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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292772/availability-and-variability-in-guidelines-on-diabetic-retinopathy-screening-in-asian-countries
#1
Louis Zizhao Wang, Carol Y Cheung, Robyn J Tapp, Haslina Hamzah, Gavin Tan, Daniel Ting, Ecosse Lamoureux, Tien Yin Wong
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a blinding yet treatable complication of diabetes. DR screening is highly cost-effective at reducing blindness. Amidst the rapidly growing diabetic population in Asia, the prevalence of DR in the region is relatively less well known. AIMS: To review existing national DR screening guidelines of 50 countries in Asia, compare them against the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) guideline, and summarise the prevalence rates of DR and sight-threatening DR (STDR) in these countries...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290526/icosl-expression-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-induction-of-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Hyun-Joo Lee, Si-Na Kim, Myung-Shin Jeon, TacGhee Yi, Sun U Song
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lymphocyte proliferation and function. One of the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs involves CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which negatively regulate inflammatory responses. MSC-mediated Treg induction is supposed to be regulated by mechanisms requiring both soluble and cell contact-dependent factors. Although the involvement of soluble factors has been revealed, the contact-dependent mechanisms in MSC-mediated Treg induction remain unclear. We attempted to identify molecule(s) other than secreted factors that are responsible for MSC-mediated Treg induction and to uncover the underlying mechanisms...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290453/suppressive-il-17a-foxp3-and-ex-th17-il-17a-neg-foxp3-treg-cells-are-a-source-of-tumour-associated-treg-cells
#3
Stephanie Downs-Canner, Sara Berkey, Greg M Delgoffe, Robert P Edwards, Tyler Curiel, Kunle Odunsi, David L Bartlett, Nataša Obermajer
Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells are integral in maintaining immune homeostasis and Th17-Treg imbalance is associated with inflammatory immunosuppression in cancer. Here we show that Th17 cells are a source of tumour-induced Foxp3(+) cells. In addition to natural (n)Treg and induced (i)Treg cells that develop from naive precursors, suppressive IL-17A(+)Foxp3(+) and ex-Th17 Foxp3(+) cells are converted from IL-17A(+)Foxp3(neg) cells in tumour-bearing mice. Metabolic phenotyping of Foxp3-expressing IL-17A(+), ex-Th17 and iTreg cells demonstrates the dissociation between the metabolic fitness and the suppressive function of Foxp3-expressing Treg cell subsets...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281408/the-role-of-follicular-t-helper-cells-in-patients-with-malignant-lymphoid-disease
#4
Dong-Ming Zhou, Yan-Xia Xu, Li-Ying Zhang, Yu Sun, Zi-Yan Wang, Yu-Qing Yuan, Jin-Xiang Fu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dynamic change of follicular T helper cells (TFH) in patients with malignant lymphoid disease (MLD) and to explore its clinical significance. METHODS: The dynamic change of TFH cells, ICOS(+)- and PD-1(+) TFH cells at pretreatment and different treatment periods was determined by flow cytometry in 85 MLD patients. Concentration of interleukin 21 (IL-21) was evaluated by ELISA, and the correlation between clinical prognosis and the ratio of TFH cells was analyzed...
March 10, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243970/erratum-to-cd28-ctla-4-icos-haplotypes-confers-susceptibility-to-graves-disease-and-modulates-clinical-phenotype-of-disease
#5
Edyta Pawlak-Adamska, Irena Frydecka, Marek Bolanowski, Anna Tomkiewicz, Anna Jonkisz, Lidia Karabon, Anna Partyka, Oskar Nowak, Marek Szalinski, Jacek Daroszewski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242651/metformin-suppresses-systemic-autoimmunity-in-roquin-san-san-mice-through-inhibiting-b-cell-differentiation-into-plasma-cells-via-regulation-of-ampk-mtor-stat3
#6
Seon-Yeong Lee, Su-Jin Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Eun-Ji Yang, Hye-Jin Son, Jae-Kyung Kim, Jun-Ki Min, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Circulating autoantibodies and immune complex deposition are pathological hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B cell differentiation into plasma cells (PCs) and some T cell subsets that function as B cell helpers can be therapeutic targets of SLE. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is implicated in the formation of B cells and germinal centers (GCs). We assessed the effect of metformin, which inhibits mTOR, on the development of autoimmunity using Roquin(san/san) mice. Oral administration of metformin inhibited the formation of splenic follicles and inflammation in kidney and liver tissues...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236737/panayiotopoulos-syndrome-with-a-special-emphasis-of-ictal-semiologic-features
#7
A Destina Yalçın, Hülya Ertaşoğlu Toydemir
PURPOSE: The aim was to identify the demographic, electroencephalographic findings, clinical features, especially ictal semiological symptoms of patients diagnosed with Panayiotopoulos Syndrome. METHOD: The semiologic and EEG findings of 42 patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was used to determine the frequencies of semiologic features and to define the symptom clusters. RESULTS: The most common clinical features were nausea (54.8%), vomiting (50...
