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Mustafa Kir, Gulay Kir
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain is a frequently problem after orthopedic procedures like hallux valgus surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ankle block improves early and mid-term functional outcomes and postoperative pain management after hallux valgus surgery in patients receiving general anesthesia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial investigated 60 patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were prospectively randomized into two groups; general anesthesia only (Group A) and ankle block added to general anesthesia (Group B)...
March 12, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Masahiko Mori, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Reiko Miyahara, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Panita Pathipvanich, Toshiyuki Miura, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
BACKGROUND: Class I HLA molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Contribution of CTLs to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of NK cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-KIR pairs, remain incomplete. METHODS: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected (n=209)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Hang-Jing Wu, Xue-Yan Li, Wen-Jing Qian, Qian Li, Shu-Yue Wang, Min Ji, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Feng Gao, Xing-Huai Sun, Xin Wang, Yanying Miao, Xiong-Li Yang, Zhongfeng Wang
Müller cell gliosis is a common response in many retinal pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of Kir channels contributes to Müller cell gliosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. Here, the possible involvement of outward K+ currents in Müller cell gliosis was investigated. Outward K+ current densities in Müller cells isolated from COH rats, as compared with those in normal rats, showed a significant increase, which was mainly contributed by large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (BKCa ) channels...
March 6, 2018: Glia
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Elisa Negri, Marina Concli Leite, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of partial epilepsy and is accompanied, in one third of cases, by resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Most AED target neuronal activity modulated by ionic channels, and the steroid sensitivity of these channels has supported the use of corticosteroids as adjunctives to AED. Assuming the importance of astrocytes in neuronal activity, we investigated inflammatory and astroglial markers in the hippocampus, a key structure affected in TLE and in the Li-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ibra S Fancher, Sang Joon Ahn, Crystal Adamos, Catherine Osborn, Myung-Jin Oh, Yun Fang, Catherine A Reardon, Godfrey S Getz, Shane A Phillips, Irena Levitan
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia-induced decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major factor in cardiovascular disease. We previously established that cholesterol suppresses endothelial inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels and that Kir2.1 is an upstream mediator of flow-induced NO production. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of Kir2.1 is responsible for hypercholesterolemia-induced inhibition of flow-induced NO production and flow-induced vasodilation (FIV)...
March 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Niken M Mahaweni, Gerard M J Bos, Constantine S Mitsiades, Marcel G J Tilanus, Lotte Wieten
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising novel approach to treat cancer. However, NK cell function has been shown to be potentially diminished by factors common in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we assessed the synergistic potential of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and killer immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatched NK cells to potentiate NK cell antitumor reactivity in multiple myeloma (MM). Hypoxia, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or combinations were selected to mimic the TME...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Yian Huang, Yuwen Zhang, Shuzhen Kong, Kai Zang, Shize Jiang, Li Wan, Lulan Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Min Jiang, Xin Wang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important inhibitory regulators of neuronal excitability in central nervous system, and the impairment of GIRK channel function has been reported to be associated with the susceptibility of epilepsy. However, the dynamics of GIRK channels in the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. In this study, our results showed that cyclothiazide, a potent convulsant, dose dependently increased the epileptiform bursting activities and suppressed the baclofen induced GIRK currents...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Monika Plescher, Gerald Seifert, Jan Niklas Hansen, Peter Bedner, Christian Steinhäuser, Annett Halle
Microglia, the central nervous system resident innate immune cells, cluster around Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The activation phenotype of these plaque-associated microglial cells, and their differences to microglia distant to Aβ plaques, are incompletely understood. We used novel three-dimensional cell analysis software to comprehensively analyze the morphological properties of microglia in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD in spatial relation to Aβ plaques. We found strong morphological changes exclusively in plaque-associated microglia, whereas plaque-distant microglia showed only minor changes...
March 1, 2018: Glia
Fabian Schlott, Dominik Steubl, Stefanie Ameres, Andreas Moosmann, Stefan Dreher, Uwe Heemann, Volker Hösel, Dirk H Busch, Michael Neuenhahn
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation remains a major source of morbidity in patients after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) with CMV-specific T cells is a promising therapeutic approach for HSCT recipients, but might be counteracted by CMV's immune evasion strategies. HLA-C*07:02 is less susceptible to viral immune evasion suggesting HLA-C*07:02-restricted viral epitopes as promising targets for ACT. For a better understanding of HLA-C*07:02-restricted CMV-specific T cells we used recently generated reversible HLA-C*07:02/IE-1 multimers (Streptamers) recognizing a CMV-derived Immediate-Early-1 (IE-1) epitope and analyzed phenotypic and functional T cell characteristics...
