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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330771/inhibition-of-human%C3%A2-immunodeficiency-type-1-virus-hiv-1-life-cycle-by-different-egg-white-lysozymes
#1
Mandana Behbahani, Mokhtar Nosrati, Hassan Mohabatkar
Lysozyme is a relatively small enzyme with different biological activities, which is found in tears, saliva, egg white, and human milk. In the study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of lysozymes purified from quail, Meleagris, and hen egg white has been determined. For this end, a time-of-drug-addition assay was performed to identify the target of anti-HIV-1 agents and for determination of probable anti HIV-1 mechanism of the studied lysozyme, the binding affinity of the lysozymes to the human CD4 receptor was studied by molecular docking method...
January 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322065/modeling-anti-hiv-1-hspc-based-gene-therapy-in-humanized-mice-previously-infected-with-hiv-1
#2
Wannisa Khamaikawin, Saki Shimizu, Masakazu Kamata, Ruth Cortado, Yujin Jung, Jennifer Lam, Jing Wen, Patrick Kim, Yiming Xie, Sanggu Kim, Hubert Arokium, Angela P Presson, Irvin S Y Chen, Dong Sung An
Investigations of anti-HIV-1 human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based gene therapy have been performed by HIV-1 challenge after the engraftment of gene-modified HSPCs in humanized mouse models. However, the clinical application of gene therapy is to treat HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we developed a new method to investigate an anti-HIV-1 HSPC-based gene therapy in humanized mice previously infected with HIV-1. First, humanized mice were infected with HIV-1. When plasma viremia reached >107 copies/mL 3 weeks after HIV-1 infection, the mice were myeloablated with busulfan and transplanted with anti-HIV-1 gene-modified CD34+ HSPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against CCR5 and HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), along with human thymus tissue under the kidney capsule...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319511/study-of-patterns-and-markers-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-1-hiv-1-progression-and-unemployment-rate-among-patients-from-alexandria-egypt
#3
Faika M Ghoneim, May M Raouf, Noha S Elshaer, Sarah M Abdelhamid, Reem A Noor Eldeen
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#4
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309618/single-cell-tracking-reveals-a-role-for-pre-existing-ccr5-memory-th1-cells-in-the-control-of-rhinovirus-a39-after-experimental-challenge-in-humans
#5
Lyndsey M Muehling, Ronald B Turner, Kenneth B Brown, Paul W Wright, James T Patrie, Sampo J Lahtinen, Markus J Lehtinen, William W Kwok, Judith A Woodfolk
Background: Little is known about T cells that respond to human rhinovirus in vivo, due to timing of infection, viral diversity, and complex T-cell specificities. We tracked circulating CD4+ T cells with identical epitope specificities that responded to intranasal challenge with rhinovirus (RV)-A39, and we assessed T-cell signatures in the nose. Methods: Cells were monitored using a mixture of 2 capsid-specific major histocompatibility complex II tetramers over a 7-week period, before and after RV-A39 challenge, in 16 human leukocyte antigen-DR4+ subjects who participated in a trial of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl-04) supplementation...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306566/bispecific-chimeric-antigen-receptors-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-and-high-mannose-glycans-of-gp120-optimized-for-anti-human-immunodeficiency-virus-potency-and-breadth-with-minimal-immunogenicity
#6
Mustafa H Ghanem, Sara Bolivar-Wagers, Barna Dey, Agnes Hajduczki, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David T Danielson, Virgilio Bundoc, Li Liu, Edward A Berger
BACKGROUND AIMS: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) offer great potential toward a functional cure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To achieve the necessary long-term virus suppression, we believe that CARs must be designed for optimal potency and anti-HIV specificity, and also for minimal probability of virus escape and CAR immunogenicity. CARs containing antibody-based motifs are problematic in the latter regard due to epitope mutation and anti-idiotypic immune responses against the variable regions...
January 3, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303012/blockade-of-ccr5-mediated-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-accumulation-enhances-anti-pd1-efficacy-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Liu Yang, Bing Wang, Jian Qin, HengHua Zhou, Adhip P N Majumdar, Fei Peng
PURPOSE: Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play an important role in tumor immune evasion and its level significantly increased in patients with gastric cancer. Studies confirmed the associations between MDSC and various cytokines in the peripheral blood. However, little is known about the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma. This study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and CCR5 level in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: G-MDSC and M-MDSC from the peripheral blood and tumor parenchyma were analyzed by flow cytometry...
