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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217236/accuracy-precision-and-trending-of-4-pulse-wave-analysis-techniques-in-the-postoperative-period
#1
Martin Geisen, Michael T Ganter, Sonja Hartnack, Omer Dzemali, Christoph K Hofer, Andreas Zollinger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy, precision, and trending ability of the following 4 pulse wave analysis devices to measure continuous cardiac output: PiCCO2 ([PCCO]; Pulsion Medical System, Munich, Germany); LiDCORapid ([LCCO]; LiDCO Ltd, London, UK); FloTrac/Vigileo ([FCCO]; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA); and Nexfin ([NCCO]; BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Intensive care unit of a single-center, teaching hospital...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207601/dissecting-the-mechanisms-involved-in-anti-human-t-lymphocyte-immunoglobulin-atg-induced-tolerance-in-the-setting-of-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-potential-implications-for-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Katia Beider, David Naor, Valeria Voevoda, Olga Ostrovsky, Hanna Bitner, Evgenia Rosenberg, Nira Varda-Bloom, Victoria Marcu-Malina, Jonathan Canaani, Ivetta Danilesko, Avichai Shimoni, Arnon Nagler
Polyclonal anti-human thymocyte globulins (ATG) have been recently shown to significantly reduce the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from both sibling and unrelated donors. Induction of regulatory T cells has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms. The aim of current study was to further characterize the T cell populations induced by ATG treatment and to delineate the mechanisms involved in ATG-induced tolerance. Phenotypic characterization revealed a significant increase in the expression of FoxP3, GITR, CD95, PD-1 and ICOS as well as the complement inhibitory molecules CD55, CD58 and CD59 on CD4+CD25+ T cells upon ATG treatment...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192177/up-regulation-of-interleukin-21-contributes-to-liver-pathology-of-schistosomiasis-by-driving-gc-immune-responses-and-activating-hscs-in-mice
#3
Yanyan Wang, Cai Lin, Yun Cao, Zhongliang Duan, Zhixun Guan, Jing Xu, Xing-Quan Zhu, Chaoming Xia
The pathology of schistosome egg-induced liver granuloma, fibrosis and eventually liver scarring is complicated. CD4+ helper T (Th) cells play critical roles in both host humoral immunity and cellular immunity against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are another specialized subset of Th cells and involved in infectious diseases. However, the immune regulatory mechanism of Tfh cells in severe liver pathology of schistosomiasis is still poorly understood...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182620/broncho-vaxom-om-85-modulates-rhinovirus-docking-proteins-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells-via-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-camp
#4
Michael Roth, Christian Pasquali, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are primary target for Rhinovirus infection through attaching to cell membrane proteins. OM-85, a bacterial extract, improves recovery of asthma and COPD patients after viral infections, but only part of the mechanism was addressed, by focusing on defined immune cells. OBJECTIVE: We therefore determined the effect of OM-85 on isolated primary human BEC of controls (n = 8), asthma patients (n = 10) and COPD patients (n = 9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181005/induction-of-robust-b-cell-responses-after-influenza-mrna-vaccination-is-accompanied-by-circulating-hemagglutinin-specific-icos-pd-1-cxcr3-t-follicular-helper-cells
#5
Gustaf Lindgren, Sebastian Ols, Frank Liang, Elizabeth A Thompson, Ang Lin, Fredrika Hellgren, Kapil Bahl, Shinu John, Olga Yuzhakov, Kimberly J Hassett, Luis A Brito, Hugh Salter, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Karin Loré
Modified mRNA vaccines have developed into an effective and well-tolerated vaccine platform that offers scalable and precise antigen production. Nevertheless, the immunological events leading to strong antibody responses elicited by mRNA vaccines are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that protective levels of antibodies to hemagglutinin were induced after two immunizations of modified non-replicating mRNA encoding influenza H10 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) in non-human primates. While both intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) administration induced protective titers, ID delivery generated this response more rapidly...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151021/regulatory-t-cells-induced-by-b-cells-a-novel-subpopulation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#6
REVIEW
Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang
Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3(-) regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells into CD25(+)Foxp3(-) regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140477/when-can-the-child-speak-for-herself-the-limits-of-parental-consent-in-data-protection-law-for-health-research
#7
Mark J Taylor, Edward S Dove, Graeme Laurie, David Townend
Draft regulatory guidance suggests that if the processing of a child's personal data begins with the consent of a parent, then there is a need to find and defend an enduring consent through the child's growing capacity and on to their maturity. We consider the implications for health research of the UK Information Commissioner's Office's (ICO) suggestion that the relevant test for maturity is the Gillick test, originally developed in the context of medical treatment. Noting the significance of the welfare principle to this test, we examine the implications for the responsibilities of a parent to act as proxy for their child...
