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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653389/how-does-the-microbial-load-affect-the-quality-of-equine-cool-stored-semen
#1
E Varela, J Rey, E Plaza, P Muñoz de Propios, J M Ortiz-Rodríguez, M Álvarez, L Anel-López, L Anel, P De Paz, M C Gil, J M Morrell, C Ortega-Ferrusola
Contaminating bacteria present in stallion ejaculates may compromise sperm quality during storage. Different procedures have been used to reduce the load of microorganisms in semen and avoid bacterial growth during storage. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate different techniques to eliminate bacteria in semen 2) to study the relationship between total microflora load (TML) and ROS production; and 3) to determine if TML affects the functionality of cool-stored sperm. Ejaculates from 11 stallions were split and processed in 3 ways: A...
March 26, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653388/synchronization-treatments-previous-to-natural-breeding-anticipate-and-improve-the-pregnancy-rate-of-postpartum-primiparous-beef-cows
#2
R M Ferreira, T L Conti, R L Gonçalves, L A Souto, J N S Sales, M F Sá Filho, F M Elliff, P S Baruselli
Timed AI has become a potential tool to bypass postpartum acyclicity, yet only a small percentage of the world bovine herd is inseminated. Most females are still subjected to bull mating; therefore, the frequent occurrence of postpartum anestrus may compromise their reproductive efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an approach that allows the early conception of postpartum primiparous beef cows that are exposed to natural breeding (NB). For this purpose, 350 primiparous Nelore cows 35-65 d postpartum were allocated into three groups: Control (no hormonal treatment), TNB (hormonal protocol for timed-NB without equine chorionic gonadotropin; eCG) and TNB + eCG (hormonal protocol for TNB with eCG) groups...
April 4, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652644/alphaviruses-serological-evidence-of-human-infection-in-paraguay-2012-2013
#3
Fátima Cardozo, Brenda Konigheim, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, María Elisa Rivarola, Javier Aguilar, Alejandra Rojas, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Malvina Paez, Yvalena Guillén, Adrian Diaz, María Asunción Vallejos, Lilian Herebia, María Lidia Recalde, Marta Silvia Contigiani, Laura Mendoza
INTRODUCTION: Alphaviruses can produce febrile illness and encephalitis in dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Within this genus, the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex includes pathogenic epizootic subtypes and enzootic subtypes that are not pathogenic in horses (except subtype IE, Mexican strains), although they can cause febrile symptoms in humans. The Rio Negro virus (RNV-VEEV subtype VI) circulates in Argentina, where it was associated with undifferentiated febrile illness...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649486/identification-of-the-two-new-functional-actinoporins-cjtox-i-and-cjtox-ii-from-the-deep-sea-anemone-cribrinopsis-japonica
#4
Kenta Tsutsui, Tomomi Sato
Actinoporins are pore-forming proteins found in sea anemones. Although we now have a large collection of data on actinoporins, our knowledge is based heavily on those identified in shallow-water anemones. Because the deep sea differs considerably from shallow waters in hydrostatic pressures, temperatures, and the prey composition, the deep-sea actinoporin may have evolved in unique ways. This study, therefore, aimed to obtain new actinoporins in the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopis japonica (Actiniaria, Actiniidae)...
April 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648506/systemic-equid-alphaherpesvirus-9-in-a-grant-s-zebra
#5
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630005/an-exploration-of-equine-assisted-therapy-to-improve-balance-functional-capacity-and-cognition-in-older-adults-with-alzheimer-disease
#6
Thais Borges de Araujo, Wagner Rodrigues Martins, Marco Polo Freitas, Einstein Camargos, Jéssica Mota, Marisete Peralta Safons
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive dementia syndrome that features cognitive and behavioral symptoms, as well as physical and functional limitations that develop over the course of the disease. As an activity that involves physical and cognitive aspects, equine-assisted therapy (EAT) could be a useful therapeutic approach in conditions that involve physical and cognitive decline. However, to date, there are no reports of the use of this therapy in participants with AD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628021/regulation-by-3-5-3-tri-iodothyronine-and-fsh-of-cytochrome-p450-family-19-cyp19-expression-in-mouse-granulosa-cells
#7
Juan Liu, Yingying Han, Ye Tian, Xuechun Weng, Xusong Hu, Wenbo Liu, Dai Heng, Kaili Xu, Yanzhou Yang, Cheng Zhang
Cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19) plays an important role in follicular development, which is regulated by FSH. Although 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) combines with FSH to induce preantral follicle growth and granulosa cell development, the mechanism involved remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which thyroid hormone (TH) and FSH regulate CYP19 expression and sterol biosynthesis during preantral follicle growth. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s...