January 5, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302252/serosal-cavities-contain-two-populations-of-innate-like-integrin-%C3%AE-4highcd4-t-cells-integrin-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-and-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-cells
#8
Jeong In Yang, Chanho Park, Inseong Kho, Sujin Lee, Kyung-Suk Suh, Tae Jin Kim
We previously reported peritoneal innate-like integrin α4 (CD49d)highCD4+ T cells that provided help for B-1a cells. Here we analyzed the expression of various integrin chains on the peritoneal and pleural integrin α4highCD4+ T cells and investigated the functional heterogeneity of the subpopulations based on the integrin expression. Pleural cavity contained a lower ratio of integrin α4highCD4+ T cells to integrin α4lowCD4+ T cells than peritoneal cavity, but the pleural integrin α4highCD4+ T cells have the same characteristics of the peritoneal integrin α4highCD4+ T cells...
December 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301198/regulation-of-cd4-receptor-and-hiv-1-entry-by-micrornas-221-and-222-during-differentiation-of-thp-1-cells
#9
Robert Lodge, Julian C Gilmore, Jérémy A Ferreira Barbosa, Félix Lombard-Vadnais, Éric A Cohen
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection of monocyte/macrophages is modulated by the levels of entry receptors cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), as well as by host antiviral restriction factors, which mediate several post-entry blocks. We recently identified two microRNAs, miR-221 and miR-222, which limit HIV-1 entry during infection of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) by down-regulating CD4 expression. Interestingly, CD4 is also down-regulated during the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages...
December 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299966/ancient-dna-investigation-of-a-medieval-german-cemetery-confirms-long-term-stability-of-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-frequencies-in-central-europe
#10
Abigail Bouwman, Natallia Shved, Gülfirde Akgül, Frank Rühli, Christina Warinner
The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299159/lactate-activated-macrophages-induced-aerobic-glycolysis-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-breast-cancer-by-regulation-of-ccl5-ccr5-axis-a-positive-metabolic-feedback-loop
#11
Sensen Lin, Li Sun, Xiaodan Lyu, Xiongfei Ai, Danyu Du, Nan Su, Hongyang Li, Luyong Zhang, Jun Yu, Shengtao Yuan
Aberrant energy metabolism is critical for cancer progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can stimulate tumor angiogenesis and enhance cancer metastasis; however, the metabolic interaction between cancer cells and macrophages characterized by lactate shuttles remains unclear. Here, we showed that lactate activated human macrophages to a TAM-like phenotype and stimulated the secretion of CCL5 by activation of Notch signaling in macrophages. Reciprocally, CCL5 increased cell migration, induced cancer cell EMT, and promoted aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells, suggesting a positive metabolic feedback loop in the co-culture system...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297316/a-database-of-human-genes-and-a-gene-network-involved-in-response-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection
#12
Elena V Ignatieva, Alexander V Igoshin, Nikolay S Yudin
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV infection can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from slight fever to severe neurological illness. Very little is known about genetic factors predisposing to severe forms of disease caused by TBEV. The aims of the study were to compile a catalog of human genes involved in response to TBEV infection and to rank genes from the catalog based on the number of neighbors in the network of pairwise interactions involving these genes and TBEV RNA or proteins...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296946/latent-human-cytomegalovirus-enhances-hiv-1-infection-in-cd34-progenitor-cells
#13
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Yiru Huang, Hau Yee Kwok, Min Chen, Zhiwei Chen
Individuals who have been preinfected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are more prone to AIDS disease progression after subsequent HIV-1 infection but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. HCMV is a ubiquitous DNA virus that commonly establishes lifelong latent infection in CD34+ progenitor cells, where latency-specific HCMV genes may modulate host restriction to HIV-1 infection. To test this hypothesis, we studied progenitor cells that are known to resist replicative HIV-1 infection because of the intrinsic expression of host restriction factors...
