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Nasopharynx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146179/soft-palate-reconstruction-after-radionecrosis-combined-anterolateral-thigh-adipofascial-and-nasoseptal-flaps
#1
Joseph Zenga, Jeffrey D Sharon, Jennifer Gross, Jay Gantz, Patrik Pipkorn
Although radiation-based treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer may achieve excellent long term oncologic results, late effects of therapy may lead to soft tissue radionecrosis and velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Repair of these oro- and nasopharyngeal defects presents a complex reconstructive challenge. We present a case of a long-term survivor treated with chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer who developed progressive dysphagia, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and radionecrosis of the nasopharynx and soft palate, leading to tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube dependence...
November 13, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138740/pediatric-pulmonary-hemorrhage-vs-extrapulmonary-bleeding-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-hemoptysis
#2
Michael Vaiman, Baruch Klin, Noa Rosenfeld, Ibrahim Abu-Kishk
Introduction: Hemoptysis is an important symptom which causes a major concern, and warrants immediate diagnostic attention. The authors compared a group of patients with pediatric pulmonary hemorrhage with pediatric patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary bleeding focusing on differences in etiology, outcome and differential diagnosis of hemoptysis. Methods: We performed the retrospective analysis of medical charts of 134 pediatric patients admitted to the Emergency Department because of pulmonary and extrapulmonary hemorrhage and were diagnosed with suspected hemoptysis or developed hemoptysis (ICD10-CM code R04...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126770/effects-of-unilateral-vertical-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis-on-airway-anatomy-in-children-with-hemifacial-microsomia
#3
Navid Pourtaheri, Derek Z Wang, Srinivas M Susarla, Gerhard S Mundinger, Anand R Kumar
PURPOSE: To assess the two- and three-dimensional airway changes following unilateral vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis (vMDO) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed for consecutive patients over an 18-month period with HFM and with Kaban-Pruzansky Type-II mandibular deformities who underwent unilateral vMDO for correction of vertical mandibular asymmetry. Patients with complete records and a minimum of 12 months of clinical follow-up post-consolidation were included...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126495/surgical-management-of-oral-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Rabie M Shanti, Bert W O'Malley
Today, most head and neck cancer subsites, such as the larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and oropharynx, are treated with radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy as a primary treatment modality. Surgery is reserved for the salvage of recurrent tumors that occur within the head and neck in the absence of distant (ie, lung, liver) metastasis. However, unlike all other head and neck subsites, oral cancer should ideally be managed with primary surgery with the possibility of adjuvant radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy depending on the presence of certain high-risk pathologic features...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123267/bpifb1-lplunc1-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-interacting-with-vtn-and-vim
#5
Fang Wei, Yingfen Wu, Le Tang, Yi He, Lei Shi, Fang Xiong, Zhaojian Gong, Can Guo, Xiayu Li, Qianjin Liao, Wenling Zhang, Ming Zhou, Bo Xiang, Xiaoling Li, Yong Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong, Zhaoyang Zeng
BACKGROUND: Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing-fold-containing family B member 1 (BPIFB1, previously termed LPLUNC1) is highly expressed in the nasopharynx, significantly downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and associated with prognosis in NPC patients. Because metastasis represents the primary cause of NPC-related death, we explored the role of BPIFB1 in NPC migration and invasion. METHODS: The role of BPIFB1 in NPC metastasis was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121208/dynamics-of-bacterial-colonization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-during-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-viral-upper-respiratory-infection
#6
Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Jens C Eickhoff, Susan V Lynch, Ellen R Wald
Background: Virus is detected in about 80% of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in children and is also detectable in the nasopharynx of 30% of asymptomatic children. The effect of asymptomatic viral infection on the dynamics of bacterial density and colonization of the nasopharynx has not been reported. Objective: To assess the presence and density of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharynx of 4 to 7 year old children during URI and when well...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120826/cancer-in-guam-and-hawaii-a-comparison-of-two-u-s-island-populations
#7
Brenda Y Hernandez, Renata A Bordallo, Michael D Green, Robert L Haddock
BACKGROUND: Cancer disparities within and across populations provide insight into the influence of lifestyle, environment, and genetic factors on cancer risk. METHODS: Guam cancer incidence and mortality were compared to that of Hawaii using data from their respective population-based, central cancer registries. RESULTS: In 2009-2013, overall cancer incidence was substantially lower in Guam than in Hawaii for both sexes while overall cancer mortality was higher for Guam males...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#8
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113587/streptococcus-pneumoniae-burden-and-nasopharyngeal-inflammation-during-acute-otitis-media
#9
Matthew C Morris, Michael E Pichichero
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a common respiratory pathogen and a frequent cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. The first step in bacterial pathogenesis of AOM is the establishment of asymptomatic colonization in the nasopharynx. We studied Spn bacterial burden in conjunction with neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory gene transcription and cytokine secretion in samples of nasal wash collected from normal and otitis-prone children during health, viral upper respiratory infection without middle ear involvement (URI) and AOM...
