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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527399/the-effects-of-melamine-with-or-without-cyanuric-acid-on-immune-function-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-mice
#1
Rong H Yin, Qiao Dong, Hua S Li, Jing Yuan, Xi T Li, Rong L Yin, Wen Li, Wen C Wang, Bao S Liu, Xiao H Han, Ren F Wang, Xin Wang, Wen L Bai
Melamine is commonly used in the chemical industry, and it has been found to exist on food processing equipment and utensils. Previous investigations suggested that melamine alone or its combination with cyanuric acid appears to be toxic to immune system in animals. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential effects of melamine with or without cyanuric acid on immune function in ovalbumin- sensitized mice. Our data indicated that melamine-related administration caused a significant decreasing in the content of IL-4 in mice in comparison to negative control group...
May 13, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523230/targeting-resolution-of-neuroinflammation-after-ischemic-stroke-with-a-lipoxin-a4-analog-protective-mechanisms-and-long-term-effects-on-neurological-recovery
#2
Kimberly E Hawkins, Kelly M DeMars, Jon C Alexander, Lauren G de Leon, Sean C Pacheco, Christina Graves, Changjun Yang, Austin O McCrea, Jan C Frankowski, Timothy J Garrett, Marcelo Febo, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
BACKGROUND: Resolution of inflammation is an emerging new strategy to reduce damage following ischemic stroke. Lipoxin A4 (LXA 4) is an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution lipid mediator that reduces neuroinflammation in stroke. Since LXA 4 is rapidly inactivated, potent analogs have been synthesized, including BML-111. We hypothesized that post-ischemic, intravenous treatment with BML-111 for 1 week would provide neuroprotection and reduce neurobehavioral deficits at 4 weeks after ischemic stroke in rats...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522291/y418-in-410s-loop-is-required-for-high-transglucosylation-activity-and-large-ring-cyclodextrin-production-of-amylomaltase-from-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#3
Suthipapun Tumhom, Kuakarun Krusong, Piamsook Pongsawasdi
Amylomaltase catalyzes α-1,4 glucosyl transfer reaction to yield linear or cyclic oligosaccharide products. The aim of this work is to investigate functional roles of 410s loop unique to amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAM). Site-directed mutagenesis of Y418, the residue at the loop tip, was performed. Y418A/S/D/R/W/F - CgAMs were characterized and compared to the wild-type (WT). A significant decrease in starch transglucosylation, disproportionation and cyclization activities was observed. Specificity for G3 substrate in disproportionation reaction was not changed; however, Y418F showed an increase in preference for longer oligosaccharides G5 to G7...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521278/scaffold-protein-jlp-mediates-tcr-initiated-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-cd154-expression
#4
Qi Yan, Cheng Yang, Qiang Fu, Zhaowei Chen, Shan Liu, Dou Fu, Rahmat N Rahman, Ryota Nakazato, Katsuji Yoshioka, Sam K P Kung, Guohua Ding, Huiming Wang
CD4(+) T-cell activation and its subsequent induction of CD154 (CD40 ligand, CD40L) expression are pivotal in shaping both the humoral and cellular immune responses. Scaffold protein JLP regulates signal transduction pathways and molecular trafficking inside cells, thus represents a critical component in maintaining cellular functions. Its role in regulating CD4(+) T-cell activation and CD154 expression, however, is unclear. Here, we demonstrated expression of JLP in mouse tissues of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and also CD4(+) T cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518224/t-helper-1-related-molecules-as-well-as-il-15-are-hyperexpressed-in-the-skin-lesions-of-patients-with-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#5
Emiliano Antiga, Roberto Maglie, Walter Volpi, Beatrice Bianchi, Emilio Berti, Angelo Valerio Marzano, Marzia Caproni
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, immune-mediated skin disease classified into the group of neutrophilic dermatoses. Whether a number of studies confirmed the central role of innate immunity, only few studies investigated the possible contributing role of acquired immunity. In particular, no reports about Th1 and Th2 cells are available yet. Therefore, 15 patients with PG, 5 with Sweet's syndrome (SS) and 9 skin specimens from healthy controls (HC) were investigated, evaluating the expression of Th1-related markers IL-12, IFN-γ, CXCR3, CCR5, of the Th2 related molecules IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and CCR3, of the co-stimulatory axis CD40/CD40L, of IL-15 and the NK cell marker CD56 in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513775/adiponectin-inhibits-oxidization-induced-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-through-inhibiting-costimulatory-cd40-and-cd80
#6
Y Xiao, T Deng, Z Shang, D Wang
Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine that has several oligomeric forms in the blood stream, which broadly regulates innate and acquired immunity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to observe the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells and expression of costimulatory signaling molecules affected by adiponectin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of adiponectin and its receptors in oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol-treated endothelial cells were assayed by real time PCR and immunofluorescence...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507547/deletion-of-dock10-in-b-cells-results-in-normal-development-but-a-mild-deficiency-upon-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-stimulations
