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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#1
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546958/effect-of-functional-appliances-on-the-airway-dimensions-in-patients-with-skeletal-class-ii-malocclusion-a-systematic-review
#2
Annapurna Kannan, Haritha Pottipalli Sathyanarayana, Sridevi Padmanabhan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the effect of functional appliances on the airway dimensions in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles were identified through a literature survey carried out through the following databases: (1) PUBMED, (2) Google Scholar, (3) The Cochrane Library, (4) Embase, (5) Lilac, and (6) Web of Scholars. The systematic review analyzed 12 articles comprising removable functional appliances, 3 articles with fixed functional appliances, and 2 articles having both fixed and removable functional appliances...
April 2017: Journal of Orthodontic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546705/sinonasal-mass-a-recent-study-of-its-clinicopathological-profile
#3
P Agarwal, R Panigrahi
A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses (PNS), and nasopharynx are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The objectives of the study were to identify various pathological conditions that present with sinus or nasal mass, to understand their varied clinical behavior, to know the distribution of various lesions among the different age and sex groups, and to study the management of sinonasal masses and its outcome on follow-up. A prospective study was carried out from September 2013 to August 2015, in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#4
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539074/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-review-for-clinicians
#5
Krishna Bajee Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Robert L Clancy, Mary P E Slack, Allan W Cripps
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lower airways of COPD patients, bacterial infection is a common phenomenon and Haemophilus influenzae is the most commonly identified bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable and nontypeable (NTHi) strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. While NTHi is a common commensal in the human nasopharynx, it is associated with considerable inflammation when it is present in the lower airways of COPD patients, resulting in morbidity due to worsening symptoms and increased frequency of COPD exacerbations...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537101/clinical-findings-in-25-patients-with-sinonasal-or-nasopharyngeal-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-in-a-four-decade-single-centre-series
#6
Seija Inkeri Vento, Pauli Vähämurto, Kaija Silventoinen, Marja-Liisa Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Susanna Mannisto, Sirpa Leppä, Antti Aarni Mäkitie
OBJECTIVES: Extramedullary plasmacytoma in the sinonasal tract or nasopharynx is rare. The aim of the study was to review data on symptoms, clinical findings, treatment and follow-up of plasmacytomas in the sinonasal and nasopharyngeal regions in order to delineate the main clinical characteristics and the optimal management. METHOD: Twenty-five patients with sinonasal or nasopharyngeal plasmacytoma, diagnosed and treated at the Helsinki University Hospital during a 39-year period from 1975 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
May 24, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536796/development-and-evaluation-of-a-family-of-human-face-and-upper-airway-models-for-the-laboratory-testing-of-orally-inhaled-products
#7
Mark W Nagel, Jason A Suggett, Dominic P Coppolo, Jolyon P Mitchell
Many orally inhaled products are supplied with a facemask instead of a mouthpiece, enabling aerosolized medication to be transferred from the inhaler to the lungs when the user lacks the capability to use a mouthpiece. Until recently, laboratory evaluation of an orally inhaled product-facemask was frequently undertaken by removing the facemask, treating the facemask adapter as being equivalent to a mouthpiece. Measurements of delivered drug mass were therefore subject to bias arising from the absence of dead volume, had the facemask been present...
May 23, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536685/small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-nasopharynx-a-rare-case-report
#8
Daniela Azevedo, Elisabete Rios, Lurdes Vendeira, Cristina Sarmento
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma rarely appears primarily in the head and neck and exhibits aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. The pathologist has a significant role in the diagnosis, and a consensual treatment still does not exist. The authors report the case of a middle-aged male patient who presented repeated episodes of massive epistaxis. The diagnostic work-up disclosed the diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy...
January 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535917/sensitivity-evaluation-of-two-commercial-dosimeters-in-detecting-helical-tomotherapy-treatment-delivery-errors
#9
Shrikant Deshpande, Mark Geurts, Philip Vial, Peter Metcalfe, Lois Holloway
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of two commercial dosimetry systems in detecting Helical TomoTherapy (HT) delivery errors. METHOD: Two commercial dosimeters i) MatriXX(Evolution) and ii) ArcCHECK® were considered. Ten retrospective nasopharynx HT patients were analysed. For each patient, error plans were created by independently introducing systematic offsets in: a) Jaw width error ±1, ±1.5 and ±2mm, b) Couch speed error ±2%, ±2.5, ±3% and ±4%, and c) MLC Leaf Open Time (MLCLOT) errors (3 separate MLC errors: either leaf 32 open or leaf 42 remains open during delivery, and 4% random reductions in MLCLOT)...
