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Amanda M Brandt, Joanna M Kania, Madison L Gonzalez, Sally E Johnson
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals mediate mouse skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell (SC), reentry into the cell cycle and myoblast proliferation. Because the athletic horse experiences exercise-induced muscle damage, the objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of HGF on equine SC (eqSC) bioactivity. Fresh isolates of adult eqSC were incubated with increasing concentrations of HGF and the initial time to DNA synthesis was measured. Media supplementation with HGF did not shorten (P > 0...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Roxane Boivin, Amandine Vargas, Patricia Cano, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Recurrent inflammation in severe equine asthma causes a remodeling of the airways leading to incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Despite the improvement of clinical signs and lung function with glucocorticoids (GC), inflammation, translated by an increased percentage of neutrophils, persists in the airways. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and play an important role in balancing the immune response by suppressing effector lymphocyte activity. However, interactions between Treg, neutrophils and glucocorticosteroids in vivo are unclear, particularly in asthma...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Cheng Peng, Ling Xiao, Huimin Chen, Yulong Han, Minwei Huang, Mi Zhao, Shuisheng Li, Yun Liu, Yuqing Yang, Haifa Zhang, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a critical role in reproduction by mediating LH signaling in the gonad. In this study, we cloned a novel lhr gene from the orange-spotted grouper, named glhr2. The cloned complete open reading frame sequence of glhr2 was 2082 bp in length, encoding a protein of 693 amino acids, sharing approximately 50% amino acid identity with glhr1. glhr1 and glhr2 were primarily expressed in gonad, brain and hypothalamus with lowe expression in other tissues such as gill, spleen, etc...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mustafa M Elarbi, Claude A Ragle, Boel A Fransson, Kelly D Farnsworth
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a simulation model for laparoscopic ovariectomy in standing horses. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SAMPLE 15 third-year veterinary students and 4 equine surgeons with experience in laparoscopy. PROCEDURES A simulation model that mimicked laparoscopic ovariectomy in standing horses was developed. Face validity of the model was determined with a questionnaire completed by the equine surgeons. Construct validity was determined by comparing performance scores (based on time to completion and accuracy completing various operative tasks) for simulated laparoscopic ovariectomy performed in the model for the students with scores for the equine surgeons...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Siobhan M Mor, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Michael P Ward, Jaime Gongora, Meg Vost, Peter C Higgins, Paul D McGreevy, Peter J White, Sanaa Zaki
Background: New educational approaches are needed to improve student understanding of the wider sociological and ecological determinants of health as well as professional responsibilities in related areas. Field trips allow students to observe interaction between plant, animal and human communities, making them an ideal tool for teaching One Health concepts. Methods: Veterinary medical students participated in a field trip to a local parklands area, frequented by humans, dogs, horses, and wildlife...
June 2018: One Health
Bibiana Noal Ribas, Daniele Missio, Isac Junior Roman, Normélio Alves Neto, Izaias Claro, Daniela Dos Santos Brum, Fabio Gallas Leivas
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) stimulation prior to ovum pick-up (OPU) on follicular development, number and quality of recovered oocytes, fertilization rate, and early embryo development in vitro. There were four OPU sessions (cross over) conducted on 16 Braford cows to evaluate the effect of various eCG doses. The timing of the wave of ovarian follicular development was synchronized, and three days after, the respective eCG dose was administrated (0, 200, 400, or 800 IU)...