November 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111349/the-developmental-transcription-factor-irf6-attenuates-abcg2-gene-expression-and-distinctively-reverses-stemness-phenotype-in-nasoparyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Liang Xu, Tie-Jun Huang, Hao Hu, Meng-Yao Wang, Si-Mei Shi, Qin Yang, Fen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Qiang, Yan Mei, Yan-Hong Lang, Chang-Zhi Li, Li-Xia Peng, Li-Sheng Zheng, Jia-Ling Huang, Xin-Jian Li, Shi-Jun Zhang, Chao-Nan Qian, Bi-Jun Huang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which originates from the nasopharynx, is highly prevalent in Southern China and Southeast Asia, and more than 90% of all NPCs are non-keratinizing undifferentiated cells or poorly differentiated squamous cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of self-renewal and have differentiation potential. These properties form the basis of cancer initiation, development, and radiochemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying NPC CSC maintenance remain poorly understood...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103405/survival-of-neisseria-meningitidis-outside-of-the-host-environmental-effects-and-differences-among-strains
#11
C L Swain, D R Martin, D Sim, T W Jordan, J K Mackichan
Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that lives as a commensal in the human nasopharynx. Meningococci are generally non-invasive, but can invade the nasopharyngeal epithelia and enter the bloodstream causing life-threatening illnesses. It is generally thought that meningococci do not survive for long outside the host, and that transmission requires relatively close contact between hosts. There are some reports, however, that meningococci can survive drying on surfaces, including glass, plastic and cloth...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099932/the-role-of-b-cells-in-carriage-and-clearance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-of-mice
#12
Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Ruben C A de Groot, Silvia C Estevão, Theo Hoogenboezem, Adrianus C J M de Bruijn, Marcel Sluijter, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Ismé M De Kleer, Rien van Haperen, Judith M A van den Brand, Debby Bogaert, Pieter L A Fraaij, Cornelis Vink, Rudi W Hendriks, Janneke N Samsom, Wendy W J Unger, Annemarie M C van Rossum
Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) in the nasopharynx is considered a prerequisite for pulmonary infection. Interestingly, Mp carriage is also detected after infection. While B cells are known to be involved in pulmonary Mp clearance, their role in Mp carriage is unknown. We here show in a mouse model that Mp persists in the nose after pulmonary infection, similar to humans. Infection of mice enhanced Mp-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, nasal washes only contained elevated Mp-specific IgA...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098554/seom-clinical-guideline-in-nasopharynx-cancer-2017
#13
M Pastor, A Lopez Pousa, E Del Barco, P Perez Segura, B Gonzalez Astorga, B Castelo, T Bonfill, J Martinez Trufero, J Jose Grau, R Mesia
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is distinct from other cancers of the head and neck in biology, epidemiology, histology, natural history, and response to treatment. Radiation therapy is an essential component of curative-intent of non-disseminated disease and the association of chemotherapy improves the rates of survival. In the case of metastatic disease stages, treatment requires platinum/gemcitabine-based chemotherapy and patients may achieve a long survival time.
November 2, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094268/comparison-of-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-with-simultaneous-integrated-boost-imrt-sib-and-a-3-dimensional-conformal-parotid-gland-sparing-radiotherapy-conpas-3d-crt-in-treatment-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-mono-institutional-experience
#14
Vesna Bišof, Zoran Rakušić, Juraj Bibić, Timor Grego, Majana Soče
AIM: To compare intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) and a 3-dimensional conformal parotid gland-sparing radiotherapy (ConPas 3D-CRT) in treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with regard to outcomes and dose distribution to the planning target volumes (PTVs) and to the organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: The treatment records of 24 patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx treated with ConPas 3D-CRT or IMRT-SIB technique between May 2009 and December 2016 were assessed...
