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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040733/decreased-incidence-of-gout-in-diabetic-patients-using-pioglitazone
#1
Sheng-Wen Niu, Kai-Ting Chang, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, I-Ching Kuo, Yu-Han Chang, Yu-Han Chen, Chi-Chih Hung, Yi-Wen Chiu, Shang-Jyh Hwang
Objective: The incidence and prevalence of gout are increasing, but the management is poor. Considering the increased prevalence of gout in the diabetic population, this study evaluated the effects of pioglitazone, an insulin resistance inhibitor, on the incidence of gout in the diabetic population. Methods: We used data from the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. The pioglitazone cohort contained 30 100 patients and each patient was age and sex matched with three non-pioglitazone users who were randomly selected from the diabetic population...
October 10, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040592/the-association-between-igf-i-and-igfbp-3-and-incident-diabetes-in-an-older-population-of-men-and-women-in-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#2
Chino S Aneke-Nash, Xiaonan Xue, Qibin Qi, Mary L Biggs, Anne Cappola, Lewis Kuller, Michael Pollak, Bruce M Psaty, David Siscovick, Kenneth Mukamal, Howard D Strickler, Robert C Kaplan
Context: Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has structural/functional similarities with insulin and may play a role in glucose homeostasis, along with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which binds the majority of circulating IGF-I. Objective: To assess whether IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in older adults. Design: Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n=3133), a cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, were observed for 16 years (n=3133) for the development of incident diabetes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040446/familial-aggregation-and-heritability-of-loa-loa-microfilaremia
#3
Serge Eyebe, Audrey Sabbagh, Sébastien D Pion, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Joseph Kamgno, Michel Boussinesq, Cédric B Chesnais
Background: For a given prevalence of Loa loa microfilaremia, the proportion of people with high densities varies significantly between communities. We hypothesized that this variation is related to the existence of familial clusters of hypermicrofilaremic individuals that would be the consequence of a genetic predisposition to present high L. loa microfilarial densities. Methods: A familial study was performed in 10 villages in the Okola Health District of Cameroon...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040353/sociodemographic-differences-between-alcohol-use-and-sickness-absence-pooled-analysis-of-four-cohort-studies
#4
Jenni Ervasti, Mika Kivimäki, Jenny Head, Marcel Goldberg, Guillaume Airagnes, Jaana Pentti, Tuula Oksanen, Paula Salo, Sakari Suominen, Markus Jokela, Jussi Vahtera, Marie Zins, Marianna Virtanen
Aims: We examined differences in sickness absence in relation to at-risk drinking and abstinence, taking into account potential changes in consumption. Methods: We used individual-participant data (n = 46,514) from four prospective cohort studies from Finland, France and the UK. Participants responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time points 4-6 years apart, and were linked to records of sickness absence for an ~6-year follow-up after the latter survey. Abstainers were those reporting no alcohol use in either survey...
October 13, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040269/elevated-blood-pressure-and-risk-of-mitral-regurgitation-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-5-5-million-united-kingdom-adults
#5
Kazem Rahimi, Hamid Mohseni, Catherine M Otto, Nathalie Conrad, Jenny Tran, Milad Nazarzadeh, Mark Woodward, Terence Dwyer, Stephen MacMahon
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2015...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040165/dating-violence-against-hiv-infected-youth-in-south-africa-associations-with-sexual-risk-behavior-medication-adherence-and-mental-health
#6
Rachel Kidman, Avy Violari
BACKGROUND: As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth - an important step towards effective intervention. SETTING: Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Self-report surveys were completed by 129 perinatal HIV-infected female youth (aged 13-24)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037005/stroke-epidemiology-in-south-east-and-south-east-asia-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Byung Woo Yoon, Jeyaraj Pandian, Jose C Navarro
Asia, which holds 60% of the world's population, comprises some developing countries which are in economic transition. This paper reviews the epidemiology of stroke in South, East and South-East Asia. Data on the epidemiology of stroke in South, East, and South-East Asia were derived from the Global Burden of Disease study (mortality, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] lost because of stroke), World Health Organization (vascular risk factors in the community), and publications in PubMed (incidence, prevalence, subtypes, vascular risk factors among hospitalized stroke patients)...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036656/relative-biological-effectiveness-of-neutrons-derived-from-the-excess-relative-risk-model-with-the-atomic-bomb-survivors-data-managed-by-hiroshima-university
#9
Kenichi Satoh, Hiroshi Yasuda, Hideshi Kawakami, Satoshi Tashiro
According to an analysis of the Life Span Study cohort data conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the sex-averaged excess relative risk (ERR) of all solid cancers was 0.42 Gy-Eq-1. On the other hand, analysis of the atomic bomb survivors (ABS) cohort data at Hiroshima University indicated the ERR value was 0.28 Gy-Eq-1 in Hiroshima. In both cases, initial radiation doses were derived from the dosimetry system DS02, in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was assumed to be a constant value of 10...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036443/the-association-of-perceived-mental-stress-sense-of-purpose-in-life-and-negative-life-events-with-the-risk-of-incident-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia-the-shez-study
#10
Yukiko Takao, Yoshinobu Okuno, Yasuko Mori, Hideo Asada, Koichi Yamanishi, Hiroyasu Iso
This population-based prospective study examined the relationships of perceived mental stress, sense of purpose in life, and negative life events to the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The data were collected from 12,359 participants (aged ≥50 years old in Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan) who answered a self-completed health questionnaire. During a 3-year follow-up between December 2008 and November 2012, HZ and PHN were diagnosed in 400 and 79 subjects, respectively...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036013/patient-experience-based-value-sets-are-they-stable
#11
A Simon Pickard, Yu-Ting Hung, Fang-Ju Lin, Todd A Lee
BACKGROUND: Although societal preference weights are desirable to inform resource-allocation decision-making, patient experienced health state-based value sets can be useful for clinical decision-making, but context may matter. OBJECTIVE: To estimate EQ-5D value sets using visual analog scale (VAS) ratings for patients undergoing knee replacement surgery and compare the estimates before and after surgery. METHODS: We used the Patient Reported Outcome Measures data collected by the UK National Health Service on patients undergoing knee replacement from 2009 to 2012...
