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blood circulation

Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Ying Xia, Carl Postenka, Matthew M Piaseczny, Freeman Paczkowski, Alison L Allan
Metastasis is the cause of most prostate cancer (PCa) deaths and has been associated with circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL of blood is a poor prognosis indicator in metastatic PCa when assessed by the CellSearch® system, the "gold standard" clinical platform. However, ~35% of metastatic PCa patients assessed by CellSearch® have undetectable CTCs. We hypothesize that this is due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent loss of necessary CTC detection markers, with important implications for PCa metastasis...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Chao Fang, Chuanwen Fan, Cun Wang, Qiaorong Huang, Wentong Meng, Yongyang Yu, Lie Yang, Zhihai Peng, Jiankun Hu, Yuan Li, Xianming Mo, Zongguang Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). RESULTS: The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Shehla Akbar, Fazal Subhan, Nasiara Karim, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Gowhar Ali, Wajahat Mahmood, Khwaja Fawad
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is the most prevalent, persistent and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus often coupled with vulvodynia that may present as an isolated symptom or as a part of constellation of other neuropathic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Flavonoids have selective affinity for GABA receptors and 6-methoxyflavanone (6-MeOF) is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA responses at human recombinant GABAA receptors. GABAergic and opioidergic system inhibition have been shown to facilitate neuropathic pain...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tatiana Pochechueva, Alexander Chinarev, Andreas Schoetzau, André Fedier, Nicolai V Bovin, Neville F Hacker, Francis Jacob, Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz
Altered levels of naturally occurring anti-glycan antibodies (AGA) circulating in human blood plasma are found in different pathologies including cancer. Here the levels of AGA directed against 22 negatively charged (sialylated and sulfated) glycans were assessed in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC, n = 22) patients and benign controls (n = 31) using our previously developed suspension glycan array (SGA). Specifically, the ability of AGA to differentiate between controls and HGSOC, the most common and aggressive type of ovarian cancer with a poor outcome was determined...
2016: PloS One
Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Emma Perez-Costas, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Ramon Soto-Otero, Jose L Lanciego, Daniel Henrion, Rafael Franco, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Bénazir Siddeek, Nadjem Lakhdari, Lilia Inoubli, Rachel Paul-Bellon, Véronique Isnard, Emmanuelle Thibault, André Bongain, Daniel Chevalier, Emanuela Repetto, Michele Trabucchi, Jean-François Michiels, Catherine Yzydorczyk, Umberto Simeoni, Michel Urtizberea, Claire Mauduit, Mohamed Benahmed
AIM: The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease refers to the concept that early exposure to toxicants or nutritional imbalances during perinatal life induces changes that enhance the risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Patients/materials & methods: An experimental model with an adult chronic germ cell phenotype resulting from exposure to a xenoestrogen was used. RESULTS: A reciprocal negative feedback loop involving decreased EZH2 protein level and increased miR-101 expression was identified...
October 20, 2016: Epigenomics
O Lidický, M Šírová, T Etrych
In this paper, we describe the synthesis, physicochemical characterization, drug release kinetics and preliminary biological evaluation of several N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer-retinoid conjugates designed for solid tumor immunotherapy. The conjugates are supposed to inhibit the immunosuppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulated in the solid tumor microenvironment. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was derivatized to hydrazide (AtrHy) and then attached to the polymer backbone via a spacer that is stable at the normal pH of blood (7...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Alyssa B Chinen, Jennifer R Ferrer, Timothy J Merkel, Chad A Mirkin
Two synthetic approaches that allow one to control PEG content within spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been developed. One approach begins with RNA-modified gold nanoparticles followed by a backfill of PEG 2K alkanethiols, and the other involves co-adsorption of the two entities on a gold nanoparticle template. These two methods have been used to explore the role of PEG density on the chemical and biological properties of RNA-SNAs. Such studies show that while increasing the extent of PEGylation within RNA-SNAs extends their blood circulation half-life in mice, it also results in decreased cellular uptake...
October 20, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Caiyan Zhao, Leihou Shao, Jianqing Lu, Chenying Zhao, Yujie Wei, Junxing Liu, Mingjun Li, Yan Wu
Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers with the ability to respond to tumorous heterogeneity have been extensively developed for drug delivery. However, the premature release during blood circulation and insufficient intracellular drug release are still a significant issue. Herein, three disulfide bonds are introduced into the amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone copolymer blocks to form triple-sensitive cleavable polymeric nanocarrier (tri-PESC NPs) to improve its sensitivity to narrow glutathione (GSH) concentration...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Steen Kølvraa, Ripudaman Singh, Elizabeth A Normand, Sadeem Qdaisat, Ignatia B Van denVeyver, Laird Jackson, Lotte Hatt, Palle Schelde, Niels Uldbjerg, Else Marie Vestergaard, Li Zhao, Rui Chen, Chad A Shaw, Amy M Breman, Arthur L Beaudet
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on fetal cells in maternal blood has the advantage over NIPT based on circulating cell-free fetal DNA in that there is no contamination with maternal DNA. This will most likely result in better detection of chromosomal aberrations including subchromosomal defects. The objective of this study was to test whether fetal cells enriched from maternal blood can be used for cell-based NIPT. METHODS: We present a method for enriching fetal cells from maternal blood, subsequent amplification of the fetal genome and detection of chromosomal and subchromosomal variations in the genome...