June 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Giorgio Meloni, Michela Cossu, Cipriano Foxi, Luigi Vento, Salvatore Circosta, Ernesta Burrai, Sergio Masala, Maria Goffredo, Giuseppe Satta
Culicoides biting midges can transmit viruses such as bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus to ruminants and African horse sickness virus to equines. The control of Culicoides population can be based on physical and/or chemical methods. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of larvicides and adulticides combined treatments to control the vector Culicoides populations. Field trials have been conducted during 2014 on seven farms in northern Sardinia (Italy). Three insecticide treatments (larvicides and adulticides) have been carried out on three farms, whereas four farms remained unsprayed as untreated controls...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Tytti M Niemelä, Riitta-Mari Tulamo, Kaisa Aaltonen, Satu M Sankari, Anna K Hielm-Björkman
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and degenerative activity inside the joint can be studied in vivo via analysis of synovial fluid (SF) biomarkers, which are molecular markers of inflammatory processes and tissue turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of selected biomarkers in the SF after an intra-articular (IA) high-molecular-weight non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) treatment. Our hypothesis was that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), substance P, aggrecan chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS846), and carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII) concentrations in SF would decrease more in the NASHA than in the placebo group...
June 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Rafael Herrera Alvarez, Guilherme Pugliesi, Fabio Luis Nogueira Natal, Cecilia Constantino Rocha, Gilmar Arantes Ataide Júnior, Alfredo José Ferreira Melo, Ivani Posar Otzuk, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira, Patrice Humblot
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the reproductive performance of zebu beef cows treated with different doses of eCG at the end of a progesterone (P4)/estrogen based protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, suckling Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 261) received, on day 0, a progesterone (P4) intravaginal device (PD) and an injection of 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB). On day 8, the PD was removed, 500 μg of cloprostenol was injected, and cows were assigned to one of the following groups: Control (no treatment), 300 (300 IU of eCG), 600 (600 IU of eCG), and 900 (900 IU of eCG)...
June 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Luis G Arroyo, Diego E Gomez, Candace Martins
Duodenitis-proximal jejunitis (DPJ) is an inflammatory process of the proximal part of the small intestine and occurs sporadically in horses. It is clinically characterized by an acute onset of ileus and nasogastric reflux leading to systemic signs of toxemia. This review discusses the definition of the disease, potential etiologic agents, clinical findings, epidemiological features, histopathologic and clinico-pathological findings, and medical management of this condition. Salmonella spp., mycotoxins, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium difficile have all been associated with the disease but there is limited supporting evidence for any agent other than C...
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Shannan L Rossi, Gregory D Ebel, Chao Shan, Pei-Yong Shi, Nikos Vasilakis
Zika virus (ZIKV) has challenged the assumed knowledge regarding the pathobiology of flaviviruses. Despite causing sporadic and mild disease in the 50 years since its discovery, Zika virus has now caused multiple outbreaks in dozens of countries worldwide. Moreover, the disease severity in recent outbreaks, with neurological disease in adult and devastating congenital malformations in fetuses, was not previously seen. One hypothesis is that the virus has acquired mutations that have increased its virulence...
June 11, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Charlotte Gibson, Marta de Ruijter-Villani, Jolanda Rietveld, Tom A E Stout
Maternally derived amino acids (AA) are essential for early conceptus development, and specific transporters enhance histotrophic AA content during early ruminant pregnancy. In the present study we investigated AA transporter expression in early equine conceptuses and endometrium, during normal pregnancy and after induction of embryo-uterus asynchrony. 'Normal' conceptuses and endometrium were recovered on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after ovulation. To investigate asynchrony, Day 8 embryos were transferred to recipient mares on Day 8 or Day 3, and conceptuses were recovered 6 or 11 days later...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Amina Sifi, Sonia Adi-Bessalem, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Antivenom treatment has been largely used against scorpion stings. Despite their efficacy, the use of mammalian antivenoms may cause adverse effects due to the immune system activation. IgYs from hyperimmunized laying hens against venoms could be a promising alternative to equine IgGs due to the various benefits that these antibodies can provide. Here we report the preparation of specific IgYs by immunizing laying hens with Aah (Androctonus australis hector) scorpion venom. IgYs were isolated from egg yolks by water dilution and salt precipitation methods; they were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot and ELISA...