#7
Natalija Gerasimčik, Minghui He, Marisa A P Baptista, Eva Severinson, Lisa S Westerberg
We sought to identify genes necessary to induce cytoskeletal change in B cells. Using gene expression microarray, we compared B cells stimulated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-CD40 antibodies that induce B cell spreading, cell motility, tight aggregates, and extensive microvilli with B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide that lack these cytoskeletal changes. We identified 84 genes with 10-fold or greater expression in anti-CD40 + IL-4 stimulated B cells, one of these encoded the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (Dock10)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507338/impact-of-trace-minerals-on-wound-healing-of-footpad-dermatitis-in-broilers
#8
Juxing Chen, Guillermo Tellez, Jeffery Escobar, Mercedes Vazquez-Anon
Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is used in the poultry industry as an animal welfare criterion to determine stocking density. Trace minerals (TM) play a role in skin integrity and wound healing. This study evaluated the impact of TM on FPD and consisted of 3 treatments supplemented with 0 (NTM), low (LTM) and high (HTM) TM levels in the same basal diet. On d21, 71% birds in all treatments developed mild FPD and pens were top-dressed with dry litter to promote FPD healing. Compared to NTM, LTM reduced area under the curve (AUC) of FPD lesion scores during d21-42, HTM reduced the AUC of FPD lesion scores during d7-21 and d21-42...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505514/tlr4-supports-the-expansion-of-fasl-cd5-cd1d-hi-regulatory-b-cells-which-decreases-in-contact-hypersensitivity
#9
Keng Wang, Lei Tao, Jianbing Su, Yueyang Zhang, Binhua Zou, Yiyuan Wang, Min Zou, Nana Chen, Linsheng Lei, Xiaojuan Li
Certain B cells termed as "regulatory B cells" (Bregs) can suppress the ongoing immune responses and a splenic CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Breg subset identified earlier was shown to exert its regulatory functions through secretion of IL-10. Though FasL expression is an alternative mechanism of immune suppression used by B cells, little is known about the FasL expressing CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Bregs. In this study, we isolated splenocytes or splenic CD19(+) B cells and compared the efficiency of toll-like receptor(TLR)4 ligand (lipopolysaccharide) with TLR9 ligand (CpG), anti-CD40 and TLR9 ligand (CpG) plus anti-CD40 on the FasL expression of splenic CD5(+)CD1d(hi) Bregs by flow cytometry...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505494/melatonin-protects-mice-against-stress-induced-inflammation-through-enhancement-of-m2-macrophage-polarization
#10
Woo-Jin Yi, Tae Sung Kim
Stress is known to cause neuropsychiatric diseases, and it has a detrimental impact on the function of the immune system. Melatonin (MLT), a pineal gland hormone, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and it plays a fundamental role in neuroimmunomodulation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of MLT in stress-induced inflammation, focusing on macrophage polarization. MLT (50 and 100mg/kg) or a vehicle control (5% ethanol in saline) was intraperitoneally administered to mice once a day for 5days...
May 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503991/platelet-concentrates-modulate-myeloid-dendritic-cell-immune-responses
#11
Katrina K Ki, Helen M Faddy, Robert L Flower, Melinda M Dean
Platelet transfusion has been reported to modulate the recipients' immune system. To date, the precise mechanism(s) driving poor patient outcomes (e.g., increased rate of mortality, morbidity, infectious complications and prolonged hospital stays) following platelet transfusion are largely undefined. To determine the potential for platelet concentrates (PC) to modulate responses of crucial immune regulatory cells, a human in vitro whole blood model of transfusion was established. Maturation and activation of human myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and the specialized subset blood DC antigen (BDCA)3(+) DC were assessed following exposure to buffy-coat derived PC at day (D)2 (fresh) and D5 (date-of-expiry)...
May 15, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503733/long-term-safety-from-transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-after-pig-to-non-human-primate-corneal-transplantation
#12
Hyuk Jin Choi, Jiyeon Kim, Jae Young Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim, Eung Soo Hwang
BACKGROUND: The risk of xenozoonosis mainly by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has been considered as one of the main hurdles in xenotransplantation and therefore should be elucidated prior to the clinical use of porcine corneal grafts. Accordingly, an investigation was performed to analyze the infectivity of PERVs from porcine keratocytes to human cells, and the long-term risk of transmission of PERVs was determined using pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) corneal transplantation models...
May 14, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499612/environmentally-relevant-dose-of-arsenic-interferes-in-functions-of-human-monocytes-derived-dendritic-cells
#13
Abbas Bahari, Vahid Salmani
Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health, which well established as carcinogen and immune deregulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) have a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunity for T-cell activation and antigen presentation. In this study, T cell activation, some key functional genes expression, cell stability and phagocytosis capacity of human monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) were analyzed after in vitro exposure to very low dose of arsenic for 12 and 24h. Arsenic decreased continually phagocytosis capacity of MDDCs...