October 19, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Stephanie M Wolahan, Mayumi L Prins, David L McArthur, Courtney R Real, David A Hovda, Neil A Martin, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the impact of targeting tight glycemic control (4.4-6.1 mM) on endogenous ketogenesis in severely head-injured adults. METHODS: The data were prospectively collected during a randomized, within-patient crossover study comparing tight to loose glycemic control, defined as 6.7-8.3 mM. Blood was collected periodically during both tight and loose glycemic control epochs. Post hoc analysis of insulin dose and total nutritional provision was performed...
October 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Jin Sun Lee, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, John W Park
Recent technological advancements in rare cell analysis have facilitated the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast and other types of cancers. Numerous clinical studies involving the enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer patients have unequivocally demonstrated the prognostic value of these cells. Evidence from recent molecular studies indicates that CTCs may be potential surrogate markers for systemic disease. As such, real-time assessment of therapeutic biomarkers in breast CTCs, such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may have a tremendous impact in guiding-targeted cancer therapy...
October 19, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Amy Tsurumi, Yok-Ai Que, Colleen M Ryan, Ronald G Tompkins, Laurence G Rahme
Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes; however, identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Wataru Kikuchi, Motoi Nishimura, Takahisa Kuga, Sachio Tsuchida, Tatsuya Saito, Mamoru Satoh, Kenta Noda, Yoshio Kodera, Takeshi Tomonaga, Fumio Nomura
BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen alpha C chain 5.9 kDa fragment (FIC5.9) is a new serum biomarker for chronic hepatitis that was discovered by proteomics analysis. Previous studies have shown that FIC5.9 is derived from the C-terminal region of fibrinogen alpha chain and the serum levels of FIC5.9 decrease in chronic hepatitis. It also have been reported that FIC5.9 cannot be detected in the blood stream of the systemic circulation and it is released from fibrinogen during blood clotting in collecting tube...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
Lara Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Adrián Posado-Fernández, Davoud Ahmadvand, Barbara Lettiero, Linping Wu, Marta Antón, Orfeu Flores, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Francisco Wandosell
The accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (hyper-phosphorylated Tau) in the brain are two major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Active and passive immunotherapy may limit cerebral Aβ deposition and/or accelerate its clearance. With the aid of a newly characterized monoclonal anti-Aβ antibody we constructed immunoPEGliposomes with high avidity for capturing Aβ in the periphery. The functionality of these vesicles in modulating Aβ uptake by both human brain capillary endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells (suppressing uptake) and THP-1 phagocytes (stimulating uptake) was confirmed in vitro...
August 2, 2016: Biomaterials
Sarah Hrebien, Ben O'Leary, Matthew Beaney, Gaia Schiavon, Charlotte Fribbens, Amarjit Bhambra, Richard Johnson, Isaac Garcia-Murillas, Nicholas Turner
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has the potential to allow non-invasive analysis of tumor mutations in advanced cancer. In this study we assessed the reproducibility of digital PCR (dPCR) assays of circulating tumor DNA in a cohort of patients with advanced breast cancer and assessed delayed plasma processing using cell free DNA preservative tubes. We recruited a cohort of 96 paired samples from 71 women with advanced breast cancer who had paired blood samples processed either immediately or delayed in preservative tubes with processing 48-72 hours after collection...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Nakouné, Basile Kamgang, Nicolas Berthet, Alexandre Manirakiza, Mirdad Kazanji
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rikki A Cannioto, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Shalaka Hampras, Ellen L Goode, Keith Knutson, Roberta Ness, Francesmary Modugno, Paul K Wallace, J Brian Szender, Paul Mayor, Chi-Chen Hong, Janine M Joseph, Grace Friel, Warren Davis, Mary Nesline, Kevin H Eng, Robert P Edwards, Bridget Kruszka, Kristina Schmitt, Kunle Odunsi, Kirsten B Moysich
OBJECTIVE: There is a mounting body of evidence demonstrating higher percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer in comparison to healthy controls, but there is a paucity of epidemiological literature characterizing circulating Treg cells among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To investigate the role of peripheral Treg cells in ovarian neoplasms, we conducted a case-control study to characterize circulating concentrations of Treg cells among patients with EOC, women with benign ovarian conditions, and healthy controls without a history of cancer...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Afshin Shirkani, Mohammad Shahrooei, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan Abolhassani, Shokrollah Farrokhi, Glynis Frans, Xavier Bossuyt, Asghar Aghamohammadi
ZAP-70 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of combined immunodeficiency (CID) characterized by selective absence of circulating CD8 T cells with low, normal, or increased CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. Up to now, 14 unique mutations in the ZAP70 gene have been identified in patients with ZAP-70-related CID. We present a 3-year-old boy with a history of recurrent bacterial infections and autoimmunity. Initial laboratory findings showed a normal total lymphocyte count, but low levels of CD8 and CD4 T cells and an abnormal lymphocyte proliferation response...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
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