes were prepared as per the Miyake-Apple technique...
January 20, 2017: Eye
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