June 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Chan Hee Mok, Crystal L Levesque, Kristine L Urschel
Threonine has been reported to be the second limiting amino acid in typical equine diets, but its actual requirement has not been determined in horses. To evaluate amino acid metabolism and requirements, the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method has been successfully used in other species. The objective of this research was to estimate threonine requirements in mature horses fed timothy hay and concentrate in 4:1 ratio using the IAAO method. Six Thoroughbred mares (579.9 ± 46.7 kg) received each of 6 levels of threonine intake, 41, 51, 61, 70, 80 and 89 mg/kg BW/day, in a randomly determined order...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jessye Wojtusik, Terri L Roth
  Iron overload disorder (IOD) can lead to organ dysfunction and may exacerbate other diseases in the critically endangered black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis). It is important to develop methods for monitoring the progression of iron storage (hemosiderosis), diagnosing the disease, and evaluating treatments in this species. Traditionally, an equine enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to measure rhinoceros ferritin, a serum protein correlated to iron stores. The goal of this study was to validate a rhinoceros-specific assay and investigate factors potentially associated with ferritin concentrations in black rhinoceros...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Justine C R Shotton, William S M Justice, Francisco J Salguero, Alan Stevens, Barbara Bacci
  Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as equine Cushing's disease, is widely reported in middle-aged to older domestic equids but to date reported in only one nondomestic equid, the onager ( Equus hemionus onager). This case series reports clinical, hematological, and pathological findings consistent with PPID in two further equid species: one Chapman's zebra ( Equus quagga chapmani) and five Przewalski's horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii). The case series reports basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing as a method to diagnose and monitor PPID in zoological equids and the use of pergolide mesylate to reduce basal ACTH concentration and reduce clinical signs associated with PPID...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Manabu Nemoto, Takashi Yamanaka, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Takanori Ueno, Hirohisa Mekata, Ayako Yoshida, Aki Koyama, Hiroshi Kokado
This study compared agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) protocols for diagnosing equine infectious anemia. Two commercial testing kits were used: one following the Japanese Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Diseases Control and one following the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual. From 651 samples tested, both protocols gave identical results for 647 samples (23 samples tested positive; 624 tested negative). Non-specific reactions were observed in 21 samples testing negative by the Japanese protocol, but none were observed with the OIE protocol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
David C Bloom, Robert K Tran, Joyce Feller, Richard Voellmy
Replication-competent controlled virus vectors were derived from virulent HSV-1 wildtype strain 17 syn+ by placing one or two replication-essential genes under the stringent control of a gene switch that is co-activated by heat and an antiprogestin. Upon activation of the gene switch, the vectors replicate in infected cells with an efficacy that approaches that of the wildtype virus from which they were derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activation. When administered to mice, localized application of a transient heat treatment in the presence of systemic antiprogestin results in efficient but limited virus replication at the site of administration...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Benner G Alves, Kele A Alves, Gustavo D A Gastal, Melba O Gastal, José R Figueiredo, Eduardo L Gastal
Comprehensive studies on spatial distribution of preantral follicles in the ovary are scarce. Considering that preantral follicles represent the main ovarian reserve, harvesting of these follicles is crucial for the development/use of assisted reproductive techniques. Therefore, knowledge on follicle spatial distribution can be helpful for targeting areas with richer number of preantral follicles through biopsy procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and localization of equine preantral follicles according to: (i) age, (ii) ovarian portion (lateral and intermediary) and region (dorsal and ventral), (iii) distance from the geometric center, and (iv) follicular class...
2018: PloS One
Margot Van de Velde, Kim Roels, Cyrillus Ververs, Ilse Gerits, Jan Govaere
In recent years, the interest in equine foetal gender determination (FGD) during gestation increased remarkably. Ultrasonographic FGD can be performed in two different periods during gestation. The earliest examination can take place at a gestational age of 60-70 days, whereby the genital tubercle is used to differentiate between male and female foeti. The time window of the second approach is wider (120-210 days), and there are more characteristics to take into consideration. In this article, the feasibility and accuracy of ultrasonographic FGD in mid- to late gestation are evaluated...
June 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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