January 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291000/effects-of-ccr5-59029g-a-polymorphism-on-the-risk-to-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
Mingfeng Cao, Zhenhua Tian, Lin Zhang, Ruiting Liu, Qingbo Guan, Jinjiao Jiang
Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) causes high mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and imposes heavy burden on individuals and society. In previous studies, various researches have investigated the association of DN with CCR5 59029G/A polymorphism, but relevant findings were controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to obtain a conclusion on this issue. Results: CCR5 59029G/A polymorphism showed significant risk-increasing effects on DN in all analyses under AA vs...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289296/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-tcdd-in-rat-brain-after-long-term-low-dose-exposure
#15
Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Heidi Q H Xie, Tuan Xu, Hualing Fu, Songyan Zhang, Rui Sha, Yingjie Xia, Bin Zhao
Several cohort studies have reported that dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls might impair the nervous system and lead to neurological or neurodegenerative diseases in the elder people, but there is limited research on the involved mechanism. By using microarray analysis, we figured out the differentially expressed genes between brain samples from SD rats after low-dose (0.1μg/(kg▪bw)) dioxin exposure for six months and controls. To investigate the function changes in the course of dioxin exposure, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288898/cxcr3-blockade-combined-with-cyclosporine-a-alleviates-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-by-inhibiting-alloreactive-donor-t-cell-responses-in-a-murine-model
#16
Shengchao Miao, Bo Tang, Huihui Liu, Zhenhua Wang, Yongjin Shi, Yujun Dong, Wei Liu, Chenchen Qin, Hanyun Ren
Chemotaxis of T cells to acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) target tissues directed by chemokines and their receptors plays a key role in the pathogenesis of aGvHD. Blockade of lymphocyte migration by targeting chemokine receptors may be a viable strategy for the prevention and treatment of aGvHD, which is quite distinguishable from typical efforts to use immunosuppressive medications that have been associated with some side effects. CXCR3 and its ligands have been reported to be correlated with aGvHD pathogenesis...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288198/the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr3-promotes-cd8-t-cell-accumulation-in-uninfected-salivary-glands-but-is-not-necessary-after-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#17
Sofia Caldeira-Dantas, Thomas Furmanak, Corinne Smith, Michael Quinn, Leyla Y Teos, Adam Ertel, Drishya Kurup, Mayank Tandon, Ilias Alevizos, Christopher M Snyder
Recent work indicates that salivary glands are able to constitutively recruit CD8+ T cells and retain them as tissue-resident memory T cells, independently of local infection, inflammation, or Ag. To understand the mechanisms supporting T cell recruitment to the salivary gland, we compared T cell migration to the salivary gland in mice that were infected or not with murine CMV (MCMV), a herpesvirus that infects the salivary gland and promotes the accumulation of salivary gland tissue-resident memory T cells...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287991/t-cell-phenotypes-in-women-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-influence-of-treatment-on-phenotype-distributions
#18
Brian M O Ogendi, Rakesh K Bakshi, Kanupriya Gupta, Richa Kapil, LaDraka T Brown, Stephen J Jordan, Steffanie Sabbaj, Christen G Press, Jeannette Y Lee, William M Geisler
T cell phenotypes involved in the immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) have not been fully elucidated in humans. We evaluated differences in T cell phenotypes between CT-infected women and CT-seronegative controls and investigated changes in T cell phenotype distributions after CT treatment and their association with reinfection. We found a higher expression of T cell activation markers (CD38+HLA-DR+), T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-associated effector phenotypes (CXCR3+CCR5+ and CCR4+, respectively), and T cell homing marker (CCR7) for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CT-infected women...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286405/live-images-of-glut4-protein-trafficking-in-mouse-primary-hypothalamic-neurons-using-deconvolution-microscopy
#19
Chun Austin Changou, Reni Ajoy, Szu-Yi Chou
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health crisis which is characterized by insulin signaling impairment and chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus in the central nervous system (CNS) is the control center for energy and insulin signal response regulation. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues and imbalances of certain chemokines (such as CCL5, TNFα, and IL-6) contribute to diabetes and obesity. However, the functional mechanism(s) connecting chemokines and hypothalamic insulin signal regulation still remain unclear...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285394/c-c-motif-chemokine-receptors-in-gastric-cancer
#20
Hyewon Ryu, Seung Woo Baek, Ji Young Moon, In-Sook Jo, Nayoung Kim, Hyo Jin Lee
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Despite recent advances in molecular and clinical research, patients with gastric cancer at an advanced stage have a dismal prognosis and poor survival rates, and systemic treatment relies predominantly on traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. To improve patients' quality of life and survival, an improved understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms involved in gastric cancer progression and treatment resistance, and of its clinical application in the development of novel targeted therapies, is urgently required...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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