2018: PloS One
Zafer Cebeci, Yusuf Cem Yilmaz, Nur Kir
AIM: To report the real-life experience and clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab injections to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in a single institution in Turkey. METHODS: A total of 101 eyes of 89 patients with nAMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection, followed up for at least 24mo between 2009 and June 2014, which were evaluated retrospectively. A pro re nata (PRN) treatment protocol was performed after the patients had received three, monthly loading injections...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Doreen Fialho, Robert C Griggs, Emma Matthews
The periodic paralyses are a group of skeletal muscle channelopathies characterizeed by intermittent attacks of muscle weakness often associated with altered serum potassium levels. The underlying genetic defects include mutations in genes encoding the skeletal muscle calcium channel Cav 1.1, sodium channel Nav 1.4, and potassium channels Kir 2.1, Kir 3.4, and possibly Kir 2.6. Our increasing knowledge of how mutant channels affect muscle excitability has resulted in better understanding of many clinical phenomena which have been known for decades and sheds light on some of the factors that trigger attacks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Maureen P Martin, Vivek Naranbhai, Patrick R Shea, Ying Qi, Veron Ramsuran, Nicolas Vince, Xiaojiang Gao, Rasmi Thomas, Zabrina L Brumme, Jonathan M Carlson, Steven M Wolinsky, James J Goedert, Bruce D Walker, Florencia P Segal, Steven G Deeks, David W Haas, Stephen A Migueles, Mark Connors, Nelson Michael, Jacques Fellay, Emma Gostick, Sian Llewellyn-Lacey, David A Price, Bernard A Lafont, Phillip Pymm, Philippa M Saunders, Jacqueline Widjaja, Shu Cheng Wong, Julian P Vivian, Jamie Rossjohn, Andrew G Brooks, Mary Carrington
HLA-B*57 control of HIV involves enhanced CD8+ T cell responses against infected cells, but extensive heterogeneity exists in level of HIV control among B*57+ individuals. Using whole genome sequencing of untreated B*57+ HIV-1 infected controllers and non-controllers, we identified a single variant (rs643347A/G) encoding an isoleucine to valine substitution at position 47 (I47V) of the inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, KIR3DL1, as the only significant modifier of B*57 protection. The association replicated in an independent cohort and across multiple outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vincent Yi Sheng Oei, Marta Siernicka, Agnieszka Graczyk-Jarzynka, Hanna Julie Hoel, Weiwen Yang, Daniel Palacios, Hilde Almasbak, Malgorzata Bajor, Dennis Clement, Ludwig Brandt, Bjorn Onfelt, Jodie Goodridge, Magdalena Winiarska, Radoslaw Zagozdzon, Johanna Olweus, Jon-Amund Kyte, Karl-Johan Malmberg
Natural Killer (NK) cells hold potential as a source of allogeneic cytotoxic effector cells for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-mediated therapies. Here, we explored the feasibility of transfecting CAR-encoding mRNA into primary NK cells and investigated how the intrinsic potential of discrete NK-cell subsets affects retargeting efficiency. After screening five 2nd- and 3rd-generation anti-CD19 CAR constructs with different signaling domains and spacer regions, a 3rd-generation CAR with the CH2-domain removed was selected based on its expression and functional profiles...
February 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Mehmet Onur Elbaşi, Aysın Tulunay-Virlan, Emel Ekşioğlu-Demiralp
One hundred eighty-seven healthy and unrelated volunteers from various regions of Turkey were selected for the study. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using commercial sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) kits. Gene frequencies of the Turkish population were determined by direct counting of the positive and negative loci. The genotype data is publicly available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name "Turkey KIR pop 3" number "3399"...
February 14, 2018: Human Immunology
Josiane Bazzo de Alencar, Joana Maira Valentini Zacarias, Barbara Leticia da Silva Guedes de Moura, Marco Antônio Braga, Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer, Ana Maria Sell
In order to investigate killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their ligands, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), diversity in the Brazilian population influenced by migrations, unrelated Brazilian Japanese descendants were selected and genotyped for the KIR genes and HLA class I allele groups. Genetic heterogeneity in Brazil Paraná Japanese was observed for KIR genes, whose frequency distributions demonstrated similarity with mixed Brazilian populations and with the Japanese population, suggesting gene flow...
February 12, 2018: Human Immunology
D Feyaerts, T Kuret, B van Cranenbroek, S van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, O W H van der Heijden, A van der Meer, I Joosten, R G van der Molen
STUDY QUESTION: Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific? SUMMARY ANSWER: The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: NK cells are important for successful pregnancy...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Zhengang Shan, Jieting Huang, Qiao Liao, Ke Huang, Min Wang, Ru Xu, Xi Tang, Weiyun Zhang, Kenrad Nelson, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li, Xia Rong
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components in innate immune response to viral infection. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in regulating the balance of activation or inhibitory function of NK cells. However, the association of KIRs with the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains unclear in the Chinese population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 407 HCV-seropositive voluntary blood donors were recruited, including 203 with spontaneous viral clearance and 204 with chronic infection...
February 15, 2018: Transfusion
Feng Gao, Linjie Xu, Yuan Zhao, Xinghuai Sun, Zhongfeng Wang
Müller cell is the major type glial cell in the vertebrate retina. Müller cells express various types of K+ channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channels, big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, delayed rectifier K+ channels (KDR), and transient A-type K+ channels. These K+ channels play important roles in maintaining physiological functions of Müller cells. Under some retinal pathological conditions, the changed expression and functions of K+ channels may contribute to retinal pathogenesis...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jeanette E Boudreau, Katharine C Hsu
Natural killer (NK) cells maintain immune homeostasis by detecting and eliminating damaged cells. Simultaneous activating and inhibitory input are integrated by NK cells, with the net signal prompting cytotoxicity and cytokine production, or inhibition. Chief among the inhibitory ligands for NK cells are 'self' human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, which are sensed by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Through a process called 'education', the functional capabilities of each NK cell are counterbalanced by their sensitivity for inhibition by co-inherited 'self' HLA...
January 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Mark A Skarsfeldt, Sofia H Bomholtz, Pia R Lundegaard, Angelica Lopez-Izquierdo, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Bo Hjorth Bentzen
AIM: The zebrafish has emerged as a novel model for investigating cardiac physiology and pathology. The aim of the current study is to investigate the atrium specific ion channels responsible for shaping the atrial cardiac action potential in zebrafish. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction we assessed the expression level of atrium specific potassium channels. The functional role of these channels was studied by patch clamp experiments on isolated atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, and by optical mapping of explanted adult zebrafish hearts...
February 7, 2018: Acta Physiologica
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