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Nasopharynx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081260/comparative-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-neisseria-meningitidis-during-invasive-disease
#1
Johanna Klughammer, Marcus Dittrich, Jochen Blom, Vera Mitesser, Ulrich Vogel, Matthias Frosch, Alexander Goesmann, Tobias Müller, Christoph Schoen
Some members of the physiological human microbiome occasionally cause life-threatening disease even in immunocompetent individuals. A prime example of such a commensal pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis, which normally resides in the human nasopharynx but is also a leading cause of sepsis and epidemic meningitis. Using N. meningitidis as model organism, we tested the hypothesis that virulence of commensal pathogens is a consequence of within host evolution and selection of invasive variants due to mutations at contingency genes, a mechanism called phase variation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070493/rhinosporidiosis-report-of-an-extra-ductal-facial-lesion
#2
Sapna S Nambiar, Suma Radhakrishnan, Anusha Vijayan
Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous mucocutaneous disease that is endemic in South Asia. It commonly affects men in the second to fourth decade of life. The most common site of infection is the nose or nasopharynx with primary involvement of the parotid duct noted very rarely; only four cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 77 year old male patient who presented with a subcutaneous cheek swelling with no other clinical features to suggest the diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. An unusual affliction in a patient in the seventh decade of life, at a site not reported previously with no past history of the same makes it imperative to ascertain the known facts about both the organism and the disease...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060973/evaluation-of-morphological-changes-in-pharynx-with-dynamic-ct-and-mri-in-snoring-patients
#3
Fatma Aktaş, Turan Aktaş, Zafer Özmen, Hüseyin Akan, Tolga Aksöz, Aysegül Altunkaş
BACKGROUND: Identifying the craniofacial abnormalities that cause snoring and the narrowest area of the upper airway creating obstructions can help to determine the proper method of treatment. AIM: To identify the factors that can cause snoring and the areas of the airway that are the most likely to collapse with upper airway imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial pharynx examinations with CT (computerized tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed to 38 patients complaining of snoring and 12 patients who did not complain of snoring...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060556/the-frequency-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-with-asthma-and-its-effects-on-asthma-control
#4
Tayfur Ginis, Fatih Alper Akcan, Murat Capanoglu, Muge Toyran, Refika Ersu, Can Naci Kocabas, Ersoy Civelek
BACKGROUND: The presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children with asthma may cause difficult to control asthma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SDB in children with asthma, to evaluate its effects on asthma control and to assess the risk factors associated with the presence of SDB. METHODS: Parents of children who Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Asthma control level was assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060369/virus-associated-neoplasms-of-the-nasopharynx-and-sinonasal-tract-diagnostic-problems
#5
John Kc Chan
A significant fraction of nasopharyngeal and sinonasal tumors are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human papillomavirus (HPV). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma harbor EBV in practically all cases, although a small proportion of cases of the former harbor HPV. Sinonasal inverted papillomas harbor HPV in about 25% of cases. Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas harbor transcriptionally active HPV in about 20% of cases, and limited data suggest that this subset has a better prognosis than the HPV-negative subset...
January 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060087/analysis-of-postoperative-bleeding-after-posterior-pharyngeal-flap-pharyngoplasty
#6
Teng Wan, Guomin Wang, Yusheng Yang, Yang Chen, Yong Zhang, Yun Liang, Yilai Wu
The aim of this study was to analyze the location and cause of postoperative bleeding after posterior pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty and to investigate the surgical techniques with the goal of treating the bleeding. The patients received posterior pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty in the Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment and Research Center of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2003 to December 2014, and postoperative bleeding in the surgical area was retrospectively analyzed. According to the record of the exploration of hemostasis, the locations and causes of the bleeding were summarized...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055973/outcome-and-long-term-efficacy-of-four-facio-cervical-fields-conformal-radiotherapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#7
Wang Fangzheng, Jiang Chuner, Wang Lei, Chen Weijun, Xu Min, Sun Quanquan, Liu Tongxin, Rihito Aizawa, Masoto Sakamoto, Fu Zhenfu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of 255 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with four facio-cervical fields conformal radiotherapy (4F-CRT). RESULTS: In one patient's 3 different RT treatment modalities, the 4F-CRT techniques resulted in sharper of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for primary gross tumor volume (PGTVnx) and planning target volume (PTVnx), similar to the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The median follow-up duration was 43 months...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053841/epidemiology-and-inequality-in-the-incidence-and%C3%A2-mortality-of-nasopharynx-cancer-in-asia
#8
Neda Mahdavifar, Mahshid Ghoncheh, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Bahman Khosravi, Hamid Salehiniya
OBJECTIVES: One of the most common head and neck cancers is nasopharynx cancer. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study and better planning. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012. METHODS: The aim of this ecologic study was to assess the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components, which include the following: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income per capita...