May 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533478/real-time-near-infrared-raman-spectroscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#10
Lim Chwee Ming, Nagaraja Rao Gangodu, Thomas Loh, Wei Zheng, Jianfeng Wang, Kan Lin, Huang Zhiwei
Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been investigated as a tool to differentiate nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in an ex-vivo setting. Recently, we have miniaturized the fiber-optic Raman probe to investigate its utility in real time in-vivo surveillance of NPC patients. A posterior probability model using partial linear square (PLS) mathematical technique was constructed to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy in diagnosing NPC from post-irradiated and normal tissue using a diagnostic algorithm from three significant latent variables...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528647/transition-metal-homeostasis-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#11
Andrew G Turner, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Mark J Walker, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524748/an-unwanted-guest-neisseria-meningitides-carriage-risk-for-invasive-disease-and-the-impact-of-vaccination-with-insights-from-italy-incidence
#12
Elena Gianchecchi, Giulia Piccini, Alessandro Torelli, Rino Rappuoli, Emanuele Montomoli
Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a potentially life-threatening condition caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The disease is characterized by a case fatality rate of 5-10% whereas serious clinical sequelae can develop in survivors within 12-24 hours from the first symptoms. However, IMD infection only occurs rarely, in fact, most of the interactions established between N. meningitidis and the host are harmless, and an estimated 10% of the population asymptomatically carries the bacterium in the nasopharynx...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521967/does-pterygomaxillary-disjunction-in-surgically-assisted-rapid-maxillary-expansion-influence-upper-airway-volume-a-prospective-study-using-dolphin-imaging-3d
#13
J Rômulo de Medeiros, M Ferraro Bezerra, F W Gurgel Costa, T Pinheiro Bezerra, C R de Araújo Alencar, E C Studart Soares
Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion has been used for the treatment of transverse maxillary deficiency. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of this surgery (with or without pterygomaxillary disjunction) on the upper airway volume. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: without pterygomaxillary disjunction (-PD) and with pterygomaxillary disjunction (+PD). Eleven patients per group were estimated to obtain a representative sample (90% of power and 95% of confidence level)...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516960/clinicopathologic-idiosyncrasies-of-nasopharyngeal-cancer-in-a-moderate-risk-mediterranean-region
#14
K Kourelis, T Stergiou, A Papadas, T Kourelis, E Petta, T Papadas
Cancer of the nasopharynx displays an unparalleled skewness of its epidemiologic, pathogenic and clinico-prognostic characteristics depending on the geographic location. Between the endemic and sporadic forms, which occur in Southeastern Asia and Northern America, respectively, intermediate incidence is noted around the Mediterranean. This study describes the patterns of the disease affecting the population of Western Greece. The records of 70 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed in a single institution between 1994-2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516200/respiratory-viral-infections-are-underdiagnosed-in-patients-with-suspected-sepsis
#15
L R Ljungström, G Jacobsson, B E B Claesson, R Andersson, H Enroth
The study aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of viral findings by multiplex PCR from the nasopharynx of clinically septic patients during a winter season. During 11 weeks of the influenza epidemic period in January-March 2012, consecutive adult patients suspected to be septic (n = 432) were analyzed with cultures from blood and nasopharynx plus multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses on the nasopharyngeal specimen. The results were compared with those from microbiology analyses ordered as part of standard care...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515902/sites-of-colonization-in-hospitalized-patients-with-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Zeina A Kanafani, Sukayna M Fadlallah, Sarah Assaf, Khalil Anouti, Kohar Annie B Kissoyan, Jad Sfeir, Tamara Nawar, Mohamad Yasmin, Ghassan M Matar
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether patients infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are colonized at multiple body sites. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Hospitalized patients with infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included. Cultures were obtained from the primary site of infection as well as from other sites (skin, nasopharynx, urine, rectum)...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509140/a-rare-adult-case-of-poststreptococcal-acute-glomerulonephritis-with-a-retropharyngeal-abscess
#17
Tsuyoshi Takashima, Sae Hirata, Mai Nonaka, Keiichiro Matsumoto, Yuki Awanami, Masatora Yamasaki, Makoto Fukuda, Motoaki Miyazono, Yuji Ikeda
Retropharyngeal abscess is an infection involving the retropharyngeal space which is posterior to the pharynx and oesophagus, and it results as a complication of a primary infection elsewhere in the head and neck including the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, or middle ear, which drain lymph to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Their lymph nodes are prominent in children and atrophy with age. Therefore, retropharyngeal abscess is most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 years, and often in the first year of life...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506354/-immunoprotective-effect-of-combined-pneumococcal-endopeptidase-o-and-pneumococcal-surface-adhesin-a-vaccines-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#18
Jing Zhang, Ya-Li Cui, Yong-Mei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prokaryotic expression of proteins pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) and pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in Streptococcus pneumoniae and their immunoprotective effect as vaccine candidate proteins. METHODS: Specific primers of target gene fragments were designed, and then PCR amplification was performed to establish recombinant plasmids pET28a(+)-pepO and pET28a(+)-psaA, which were transformed into host cells, Escherichia coli BL21 and DE3, respectively, to induce expression...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494601/relationship-between-oro-and-nasopharynx-permeability-and-the-direction-of-facial-growth
#19
P Fernandes, J Pinto, J Ustrell-Torrent
AIM: Most scientific literature relates vertical growth to individuals with decreased upper airway permeability. However, we often find subjects with a long face and a normal breathing pattern, most likely caused by other aetiological factors. And, frequently, we also find decreased upper airway permeability with horizontal growth. The aim of the study was to compare the cephalometric measurements of the oro and nasopharynx permeability with the facial growth direction and to identify the most common facial growth direction in individuals with decreased upper airway permeability...
March 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494465/congenital-salivary-gland-anlage-tumor-an-unusual-anterior-skull-base-mass-in-the-neonatal-period
#20
Jonathan E Martin, Belachew Tessema, Boulos Beshai, Fabiola Balarezo
Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT) is a benign nasopharyngeal mass that presents with respiratory distress in infancy. Prior case reports have characterized SGAT as a lesion of the nasopharynx without intracranial extension. We report a unique case of SGAT extending through the anterior skull base and discuss the differential diagnosis and management of this unusual entity.
May 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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