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Bella Devaleenal D, Geetha Ramachandran, Soumya Swaminathan
Inter-individual variations in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-TB drugs are known to occur, which could have important therapeutic implications in patient management. Areas covered: We compiled factors responsible for PK variability of anti-TB drugs reported from different settings that would give a better understanding about the challenges of PK variability of anti-TB medications. We searched PubMed data base and Google scholar from 1976 to the present using the key words "Pharmacokinetics", "pharmacokinetic variability", "first-line anti-TB therapy", "Rifampicin", "Isoniazid", "Ethambutol", "Pyrazinamide", "food", "nutritional status", "HIV", "diabetes", "genetic polymorphisms" and "pharmacokinetic interactions"...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Sabine Hoffjan, Denis A Akkad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuro-inflammatory autoimmune disease believed to arise from complex interactions of both environmental and genetic factors. The successful accomplishment of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analyzing >100.000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers simultaneously based on chip technology, has recently brought interesting new insights into the genetic background of this complex disease. To date, six GWAS have been performed for MS; even though study design and results vary substantially between experiments, some new susceptibility genes have been identified and replicated using this approach...
October 2010: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Ruty Mehrian Shai, Juergen K V Reichardt, Thomas C Chen
The pharmacogenetics of cancer treatment has been aimed at identifying genetic components of interindividual variability in patients' response to cancer chemotherapy and toxicity. This, in turn, will establish an individually based treatment, and also elucidate the molecular basis of the treatment regimen for further improvements. Brain cancer is an instructive example for the potential contributions of pharmacogenomics to improved treatment in the 21st century. Patients with oligodendrogliomas have benefited from phamacogenomics, as there is a clear relationship between response to chemotherapy and chromosomal profile...
August 2008: Future Oncology
Shiro Ikegawa
Asporin is an extracellular matrix protein that belongs to the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family of proteins. It is unique among SLRPs in that it lacks a glycosaminoglycan attachment site and contains an asparatic acid (D) repeat at its amino terminus. Its biological role has been unclear, but recent genetic studies have demonstrated association between asporin and various bone and joint diseases, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and lumbar disc disease. Each of these common diseases presents a substantial medical, social and economical burden to societies worldwide...
2008: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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