December 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049244/false-positive-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-liver-resection-patients
#9
Hongeun Lee, Jeong Hee Yoon, Hyeyoung Kim, Nam Joon Yi, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Hyo Sin Kim, Sung Woo Ahn, Jin Young Choi, Youngrok Choi, Hae Won Lee, Ju Yeon Yi, Kyoung Bun Lee, Kwang Woong Lee, Kyung Suk Suh
The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based on imaging studies particularly in high-risk patients without histologic confirmation. This study evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of false-positively diagnosed HCC in a liver resection cohort for HCC. A retrospective review was performed of 837 liver resection cases for clinically diagnosed HCC between 2005 and 2010 at our institute. High-risk patients with tumors > 1 cm with one or two image findings consistent with HCC and tumors < 1 cm with two or more image findings consistent with HCC with persistently increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels above the normal range with underlying inhibited hepatitis activity underwent liver resection...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048681/mo-fg-campus-tep2-02-first-experiences-and-perspectives-in-using-direct-multicriteria-optimization-mco-on-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
Samantha Edgington, Christopher Cotter, Paul Busse, Bruce Crawford, Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To report the first experiences and perspectives in using direct multicriteria optimization (MCO) on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer. METHODS: Ten prior patients with tumors in representative H&N regions were selected to evaluate direct MCO-VMAT in RayStation v5.0 beta. The patients were previously treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MCO on an Elekta linear accelerator with Agility multileaf collimator...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047665/su-d-201-01-a-multi-institutional-study-quantifying-the-impact-of-simulated-linear-accelerator-vmat-errors-for-nasopharynx
#11
E Pogson, C Hansen, S Blake, S Arumugam, J Juresic, C Ochoa, J Yakobi, A Haman, A Trtovac, L Holloway, D Thwaites
PURPOSE: To quantify the impact of differing magnitudes of simulated linear accelerator errors on the dose to the target volume and organs at risk for nasopharynx VMAT. METHODS: Ten nasopharynx cancer patients were retrospectively replanned twice with one full arc VMAT by two institutions. Treatment uncertainties (gantry angle and collimator in degrees, MLC field size and MLC shifts in mm) were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,-1,-2 and -5. This was completed using an in-house Python script within Pinnacle3 and analysed using 3DVH and MatLab...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047287/su-f-t-384-step-and-shoot-imrt-vmat-and-autoplan-vmat-nasopharnyx-plan-robustness-to-linear-accelerator-delivery-errors
#12
E M Pogson, C Hansen, S Blake, S Arumugam, L Holloway, D Thwaites
PURPOSE: To identify the robustness of different treatment techniques in respect to simulated linac errors on the dose distribution to the target volume and organs at risk for step and shoot IMRT (ssIMRT), VMAT and Autoplan generated VMAT nasopharynx plans. METHODS: A nasopharynx patient dataset was retrospectively replanned with three different techniques: 7 beam ssIMRT, one arc manual generated VMAT and one arc automatically generated VMAT. Treatment simulated uncertainties: gantry, collimator, MLC field size and MLC shifts, were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,-1,-2 and -5 (degrees or mm) and recalculated in Pinnacle...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046643/su-f-t-198-dosimetric-comparison-of-carbon-and-proton-radiotherapy-for-recurrent-nasopharynx-carcinoma
#13
Y Sheng, J Zhao, W Wang, L Lin, X Liu, K Shahnazi
PURPOSE: Various radiotherapy planning methods for locally recurrent nasopharynx carcinoma (R-NPC) have been proposed. The purpose of this study was to compare carbon and proton therapy for the treatment of R-NPC in terms of dose coverage for target volume and sparing for organs at risk (OARs). METHODS: Six patients who were suffering from R-NPC and treated using carbon therapy were selected for this study. Treatment plans with a total dose of 57.5Gy (RBE) in 23 fractions were made using SIEMENS Syngo V11...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043222/public-health-action-following-an-outbreak-of-toxigenic-cutaneous-diphtheria-in-an-auckland-refugee-resettlement-centre
#14
Gary E Reynolds, Helen Saunders, Angela Matson, Fiona O'Kane, Sally A Roberts, Salvin K Singh, Lesley M Voss, Tomasz Kiedrzynski
Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034680/implementation-of-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancers-in-routine-practice
#15
C Bednarek, T V F Nguyen, M Puyraveau, É Bonnet, N Lescut, C Azélie, J Miny, O Mauvais, T Maurina, F Tochet, J-F Bosset, J Thariat, X S Sun
PURPOSE: To report on patterns of relapse following implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and subsequent changes in practice in a tertiary care centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2011, 188 consecutive patients (mean age 59 years old) received intensity-modulated radiotherapies with curative intent for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (17.5%), oropharynx (43%), hypopharynx (21%), larynx (14%), sinonasal cavities (6%), nasopharynx (1...
December 26, 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027997/impact-on-the-upper-airway-space-of-different-types-of-orthognathic-surgery-for-the-correction-of-skeletal-class-iii-malocclusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Jinlong He, Yunji Wang, Hongtao Hu, Qian Liao, Weiyi Zhang, Xuerong Xiang, Xiaoping Fan
OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at assembling, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, scientific evidence related to the effects of mandibular setback (MdS) surgery and bimaxillary surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion on the cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume of the upper airway as assessed using CT. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted on Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science up to June 20, 2016. The inclusion criteria were prospective or retrospective studies, with the aim of comparing the impact on the upper airway space of orthognathic surgery for the treatment of the skeletal class III malocclusion...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025605/evidence-and-evidence-gaps-in-the-treatment-of-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-and-otitis-media
#17
REVIEW
Magnus Teschner
Evidence-based medicine is an approach to medical treatment intended to optimize patient-oriented decision-making on the basis of empirically proven effectiveness. For this purpose, a classification system has been established to categorize studies - and hence therapy options - in respect of associated evidence according to defined criteria. The Eustachian tube connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear cavity. Its key function is to ensure middle ear ventilation. Compromised ventilation results in inflammatory middle ear disorders...
2016: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024738/recent-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-nasopharynxes-of-korean-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#18
Seung Beom Han, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Sang Hyuk Ma, Chun Soo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Young Youn Choi
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019086/the-risk-of-secondary-cancer-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-paediatric-patients-due-to-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-mega-voltage-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#19
Reham S Sherif, Ehab M Attalla, Wael M Elshemey, Noha G Madian
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in the study of radiation-induced secondary cancer. The aim of this work is (i) to estimate the peripheral doses attributable to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) for some organs at risk (OARs) which surround the target being treated (Nasopharynx) in paediatric patients. (ii) To estimate the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers attributable to patient setup verification imaging dose using MV-CBCT for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in paediatric patients and comparing it with that attributable to the therapeutic dose using IMRT...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017340/feline-respiratory-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-with-lymph-node-metastasis-and-intrahistiocytic-amyloid
#20
S E Sykes, V Byfield, L Sullivan, S J Bender, P F Moore, M D Sánchez
A 14-year-old domestic longhaired cat presented with a 2-year history of nasal discharge and a recent onset of inappetence and submandibular lymphadenopathy. The cat was humanely destroyed after developing severe respiratory distress. Necropsy examination revealed thickened nasal turbinates and soft palate, and friable red-tan material within the frontal sinus, nasal cavity and nasopharynx. The lungs contained multifocal irregular friable tan nodules. Multiple lymph nodes were enlarged, friable and red-tan in colour...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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