November 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128540/electrospun-thermosensitive-hydrogel-scaffold-for-enhanced-chondrogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Alexander R Brunelle, Christopher B Horner, Karen Low, Gerardo Ico, Jin Nam
Hydrogels have shown great potential for cartilage tissue engineering applications due to their capability to encapsulate cells within biomimetic, 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. However, the multi-step fabrication process that is necessary to produce cell/scaffold constructs with defined dimensions, limits their off-the-shelf translational usage. In this study, we have developed a hybrid scaffolding system which combines a thermosensitive hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEG-PNIPAAm), with a biodegradable polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), into a composite, electrospun microfibrous structure...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118008/ctla-4-a-moving-target-in-immunotherapy
#9
Behzad Rowshanravan, Neil Halliday, David M Sansom
CD28 and CTLA-4 are members of a family of Immunoglobulin-related receptors that are responsible for various aspects of T cell immune regulation. The family includes CD28, CTLA-4 and ICOS as well as other proteins including PD-1, BTLA and TIGIT. These receptors have both stimulatory (CD28, ICOS) as well as inhibitory roles (CTLA-4, PD-1, BTLA and TIGIT) in T cell function. Increasingly these pathways are targeted as part of immune modulatory strategies to treat cancers, referred to generically as immune checkpoint blockade, and conversely to treat autoimmunity and CTLA-4 deficiency...
November 8, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107664/eruption-of-lymphocyte-recovery-with-atypical-lymphocytes-mimicking-a-primary-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-a-series-of-12-patients
#10
Charlotte Hurabielle, Emilie Sbidian, Helmut Beltraminelli, Brigitte Bouchindhomme, Catherine Chassagne-Clément, Brigitte Balme, Céline Bossard, Marie-Hélène Delfau-Larue, Pierre Wolkenstein, Olivier Chosidow, Catherine Cordonnier, Andrea Toma, Cécile Pautas, Nicolas Ortonne
Eruption of lymphocyte recovery (ELR) may occur during bone marrow aplasia after chemotherapies. We reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of 12 patients (male/female: 7/5, median age: 61years) with an atypical ELR histologically mimicking a primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) such as Sézary Syndrome or CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). All the patients displayed an erythematous maculopapular eruption on the trunk and the limbs, associated with fever. All but one had received a polychemotherapy for an acute myeloid leukemia (n=10) or an urothelial carcinoma (n=1) before the occurrence of the skin eruption...
October 28, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103017/present-and-future-of-the-undergraduate-ophthalmology-curriculum-a-survey-of-uk-medical-schools
#11
Sophie Hill, Reg Dennick, Winfried Amoaku
Objectives: To investigate the current undergraduate ophthalmology curricula provided by the UK medical schools, evaluate how they compare with the guidelines of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) and International Council for Ophthalmology (ICO), and determine the views of the UK ophthalmology teaching leads on the future direction of the curriculum. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire was sent to teaching leads in 31 medical schools across the UK...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083474/alopecia-areata-is-characterized-by-expansion-of-circulating-th2-tc2-th22-within-the-skin-homing-and-systemic-t-cell-populations
#12
Tali Czarnowicki, Helen Y He, Huei-Chi Wen, Peter W Hashim, John K Nia, Kunal Malik, Yeriel Estrada, Grace W Kimmel, Mark Taliercio, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Characterizing blood profile of alopecia areata (AA) is not only important for treatment advancements, but also for possibly identifying peripheral biomarkers that will eliminate the need for scalp biopsies. We aimed to compare frequencies of skin homing (CLA(+) ) vs. systemic (CLA(-) ) "polar" CD4(+) and CD8(+) and activated T-cell subsets in AA vs. AD and control blood. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to measure IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells...
October 30, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042531/extrafollicular-cd4-t-b-interactions-are-sufficient-for-inducing-autoimmune-like-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#13
Ruishu Deng, Christian Hurtz, Qingxiao Song, Chanyu Yue, Gang Xiao, Hua Yu, Xiwei Wu, Markus Muschen, Stephen Forman, Paul J Martin, Defu Zeng
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an autoimmune-like syndrome mediated by pathogenic CD4(+) T and B cells, but the function of extrafollicular and germinal center CD4(+) T and B interactions in cGVHD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that extrafollicular CD4(+) T and B interactions are sufficient for inducing cGVHD, while germinal center formation is dispensable. The pathogenesis of cGVHD is associated with the expansion of extrafollicular CD44(hi)CD62(lo)PSGL-1(lo)CD4(+) (PSGL-1(lo)CD4(+)) T cells...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030005/foxp3-icos-and-icosl-gene-polymorphisms-in-systemic-sclerosis-foxp3-rs2294020-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-a-female-italian-population
#14
Fabio D'Amico, Giovanni Fiorito, Evangelia Skarmoutsou, Mariagrazia Granata, Giulio A Rossi, Chiara Trovato, Chiara Bellocchi, Maurizio Marchini, Lorenzo Beretta, Maria Clorinda Mazzarino
Systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disorder, is characterized by vasculopathy, inflammation, progressive perivascular and interstitial fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, however strong evidences suggest that genetic predisposition may contribute to SSc development. Several gene polymorphisms involved in regulatory T cell function have been identified in many autoimmune diseases, including SSc. Moreover, dysregulation of co-stimulatory and/or co-inhibitory signals, including ICOS signalling, can lead to autoimmunity...