February 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228602/a-divergent-population-of-autoantigen-responsive-cd4-t-cells-in-infants-prior-to-%C3%AE-cell-autoimmunity
#8
Anne-Kristin Heninger, Anne Eugster, Denise Kuehn, Florian Buettner, Matthias Kuhn, Annett Lindner, Sevina Dietz, Sibille Jergens, Carmen Wilhelm, Andreas Beyerlein, Anette-G Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio
Autoimmune diabetes is marked by sensitization to β cell self-antigens in childhood. We longitudinally followed at-risk children from infancy and performed single-cell gene expression in β cell antigen-responsive CD4(+) T cells through pre- and established autoimmune phases. A striking divergence in the gene signature of β cell antigen-responsive naïve CD4(+) T cells from children who developed β cell autoimmunity was found in infancy, well before the appearance of β cell antigen-specific memory T cells or autoantibodies...
February 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228556/activation-and-functional-specialization-of-regulatory-t-cells-lead-to-the-generation-of-foxp3-instability
#9
Zhongmei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jie Guo, Qianchong Gu, Xueping Zhu, Xuyu Zhou
Accumulating evidence suggests that Foxp3(+) cells can downregulate the expression of Foxp3, but whether thymically derived regulatory T cells (tTregs; especially committed tTregs) are capable of downregulating Foxp3 expression and being reprogrammed into other T effector cells remains controversial. Using a novel tTreg lineage-tracing mouse line, we were able to label epigenetically stable Foxp3(+) cells derived from the thymus and demonstrate that mature tTregs are stable under homeostatic conditions. However, TCR engagement and sequential functional specialization of tTregs led to the generation of Foxp3 instability and reprogramming into the Th lineage...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213366/tumor-infiltrating-and-peripheral-blood-t-cell-immunophenotypes-predict-early-relapse-in-localized-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Nicolas A Giraldo, Etienne Becht, Yann Vano, Florent Petitprez, Laetitia Lacroix, Pierre Validire, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Alexandre Ingels, Stephane Marie Oudard, Audrey Moatti, Bénédicte Buttard, Sarah Bourras, Claire Germain, Xavier Cathelineau, Wolf-Herman Fridman, Catherine Sautes-Fridman
PURPOSE: The efficacy of PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade (ChB) as adjuvant therapy in localized clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) is currently unknown. The identification of tumor microenvironment (TME) prognostic biomarkers in this setting may help to define which patients could benefit from ChB and to uncover new therapeutic targets. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed multiparametric flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of T cells isolated from tumor tissue (TIL), adjacent non-malignant renal tissue (RIL) and peripheral blood (PBL), in a cohort of patients (n=40) with localized ccRCC...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194154/the-role-of-cd4-t-follicular-helper-cells-in-hiv-infection-from-the-germinal-center-to-the-periphery
#11
REVIEW
John Patrick Thornhill, Sarah Fidler, Paul Klenerman, John Frater, Chansavath Phetsouphanh
T follicular helper cells (TFh) are key components of the adaptive immune system; they are primarily found in germinal centers (GCs) where their interaction with B cells supports humoral immune responses and efficient antibody production. They are defined by the expression of CXC receptor 5, program death-1, ICOS, and secretion of IL-21. Their differentiation is regulated by B-cell lymphoma 6. The relationship and function of circulating TFh to bona fide TFh resident in the GC is much debated. HIV infection impacts the TFh response with evidence of aberrant TFh function observed in acute and chronic infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194010/intratumoral-modulation-of-the-inducible-co-stimulator-icos-by-recombinant-oncolytic-virus-promotes-systemic-anti-tumour-immunity
#12
Dmitriy Zamarin, Rikke B Holmgaard, Jacob Ricca, Tamar Plitt, Peter Palese, Padmanee Sharma, Taha Merghoub, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Emerging data suggest that locoregional cancer therapeutic approaches with oncolytic viruses can lead to systemic anti-tumour immunity, although the appropriate targets for intratumoral immunomodulation using this strategy are not known. Here we find that intratumoral therapy with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in addition to the activation of innate immunity, upregulates the expression of T-cell co-stimulatory receptors, with the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) being most notable. To explore ICOS as a direct target in the tumour, we engineered a recombinant NDV-expressing ICOS ligand (NDV-ICOSL)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191495/using-media-to-improve-the-informed-consent-process-for-youth-undergoing-pediatric-endoscopy-and-their-parents
#13
Debra M Yeh, Stanford Chun, Laura Terrones, Jeannie S Huang
Background and study aims Youth undergoing pediatric endoscopic procedures and their parents demonstrate suboptimal comprehension of the informed consent (IC) process. We developed informational videos discussing key IC elements for pediatric endoscopy and evaluated their effects on youth and parental comprehension of the IC process. Patients and methods A randomized controlled trial of the video intervention was performed among youth undergoing endoscopy and their parents at an academic children's hospital...