October 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036012/a-fresh-perspective-on-a-familiar-problem-examining-disparities-in-knee-osteoarthritis-using-a-markov-model
#12
Taruja D Karmarkar, Anne Maurer, Michael L Parks, Thomas Mason, Ana Bejinez-Eastman, Melvyn Harrington, Randall Morgan, Mary I O'Connor, James E Wood, Darrell J Gaskin
BACKGROUND: Disparities in the presentation of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in the utilization of treatment across sex, racial, and ethnic groups in the United States are well documented. OBJECTIVES: We used a Markov model to calculate lifetime costs of knee OA treatment. We then used the model results to compute costs of disparities in treatment by race, ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used the literature to construct a Markov Model of knee OA and publicly available data to create the model parameters and patient populations of interest...
October 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036011/evaluating-the-impact-of-prescription-fill-rates-on-risk-stratification-model-performance
#13
Hsien-Yen Chang, Thomas M Richards, Kenneth M Shermock, Stacy Elder Dalpoas, Hong J Kan, G Caleb Alexander, Jonathan P Weiner, Hadi Kharrazi
BACKGROUND: Risk adjustment models are traditionally derived from administrative claims. Prescription fill rates-extracted by comparing electronic health record prescriptions and pharmacy claims fills-represent a novel measure of medication adherence and may improve the performance of risk adjustment models. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of prescription fill rates on claims-based risk adjustment models in predicting both concurrent and prospective costs and utilization...
October 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035984/risk-factors-for-lower-extremity-injuries-among-contemporary-dance-students
#14
Christine van Seters, Rogier M van Rijn, Marienke van Middelkoop, Janine H Stubbe
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether student characteristics, lower-extremity kinematics, and strength are risk factors for sustaining lower-extremity injuries in preprofessional contemporary dancers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Codarts University of the Arts. PATIENTS: Forty-five first-year students of Bachelor Dance and Bachelor Dance Teacher. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: At the beginning of the academic year, the injury history (only lower-extremity) and student characteristics (age, sex, educational program) were assessed using a questionnaire...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035798/sexual-function-and-related-factors-in-iranian-woman-with-epilepsy
#15
Zahra Atarodi-Kashani, Nourossadat Kariman, Abbas Ebadi, Hamid Alavi Majd, Nahid Beladi-Moghadam
PURPOSE: Epileptic women are faced with many sexual challenges in their life due to medical and non-medical factors. The present study was conducted to assess sexual function in epileptic women and its related factors. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 epileptic married women of reproductive age who were members of the Iranian Epilepsy Association and were selected continuously over six months through convenience sampling. The data collection tools included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and questions about the causes of sexual dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035623/the-impact-of-knee-injury-history-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adolescent-athletes
#16
Kenneth C Lam, Jessica G Markbreiter
CONTEXT: Current evidence suggests that, despite returning to full participation, physically active adults with a previous knee injury experience lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than those with no knee injury history. It is unknown if this relationship is present in adolescent athletes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of knee injury history on HRQOL in adolescent athletes who were medically cleared for full participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035189/cancer-screening-reminders-addressing-the-spectrum-of-patient-preferences
#17
Susan D Brandzel, Erin J Aiello Bowles, Arika Wieneke, Susan Carol Bradford, Kilian Kimbel, Hongyuan Gao, Diana Sm Buist
CONTEXT: Health care systems continue to seek evidence about how to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of cancer screening reminders. Annual reminders to receive preventive services can be an efficient strategy. OBJECTIVE: To understand patient motivators and barriers to cancer screening and preferences about reminder strategies. DESIGN: We conducted 11 focus groups among adults recommended for cancer screening within Kaiser Permanente Washington...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035088/the-last-25-years-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiology-and-the-next-25
#18
Paul E Peppard, Erika W Hagen
Considerable new knowledge regarding the epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults arose from large-scale population-based epidemiologic investigations that initiated in the late 1980s to 1990s; these investigations have continued to produce relevant findings in recent years. In this Perspective, we briefly comment on the past 25 years of adult population-based OSA epidemiology and discuss selected ways in which the field can further progress over the coming decades. Population-based studies have shown that OSA is common in both men and women, and that prevalence is increasing...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035063/religious-anti-gay-prejudice-as-a-predictor-of-mental-health-abuse-and-substance-use
#19
Babucarr J Sowe, Alan J Taylor, Jac Brown
Anti-gay, or homonegative, prejudice is generally considered harmful to the wellbeing of sexual minority individuals. However, the origins or nature of such prejudice may vary. Despite a sizable body of literature suggesting homonegative prejudice is frequently religious-based, the psychological impact of exposure to religious anti-gay prejudice remains largely undetermined. Addressing this research gap, the authors examined whether opposition to same-sex sexuality on religious grounds predicted detrimental outcomes among same- and both-sex attracted individuals, as well as their heterosexual counterparts...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034784/religious-affiliation-at-time-of-death-global-estimates-and-projections
#20
Vegard Skirbekk, Megan Todd, Marcin Stonawski
AIMS: Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. METHODS: We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories...
October 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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