October 5, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025273/higher-frequencies-of-circulating-icos-il-21-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-plasma-cells-in-patients-with-new-onset-membranous-nephropathy
#15
Zhihui Zhang, Yunpeng Shi, Kunmeng Yang, Rebecca Crew, Haifeng Wang, Yanfang Jiang
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper (TFH) cells and B cells are known to regulate humoral immune responses. This study is aimed at examining the putative contribution of different subsets of circulating of TFH cells and B cells to membranous nephropathy (MN). METHODS: A total of 45 MN patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for the number of TFH cells and B cells by flow cytometry. The level of 24-h urinary protein and eGFR were calculated, and the level of serum cytokines was examined...
October 13, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993766/therapeutic-potential-of-shark-anti-icosl-vnar-domains-is-exemplified-in-a-murine-model-of-autoimmune-non-infectious-uveitis
#16
Marina Kovaleva, Katherine Johnson, John Steven, Caroline J Barelle, Andrew Porter
Induced costimulatory ligand (ICOSL) plays an important role in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the inducible costimulator, ICOS. Suppression of full T cell activation can be achieved by blocking this interaction and has been shown to be an effective means of ameliorating disease in models of autoimmunity and inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of a novel class of anti-ICOSL antigen-binding single domains derived from sharks (VNARs) to effectively reduce inflammation in a murine model of non-infectious uveitis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987965/emerging-targets-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Samantha Burugu, Amanda R Dancsok, Torsten O Nielsen
The first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) targeted natural immune homeostasis pathways, co-opted by cancers, to drive anti-tumor immune responses. These agents led to unprecedented results in patients with previously incurable metastatic disease and may become first-line therapies for some advanced cancers. However, these agents are efficacious in only a minority of patients. Newer strategies are becoming available that target additional immunomodulatory mechanisms to activate patients' own anti-tumor immune responses...
October 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983583/aberrant-production-of-soluble-inducible-t-cell-co%C3%A2-stimulator-and-soluble-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#18
Dongsheng Wang, Qin Du, Guangcheng Luo, Qiang Wang, Guangrong Wang, Guoyuan Zhang, Zhengwei Leng, Xiaolan Guo
Previous studies demonstrated that immune dysregulation is an important cause of hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑mediated liver damage. Co‑stimulators including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD‑1) and inducible T cell co‑stimulator (ICOS) are involved in the pathogenesis of HBV. In the present study, the serum levels of soluble (s)PD‑1 and sICOS in patients with chronic HBV infections, were investigated, and the association between sPD‑1 and sICOS levels and liver injury degree was investigated. Serum sPD‑1 and sICOS levels were increased in the HBV‑patient group particularly in the HBV external core antigen positive group...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978547/validation-of-the-doubly-labeled-water-method-using-off-axis-integrated-cavity-output-spectroscopy-and-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry
#19
Edward L Melanson, Tracy Swibas, Wendy M Kohrt, Vicki A Catenacci, Seth A Creasy, Guy Plasqui, Loek Wouters, John R Speakman, Elena S F Berman
When the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), isotope measurements are typically performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). New technologies, such as off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide comparable isotopic measurements of standard waters and human urine samples, but the accuracy of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) determined with OA-ICOS has not been demonstrated. We compared simultaneous measurement of VCO2 obtained using whole-room indirect calorimetry (IC) with DLW-based measurements from IRMS and OA-ICOS...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974433/impact-of-immunosuppressive-drugs-on-circulating-tfh-cells-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-pilot-study
#20
Ya Mei Li, Yi Li, Yun Ying Shi, Lin Yan, Xiao Juan Wu, Jiang Tao Tang, Yang Juan Bai, Lan Lan Wang
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are recently revealed to be vital in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on Tfh cells is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Tfh cells phenotypically and functionally in KTRs treated with different immunosuppression regimens. METHODS: We recruited 26 KTRs treated with tacrolimus (TAC) -based regimen, 13 with sirolimus (SRL) -based regimen and 10 healthy controls (HC) in this study...
September 30, 2017: Transplant Immunology
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