January 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188716/-immunological-alterations-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#14
Laura Berrón-Ruiz
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the largest group of symptomatic primary immune deficiencies; it is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, poor response to vaccines and increased susceptibility to infections. Cellular phenotypes and abnormalities have been described both in adaptive and innate immune response. Several classifications of common variable immunodeficiency are based on defects found on T and B cells, which have been correlated with clinical manifestations. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetic mechanisms that result in a IDCV phenotype...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179539/smoking-reduces-circulating-cd26-hi-cd161-hi-mait-cells-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Cecilie Ammitzbøll, Lars Börnsen, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Rikke Ratzer, Birgitte Romme Nielsen, Helle B Søndergaard, Marina R von Essen, Finn Sellebjerg
Upon chronic cigarette smoke exposure, inhaled antigens and irritants cause altered lung immune homeostasis. Circulating immune cells are affected, and smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing various disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted to determine the impact of smoking on circulating immune cell subsets. Furthermore, we determined whether any smoking-associated changes were related to MS. With the use of flow cytometry, CFSE assays, and ELISpot assays, we analyzed circulating immune cell phenotypes and quantified antigen-induced proliferation and cytokine secretion in smokers and nonsmokers in a cohort of 100 healthy individuals (HI)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160290/regulatory-t-cells-and-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-dependent-asthma
#16
REVIEW
J L Aron, O Akbari
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently identified group of cells with the potent capability to produce Th2-type cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13. Several studies suggest that ILC2s play an important role in the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Activation of pulmonary ILC2s in murine models lacking T and B cells induces eosinophilia and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), which are cardinal features of asthma. More importantly, numerous recent studies have highlighted the role of ILC2s in asthma persistence and exacerbation among human subjects, and thus, regulation of pulmonary ILC2s is a major area of investigation aimed at curbing allergic lung inflammation and exacerbation...
February 4, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159903/cd31-a-valuable-marker-to-identify-early-and-late-stages-of-t-cell-differentiation-in-the-human-thymus
#17
Marc Douaisi, Rachel S Resop, Maho Nagasawa, Joshua Craft, Beth D Jamieson, Bianca Blom, Christel H Uittenbogaart
Although CD31 expression on human thymocytes has been reported, a detailed analysis of CD31 expression at various stages of T cell development in the human thymus is missing. In this study, we provide a global picture of the evolution of CD31 expression from the CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor to the CD45RA(+) mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive (SP) T cells. Using nine-color flow cytometry, we show that CD31 is highly expressed on CD34(+) progenitors and stays high until the early double-positive stage (CD3(-)CD4(+)CD8α(+)β(-))...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153782/rapid-de-novo-generation-of-antigen-specific-human-b-cells-with-expression-of-blimp-1-and-aid-by-in-vitro-immunization
#18
Xu Fang, Yue Tong, Hong Tian, Hongyu Ning, Xiangdong Gao, Wenbing Yao
In vitro immunization with antigens and cytokines triggers specific human B-cell response in short periods and is therefore superior to conventional in vivo immunization for antibody development. However, this new technology is limited by low efficiency, poor reproducibility, and requirement of pre-immunized lymphocytes. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for de novo inducing antigen-specific human B cells in vitro. Unlike previous in vitro immunization of unfractionated PBMCs, we firstly optimized the conditions for inducing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to efficiently capture, process, and present antigens...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150777/pathologically-expanded-peripheral-t-helper-cell-subset-drives-b-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Deepak A Rao, Michael F Gurish, Jennifer L Marshall, Kamil Slowikowski, Chamith Y Fonseka, Yanyan Liu, Laura T Donlin, Lauren A Henderson, Kevin Wei, Fumitaka Mizoguchi, Nikola C Teslovich, Michael E Weinblatt, Elena M Massarotti, Jonathan S Coblyn, Simon M Helfgott, Yvonne C Lee, Derrick J Todd, Vivian P Bykerk, Susan M Goodman, Alessandra B Pernis, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Elizabeth W Karlson, Peter A Nigrovic, Andrew Filer, Christopher D Buckley, James A Lederer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Michael B Brenner
CD4(+) T cells are central mediators of autoimmune pathology; however, defining their key effector functions in specific autoimmune diseases remains challenging. Pathogenic CD4(+) T cells within affected tissues may be identified by expression of markers of recent activation. Here we use mass cytometry to analyse activated T cells in joint tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic immune-mediated arthritis that affects up to 1% of the population. This approach revealed a markedly expanded population of PD-1(hi)CXCR5(-)CD4(+) T cells in synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
February 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115909/fatty-acid-and-proximate-composition-of-bee-bread
#20
Muammer Kaplan, Öznur Karaoglu, Nazife Eroglu, Sibel Silici
Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids...
December 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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