April 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627335/on-site-detection-of-equid-alphaherpesvirus-3-in-perineal-and-genital-swabs-of-mares-and-stallions
#8
M A Vissani, M S Tordoya, Y-L Tsai, P-Y A Lee, Y-H Shen, F-C Lee, H-T T Wang, V Parreño, M Barrandeguy
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid identification of EHV3 are of primary importance to diminish the risk of EHV3 dissemination at the time of breeding. In the last years, it has been shown that the performance of the insulated-isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) is comparable to virus isolation, nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) in detecting pathogens of various animal species...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627157/tgfb1-modulates-in-vitro-secretory-activity-and-viability-of-equine-luteal-cells
#9
António Galvão, Karolina Wolodko, Maria Rosa Rebordão, Dariusz Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
In the present report we describe the involvement of transforming growth factor B1 (TGF) in functional regression and structural luteolysis in the mare. Firstly, TGF and its receptors activin-like kinase (ALK) 5 and TGF receptor 2 were identified in corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast-like cells. Also, TGF and ALK5 protein expression were shown to be increased in Mid-, and Late-CL (p < 0.05). Subsequently, using an in vitro model with Mid-CL cells, we studied the role of TGF on secretory activity and cell viability...
April 4, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627082/treating-insect-bite-hypersensitivity-in-horses-with-active-vaccination-against-il-5
#10
Antonia Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Victoria Fettelschoss, Franziska Thoms, Christoph Giese, Michelle Daniel, Florian Olomski, Jivko Kamarachev, Katharina Birkmann, Maya Bühler, Martin Kummer, Andris Zeltins, Eliane Marti, Thomas M Kündig, Martin F Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. OBJECTIVE: To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626656/equine-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-28-years-later
#11
REVIEW
Sehrish Saleem, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Awais Ghaffar, Ahmad Ali, Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) is an important tick borne disease of equines that is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum). The etiological agent has veterinary as well as public health importance because of its zoonotic nature. A. phagocytophilum causes an acute illness in equines with loss of appetite, lethargy, hemorrhages and lameness. Clinically, EGA is diagnosed upon examination of morulae within neutrophils especially granulocytes in the blood. The best diagnostic tool for the detection of EGA is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626616/benefits-of-hippotherapy-and-horse-riding-simulation-exercise-on-healthy-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Camille Hilliere, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Santos Villafaina, Paulo Duque-Fonseca, José A Parraça
OBJECTIVE: To provide an up-to-date research analysis on equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults, and to suggest future directions in clinical practice and research. TYPE: Systematic Review. LITERATURE SURVEY: A comprehensive search of studies was performed in 4 electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PEDro and Web of Science) regarding the effects of equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults...
April 4, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625573/long-term-consistency-and-location-specificity-of-equine-gluteus-medius-muscle-activity-during-locomotion-on-the-treadmill
#13
Rebeka R Zsoldos, Anna Voegele, Bjoern Krueger, Ulrike Schroeder, Andreas Weber, Theresia F Licka
BACKGROUND: The equine m. gluteus medius (GM) is the largest muscle of the horse, its main movement function is the extension of the hip joint. The objective of the present study was to measure equine GM activity in three adjacent locations on GM during walk and trot on a treadmill, in order to document potential differences. Fourteen Haflinger mares were measured using surface electromyography and kinematic markers to identify the motion cycles on three occasions over 16 weeks. The electrodes were placed on left and right gluteus medius muscle over the middle of its widest part and 5 cm lateral and medial of it...
April 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625090/dna-barcoding-of-five-japanese-encephalitis-mosquito-vectors-culex-fuscocephala-culex-gelidus-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-culex-pseudovishnui-and-culex-vishnui
#14
Pushparaj Karthika, Chithravel Vadivalagan, Durairaj Thirumurugan, Rangaswamy Ravi Kumar, Kadarkarai Murugan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequel caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Effective vector control and early diagnosis, along with continuous serosurveillance in animals are crucial to fight this arboviral disease. However, the success of vector control operations is linked with the fast and reliable identification of targeted species and knowledge about their biology and ecology...
