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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457257/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-metabolism-of-acepromazine-following-intravenous-oral-and-sublingual-administration-to-exercised-thoroughbred-horses
#1
H K Knych, K Seminoff, D S McKemie, P H Kass
Acepromazine is a tranquilizer used commonly in equine medicine. This study describes serum and urine concentrations and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acepromazine following intravenous, oral, and sublingual (SL) administration. Fifteen exercised adult Thoroughbred horses received a single intravenous, oral, and SL dose of 0.09 mg/kg of acepromazine. Blood and urine samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 72 hr and analyzed for acepromazine and its two major metabolites (2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl) promazine sulfoxide) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456834/a-retrospective-report-2003-2013-of-the-complications-associated-with-the-use-of-a-one-man-head-and-tail-rope-recovery-system-in-horses-following-general-anaesthesia
#2
Maria Chie Niimura Del Barrio, Florent David, J M Lynne Hughes, David Clifford, Hans Wilderjans, Rachel Bennett
Background: The mortality rate of horses undergoing general anaesthesia is high when compared to humans or small animal patients. One of the most critical periods during equine anaesthesia is recovery, as the horse attempts to regain a standing position. This study was performed in a private equine practice in Belgium that uses a purpose-designed one-man (head and tail) rope recovery system to assist the horse during the standing process.The main purpose of the retrospective study was to report and analyse complications and the mortality rate in horses during recovery from anaesthesia using the described recovery system...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455706/review-the-potential-of-seminal-fluid-mediated-paternal-maternal-communication-to-optimise-pregnancy-success
#3
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455473/comparison-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-computed-tomography-and-arthrography-to-identify-artificially-induced-cartilage-defects-of-the-equine-carpal-joints
#4
José Suarez Sanchez-Andrade, Henning Richter, Karolin Kuhn, Andrea S Bischofberger, Patrick R Kircher, Séamus Hoey
While articular cartilage changes are considered to be one of the initial events in the pathological cascade leading to osteoarthritis, these changes remain difficult to detect using conventional diagnostic imaging modalities such as plain radiography. The aim of this prospective, experimental, methods comparison study was to compare the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography, computed tomography (CT), and CT arthrography in the detection of artificially induced articular cartilage defects in the equine carpal joints...
February 18, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454522/genetic-and-subunit-vaccines-based-on-the-stem-domain-of-the-equine-influenza-hemagglutinin-provide-homosubtypic-protection-against-heterologous-strains
#5
Lorena Itatí Ibañez, Cecilia Andrea Caldevilla, Yesica Paredes Rojas, Nora Mattion
H3N8 influenza virus strains have been associated with infectious disease in equine populations throughout the world. Although current vaccines for equine influenza stimulate a protective humoral immune response against the surface glycoproteins, disease in vaccinated horses has been frequently reported, probably due to poor induction of cross-reactive antibodies against non-matching strains. This work describes the performance of a recombinant protein vaccine expressed in prokaryotic cells (ΔHAp) and of a genetic vaccine (ΔHAe), both based on the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/equine/Argentina/1/93 (H3N8) virus...