May 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498098/germinal-center-b-cell-development-has-distinctly-regulated-stages-completed-by-disengagement-from-t-cell-help
#14
Ting-Ting Zhang, David G Gonzalez, Christine M Cote, Steven M Kerfoot, Shaoli Deng, Yuqing Cheng, Masaki Magari, Ann M Haberman
To reconcile conflicting reports on the role of CD40 signaling in germinal center (GC) formation, we examined the earliest stages of murine GC B cell differentiation. Peri-follicular GC precursors first expressed intermediate levels of BCL6 while co-expressing the transcription factors RelB and IRF4, the latter known to repress Bcl6 transcription. Transition of GC precursors to the BCL6(hi) follicular state was associated with cell division, although the number of required cell divisions was immunogen dose dependent...
May 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495432/changes-in-coagulation-and-platelet-activation-markers-following-transcatheter-left-atrial-appendage-closure
#15
Josep Rodés-Cabau, Gilles O'Hara, Jean-Michel Paradis, Mathieu Bernier, Tania Rodriguez-Gabella, Ander Regueiro, Kim O'Connor, Jonathan Beaudoin, Rishi Puri, Mélanie Côté, Jean Champagne
The recommendations for antithrombotic treatment after left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) remain empirical, and no data exist on the changes in hemostatic markers associated with LACC. The objective of the present study is to determine the presence, degree, and timing of changes in the markers of platelet and coagulation activation after LAAC. Forty-three patients (mean age 76 ± 9 years, 23 men) with atrial fibrillation who underwent successful LACC with the Watchman (n = 27) or Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (n = 16) devices were included in the study...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495139/high-yield-primary-microglial-cultures-using-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-from-embryonic-murine-cerebral-cortical-tissue
#16
Adam C Yu, Sarah E Neil, Jacqueline A Quandt
BACKGROUND: Microglia play vital roles in neurotrophic support and modulating immune or inflammatory responses to pathogens or damage/stressors during disease. This study describes the ability to establish large numbers of microglia from embryonic tissues with the addition of granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and characterizes their similarities to adult microglia examined ex vivo as well as their responses to inflammatory mediators. METHOD: Microglia were seeded from a primary embryonic mixed cortical suspension with the addition of GM-CSF...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494768/inhibition-of-cd40-traf6-interactions-by-the-small-molecule-inhibitor-6877002-reduces-neuroinflammation
#17
Suzanne A B M Aarts, Tom T P Seijkens, Pascal J H Kusters, Susanne M A van der Pol, Barbara Zarzycka, Priscilla D A M Heijnen, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Marion J J Gijbels, Louis Boon, Christian Weber, Helga E de Vries, Gerry A F Nicolaes, Christine D Dijkstra, Gijs Kooij, Esther Lutgens
BACKGROUND: The influx of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) is a key hallmark of the chronic neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Strategies that aim to inhibit leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are therefore regarded as promising therapeutic approaches to combat MS. As the CD40L-CD40 dyad signals via TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in myeloid cells to induce inflammation and leukocyte trafficking, we explored the hypothesis that specific inhibition of CD40-TRAF6 interactions can ameliorate neuro-inflammation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491286/unwinding-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Vasil Peev, Eunsil Hahm, Jochen Reiser
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents the most common primary glomerular disease responsible for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States (US). The disease progresses from podocyte injury to chronic kidney disease (CKD), ultimately leading to total nephron degeneration. Extensive basic science research has been conducted to unwind the mechanisms of FSGS and, with those insights, understand major contributors of CKD in general. As a result, several putative molecules and pathways have been studied, all implicated in the disease; some serve, in addition, as early biomarkers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491094/immunoprofiling-of-adult-derived-human-liver-stem-progenitor-cells-impact-of-hepatogenic-differentiation-and-inflammation
#19
Hoda El-Kehdy, Camillo Sargiacomo, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Catherine Lombard, Laurence Lagneaux, Etienne Sokal, Mehdi Najar, Mustapha Najimi
Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) are, nowadays, developed as therapeutic medicinal product for the treatment of liver defects. In this study, the impact of hepatogenic differentiation and inflammation priming on the ADHLSCs' immune profile was assessed in vitro and compared to that of mature hepatocytes. The constitutive immunological profile of ADHLSCs was greatly different from that of hepatocytes. Differences in the expression of the stromal markers CD90 and CD105, adhesion molecules CD44 and CD49e, immunoregulatory molecules CD73 and HO-1, and NK ligands CD112 and CD155 were noted...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490810/establishment-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-normal-b-cells-and-inducing-aid-expression-in-their-differentiation-into-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells
#20
Fumihiko Kawamura, Makoto Inaki, Atsushi Katafuchi, Yu Abe, Naohiro Tsuyama, Yumiko Kurosu, Aki Yanagi, Mitsunori Higuchi, Satoshi Muto, Takumi Yamaura, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideyoshi Noji, Shinichi Suzuki, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Megumi Sasatani, Kenji Kamiya, Masafumi Onodera, Akira Sakai
B cell derived induced pluripotent stem cells (BiPSCs) were recently established from peripheral blood B cells by the simultaneous transfection of Yamanaka factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) and C/EBPα using a Sendai virus vector. Here, using a different method, we established BiPSCs with immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement from normal B cells purified from lymph nodes. The critical points of our method are pre-stimulation of B cells with IL-21 and CD40-ligand (CD40L), followed by consecutive transfection of highly concentrated Yamanaka factors using a retroviral vector...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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