April 3, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624000/the-occurrence-of-dynamic-structural-disorders-in-the-pharynx-and-larynx-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-horses-diagnosed-with-mild-and-moderate-equine-asthma-inflammatory-airway-disease
#15
B Wysocka, W Kluciński
The goal of the present study was to establish the occurrence of structural disorders in the larynx and pharynx during treadmill exercise tests in horses diagnosed with Equine Asthma (EA). Investigation was performed in 29 horses, patients of the Equine Clinic of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Poland, admitted with poor exercise performance. Upper and lower airway examinations were performed in all patients revealing both mild to moderate Equine Asthma (13 horses), and no lower airway abnormalities (16 animals)...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622352/simultaneous-evaluation-of-superoxide-content-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-in-stallion-semen-samples-provides-additional-information-about-sperm-quality
#16
A Johannisson, M I Figueiredo, Z Al-Kass, J M Morrell
An improved fertility prediction for stallions is of importance for equine breeding. Here, we investigate the potential of a combined staining of stallion spermatozoa for superoxide and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) for this purpose. Semen samples were analysed immediately after arrival at the laboratory, as well as after 24 h. Superoxide was measured by MitoSOXRed, while MMP was measured with JC-1. Menadione was used to stimulate superoxide production. In addition, other parameters of sperm quality, namely motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm kinematics and Hoechst 33258 exclusion were measured and correlated to superoxide production and MMP...
March 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621640/synthesis-and-characterization-of-new-inhibitors-of-cholinesterases-based-on-n-phenylcarbamates-in-vitro-study-of-inhibitory-effect-type-of-inhibition-lipophilicity-and-molecular-docking
#17
Katarína Vorčáková, Magdaléna Májeková, Eva Horáková, Pavel Drabina, Miloš Sedlák, Šárka Štěpánková
Based on current treatment of Alzheimer's disease, where the carbamate inhibitor Rivastigmine is used, two series of carbamate derivatives were prepared: (i) N-phenylcarbamates with additional carbamate group (1-12) and (ii) N-phenylcarbamates with monosaccharide moiety (13-24). All compounds were tested for the inhibitory effect on both of the cholinesterases, electric eel acetylcholinesterase (eeAChE) and butyrylcholinesterase from equine serum (eqBChE) and the inhibitory activity (expressed as IC50 values) was compared with that of the established drugs Galanthamine and Rivastigmine...
March 28, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618989/strongyle-infection-and-gut-microbiota-profiling-of-resistant-and-susceptible-horses-over-a-grazing-season
#18
Allison Clark, Guillaume Sallé, Valentine Ballan, Fabrice Reigner, Annabelle Meynadier, Jacques Cortet, Christine Koch, Mickaël Riou, Alexandra Blanchard, Núria Mach
Gastrointestinal strongyles are a major threat to horses' health and welfare. Given that strongyles inhabit the same niche as the gut microbiota, they may interact with each other. These beneficial or detrimental interactions are unknown in horses and could partly explain contrasted susceptibility to infection between individuals. To address these questions, an experimental pasture trial with 20 worm-free female Welsh ponies (10 susceptible (S) and 10 resistant (R) to parasite infection) was implemented for 5 months...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618651/large-scale-complete-genome-sequencing-and-phylodynamic-analysis-of-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-reveal-source-sink-transmission-dynamics-in-the-united-states
#19
Yi Tan, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Lea A Heberlein-Larson, Sandra C Smole, Albert J Auguste, Scott Hennigan, Rebecca A Halpin, Nadia Fedorova, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Meghan H Shilts, Theodore Andreadis, Philip M Armstrong, Robert B Tesh, Scott C Weaver, Thomas R Unnasch, Alexander T Ciota, Laura D Kramer, Suman R Das
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has a high case-fatality rate in horses and humans, and Florida has been hypothesized to be the source of EEEV epidemics for the northeastern U.S. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced complete genomes of 433 EEEV strains collected within the U.S. from 1934 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis suggested EEEV evolves relatively slowly and that transmission is enzootic in Florida, characterized by higher genetic diversity and long-term local persistence. In contrast, EEEV in New York and Massachusetts were characterized by lower genetic diversity, multiple introductions, and shorter local persistence...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618647/identification-of-the-rna-pseudoknot-within-the-3-end-of-prrsv-genome-as-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-to-activate-antiviral-signaling-via-rig-i-and-tlr3
#20
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
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