February 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453024/simultaneous-determination-of-ibuprofen-and-its-metabolites-in-complex-equine-urine-matrices-by-gc-ei-ms-in-excretion-study-in-view-of-doping-control
#6
Emilia Waraksa, Marzena Wójtowicz-Zawadka, Dorota Kwiatkowska, Anna Jarek, Anna Małkowska, Robert Wrzesień, Jacek Namieśnik
A novel assay for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen (IBU) and its four probable metabolites, 1-hydroxyibuprofen (1-OH IBU), 2-hydroxyibuprofen (2-OH IBU), 3-hydroxyibuprofen (3-OH IBU) and carboxyibuprofen (CBX IBU) in equine urine samples with the application of Gas Chromatography-Electron Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) has been developed and elaborated. The new approach for sample preparation including minimizing matrix effects by the application of weak cation exchange solid-phase extraction together with strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction has been applied...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452891/effect-of-topical-application-of-2-lidocaine-gel-on-corneal-sensitivity-of-clinically-normal-equine-eyes
#7
Alain Regnier, Iris Berton, Didier Concordet, Jean-Yves Douet
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree and duration of corneal anaesthesia provided by topical application of a non-ophthalmic 2% lidocaine gel in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, 'blinded', randomized prospective study. ANIMALS: Twelve adult horses without relevant ocular abnormalities. METHODS: Baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) measurements were obtained bilaterally by use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer just prior to topical treatment...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449118/shot-by-a-gun-%C3%A2-missed-by-a-provider
#8
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447808/hold-your-horses-a-comparison-of-human-laryngomalacia-with-analogous-equine-airway-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Rachael J Lawrence, Matthew J Butterell, James D Constable, Matija Daniel
OBJECTIVES: Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in infants. Dynamic airway collapse is also a well-recognised entity in horses and an important cause of surgical veterinary intervention. We compare the aetiology, clinical features and management of human laryngomalacia with equine dynamic airway collapse. METHODS: A structured review of the PubMed, the Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews)...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447208/species-specific-regulation-of-angiogenesis-by-glucocorticoids-reveals-contrasting-effects-on-inflammatory-and-angiogenic-pathways
#10
Ruth Morgan, John Keen, Daniel Halligan, Alan O'Callaghan, Ruth Andrew, Dawn Livingstone, Amber Abernethie, Giorgia Maltese, Brian Walker, Patrick Hadoke
Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in the rodent in vivo and in vitro but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. Administration of glucocorticoids is used to treat a number of conditions in horses but the angiogenic response of equine vessels to glucocorticoids and, therefore, the potential role of glucocorticoids in pathogenesis and treatment of equine disease, is unknown. This study addressed the hypothesis that glucocorticoids would be angiostatic both in equine and murine blood vessels...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445615/thermodynamic-effects-of-commercially-available-ice-boots
#11
Madison N Quintanar, Tess Pu'uwaionalani Millar, Matthew A Burd
The limb of the equine athlete is subjected to all types of various stressors during exercise. To ensure the health of the horse and to prevent the possibility of lameness, it has been a common practice to apply cold therapy to the distal limb of the horse pre- and post-exercise. Commercially available boots are widely available for the application of cold therapy. To test the effectiveness of the boot, 6 healthy performance level sport type horses were exercised at a walk, trot, and canter in a round-pen and then subjected to the application of the ice boot for 20 minutes on a treatment leg, and no ice boot on an untreated leg...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445361/a-quasi-steady-state-approximation-to-the-basic-target-cell-limited-viral-dynamics-model-with-a-non-cytopathic-effect
#12
Richard A Cangelosi, Elissa J Schwartz, David J Wollkind
Analysis of previously published target-cell limited viral dynamic models for pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis, and influenza generally rely on standard techniques from dynamical systems theory or numerical simulation. We use a quasi-steady-state approximation to derive an analytic solution for the model with a non-cytopathic effect, that is, when the death rates of uninfected and infected cells are equal. The analytic solution provides time evolution values of all three compartments of uninfected cells, infected cells, and virus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444949/downregulation-of-eca-mir-128-in-seminal-exosomes-and-enhanced-expression-of-cxcl16-in-the-stallion-reproductive-tract-are-associated-with-long-term-persistence-of-equine-arteritis-virus
#13
Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, Kathleen M Shuck, Peter J Timoney, R Frank Cook, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) can establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and is shed in the semen. Previous studies showed that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene ( CXCL16S ) and that persistent infection is maintained despite the presence of a local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we demonstrated that equine seminal exosomes (SEs) are enriched in a small subset of miRNAs. Most importantly, we demonstrated that long-term EAV persistence is associated with the downregulation of an SE-associated miRNA (eca-mir-128) and with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 in the reproductive tract, a putative target of eca-mir-128...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444251/cultured-equine-satellite-cells-as-a-model-system-to-assess-leucine-stimulated-protein-synthesis-in-horse-muscle
#14
M L DeBoer, K M Martinson, M S Pampusch, A M Hansen, S M Wells, C Ward, M Hathaway
Leucine has been shown to stimulate the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway which plays numerous key regulatory roles in cell growth, survival and metabolism including protein synthesis in a number of species. However, previous work with equine satellite cells has suggested distinct species differences in regards to physiological effects and the magnitude of responses to growth factors and regulators. Because there is limited research available regarding the role of leucine in regulating equine skeletal muscle protein synthesis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leucine on the mTOR signaling pathway in cultured equine satellite...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442435/an-unsettling-explanation-for-the-failure-of-skatole-baited-ovitraps-to-capture-culex-mosquitoes
#15
Marcelo H S Paiva, Rosângela M R Barbosa, Suzane A Santos, Norma M Silva, Marcia B Paula, Constância F J Ayres, Walter S Leal
Culex mosquitoes are primarily found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide where they play a crucial role as main vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. In Recife, a northeast city in Brazil, high densities of Culex quinquefasciatus are often found in association with human populated areas. In marked contrast to another part of the city, field tests conducted in the neighborhood of Sítio dos Pintos showed that trapping of mosquitoes in skatole-baited ovitraps did not differ significantly from captures in control (water) traps...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441693/epidemiology-of-fractures-the-role-of-kick-injuries-in-equine-fractures
#16
B Donati, A E Fürst, M Hässig, M A Jackson
BACKGROUND: Fractures occur commonly in equids and often are associated with complications and a poor outcome. There are no reports on the epidemiology of fractures in a heterogeneous equine population. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of fractures in a heterogeneous equine population, focusing on differences between fractures resulting from a kick and fractures resulting from other causes and investigating predictors for recovery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
February 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440600/protecting-equine-vets-from-work-injuries
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439436/chondrogenic-differentiation-of-defined-equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-umbilical-cord-blood-for-use-in-cartilage-repair-therapy
#18
Mélanie Desancé, Romain Contentin, Lélia Bertoni, Tangni Gomez-Leduc, Thomas Branly, Sandrine Jacquet, Jean-Marc Betsch, Agnès Batho, Florence Legendre, Fabrice Audigié, Philippe Galéra, Magali Demoor
Cartilage engineering is a new strategy for the treatment of cartilage damage due to osteoarthritis or trauma in humans. Racehorses are exposed to the same type of cartilage damage and the anatomical, cellular, and biochemical properties of their cartilage are comparable to those of human cartilage, making the horse an excellent model for the development of cartilage engineering. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into chondrocytes with chondrogenic factors in a biomaterial appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for direct implantation and cartilage repair...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437259/early-fetal-sexing-in-the-rhinoceros-by-detection-of-male-specific-genes-in-maternal-serum
#19
Monica A Stoops, G Douglas Winget, Christopher J DeChant, Ray L Ball, Terri L Roth
Genetic sexing of animals with long gestation time benefits the management of captive populations. Here, X and Y chromosome-specific primers, based on equine gene sequencing data, were developed and tested on captive rhinoceroses (10 males, 20 females) representing four species (Diceros bicornis, Certaotherium simum simum, Rhinoceros unicornis, and Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). The Y chromosome-specific primer set targeted SRY (Sex-determining region Y), and amplified a 177-bp product following PCR of DNA extracted from males, but not females, of all species...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437201/variations-during-ageing-in-the-three-dimensional-anatomical-arrangement-of-fascicles-within-the-equine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon
#20
O J Ali, E J Comerford, P D Clegg, E G Canty-Laird
BiTendons are constructed from collagenous fascicles separated by endotenon/interfascicular matrix (IFM). Tendons may be specialised for precision movement or to store energy during locomotion and for the latter the elasticity of the endotenon/IFM is particularly important. The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is a dedicated energy-storing tendon with a similar function to the human Achilles tendon. Classical anatomical descriptions portray fascicles as longitudinally arranged distinct anatomical structures...
February 13, 2018: European Cells & Materials
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