November 1, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090123/investigation-of-the-effects-of-miniscrew-assisted-rapid-palatal-expansion-on-airflow-in-the-upper-airway-of-an-adult-patient-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-using-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis
#15
Jae-Sik Hur, Hyoung-Ho Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Sang-Ho Suh, Seung-Hak Baek
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) on changes in airflow in the upper airway (UA) of an adult patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using computational fluid-structure interaction analysis. METHODS: Three-dimensional UA models fabricated from cone beam computed tomography images obtained before (T0) and after (T1) MARPE in an adult patient with OSAS were used for computational fluid dynamics with fluid-structure interaction analysis...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089928/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-effects-of-human-amniotic-chorionic-membrane-extract-on-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#16
Mukesh K Yadav, Yoon Y Go, Shin Hye Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonize the human nasopharynx in the form of biofilms. The biofilms act as bacterial reservoirs and planktonic bacteria from these biofilms can migrate to other sterile anatomical sites to cause pneumonia, otitis media (OM), bacteremia and meningitis. Human amniotic membrane contains numerous growth factors and antimicrobial activity; however, these have not been studied in detail. In this study, we prepared amniotic membrane extract and chorionic membrane extract (AME/CME) and evaluated their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079071/occult-spinal-cord-injury-after-blunt-force-trauma-in-a-patient-with-achondroplasia-a-case-report-and-review-of-trauma-management-strategy
#17
Martin Huecker, Zach Harris, Eric Yazel
BACKGROUND: Achondroplastic dwarfism is associated with anatomic abnormalities that can predispose to occult injury and challenges in trauma management. Airway anatomy is problematic due to macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, and a narrow nasopharynx. Manipulation of the neck is very dangerous due to the high likelihood of preexisting cervicomedullary stenosis. Restrictive lung disease and obstructive sleep apnea may complicate respiratory status. Peripheral and central venous access can be difficult to obtain...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076874/clear-cell-carcinoma-of-salivary-glands-is-frequently-p16-positive-a-pitfall-in-the-interpretation-of-oropharyngeal-biopsies
#18
Justin A Bishop, Lisa M Rooper, Simion I Chiosea, William H Westra
Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a low-grade malignancy that commonly arises in minor salivary glands of the oropharynx and other sites. EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions seem to be specific for this salivary neoplasm. Testing for EWSR1-ATF1 has expanded the histologic spectrum of CCC. As one important example, many CCCs have a predominantly squamous phenotype with few clear cells, a finding that can cause confusion with squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). P16 immunohistochemical staining to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) status has become standard practice for all oropharyngeal carcinomas showing squamous differentiation...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076693/angiofibroma-in-a-50-year-old-patient
#19
Syed Shahmeer Raza, Syed Muhammad Owais, Salman Zahid, Ihtisham Ul Haq, Haris Manan, Syeda Fizza Qasim, Farhan Ullah, Asfandiar Shahrukh Hijazi, Osamah Riaz Khan
Juvenile Angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign tumour that tends to bleed and occur in the nasopharynx with most cases occurring in pre-pubertal and adolescent males 10-20 years. We present the case of a 50-year-old male shopkeeper who consulted the ENT out patients' department (OPD) of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) with the chief complaint of right sided nasal obstruction for the last 2.5 months which was associated with two episodes of epistaxis and diplopia which started 2 months back. He complained of right sided frontal and periorbital pain for the last 15 days...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072668/-polypous-pansinusitis-with-the-deformation-of-the-external-nose-in-a-8-year-old-child-presenting-with-the-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-syndrome
#20
A I Asmanov, N V Zlobina, E Yu Radtsig, G A Polev, E V Sorokina
This article reports a rare observation of the development of chronic polypous pansinusitis with deformation of the external nose in a 8 year-old child presenting with primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome. The patient underwent multiple surgical interventions in the preceding period. The key argument in favour of the definitive diagnosis was the results of investigation of ciliated epithelium biopsy taken from the nasal cavity and bronchi in combination with the data obtained by diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx supplemented by computed tomography...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
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