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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677684/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutics-where-do-we-stand-with-influenza-b-virus
#1
REVIEW
Jessica Tan, Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar, Florian Krammer
The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. The vast majority of these efforts is exclusively focused on influenza A viruses. While influenza A viruses cause the majority of all influenza cases worldwide, influenza B viruses should not be ignored. Approximately 25% of all influenza cases are caused by influenza B viruses which circulate as two distinct B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineages. In contrast to popular belief, influenza B cases frequently cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677626/positive-alcohol-use-expectancies-moderate-the-association-between-anxiety-sensitivity-and-alcohol-use-across-adolescence
#2
Allison M Borges, Carl W Lejuez, Julia W Felton
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious symptoms and the belief that these symptoms may have negative physical, social, and cognitive consequences, is one personality trait that emerges in early adolescence and may be linked to alcohol use. However, findings are equivocal as to whether elevated AS during adolescence directly predicts alcohol use. Adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period, and these expectancies have been found to be significantly associated with alcohol use...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677578/tobacco-outlet-density-and-tobacco-knowledge-beliefs-purchasing-behaviours-and-price-among-adolescents-in-scotland
#3
Helena Tunstall, Niamh K Shortt, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Elizabeth A Richardson, Richard J Mitchell, Jamie R Pearce
Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies...
February 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677408/use-of-oxygen-at-the-end-of-life-attitudes-beliefs-and-practices-in-wisconsin
#4
Lisa Quinn-Lee, Jeanne Weggel, Susan D Moch
INTRODUCTION: Oxygen therapy for the management of breathlessness remains controversial and little information is available regarding the practice of using oxygen at end of life. Oxygen use in end-of-life care is increasingly being questioned, while the use of oxygen for routine "comfort care" at end of life continues. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of oxygen at the end of life and to understand its role in contemporary palliative care practice...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677323/probing-transsaccadic-correspondence-with-reverse-correlation
#5
Eva R M Joosten, Thérèse Collins
The phenomenon of visual stability is classically explained by an internal forward model predicting the sensory consequences of an eye movement based on efference copy. However, this model cannot explain why some object displacements go undetected, a phenomenon that may depend on a passive prior belief that the world is stable. With reverse correlation, we investigated saccadic suppression of displacement and found that transsaccadic correspondence operates differently depending on the position of the postsaccadic visual target relative to the primary landing position; when the signal falls within the extent of primary saccadic scatter, observers are less able to remap accurately...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677196/catechol-o-methyltransferase-moderates-effect-of-stress-mindset-on-affect-and-cognition
#6
Alia J Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P Turnwald, Ted J Kaptchuk, Kathryn T Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset-the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating-can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants' mindsets about stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#7
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, revealed that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex...
April 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676665/an-ecological-exploration-of-facilitators-to-participation-in-a-mosque-based-physical-activity-program-for-south-asian-muslim-women
#8
Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey, Ananya Tina Banerjee
BACKGROUND: This descriptive qualitative study informed by an ecological framework explored factors influencing South Asian Muslim women's decisions to participate in a mosque-based physical activity intervention. METHODS: Individual, face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted in English, Hindi, or Urdu with 12 South Asian Muslim women at their home or mosque in Ontario, Canada. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and managed, sorted, and analyzed for themes through a process of descriptive analysis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676655/attitudes-towards-same-sex-parenting-in-italy-the-influence-of-traditional-gender-ideology
#9
Salvatore Ioverno, Roberto Baiocco, Vittorio Lingiardi, Valeria Verrastro, Salvatore D'Amore, Robert-Jay Green
This study aimed to examine the role of gender ideology, religiosity and political conservatism on attitudes toward same-sex parenting in Italy at a time when same-sex parent families are undergoing attacks from ideological campaigns opposing non-traditional gender roles and families. We collected data from 4,187 heterosexual respondents about attitudes towards two-father and two-mother parenting, homonegativity, attitudes toward traditional masculinity and femininity, religious involvement and political conservatism...
April 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676448/together-i-can-joint-attention-boosts-3-to-4-year-olds-performance-in-a-verbal-false-belief-test
#10
Elia Psouni, Andreas Falck, Leni Boström, Martin Persson, Lisa Sidén, Maria Wallin
Effects of joint attention were addressed on 3- to 4-year-olds' performance in a verbal false-Belief Test (FBT), featuring the experimenter as co-watcher rather than narrator. In two experiments, children (N = 183) watched a filmed-FBT jointly with a test leader, disjointed from a test leader, or alone. Children attending jointly with a test leader were more likely to pass the FBT compared with normative data and to spontaneously recall information indicating false-belief understanding, suggesting that joint attention strengthens the plausibility of the FBT and renders plot-critical information more salient...
April 20, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676292/the-test-retest-reliability-of-questionnaires-regarding-attitudes-and-beliefs-toward-noise-hearing-loss-and-hearing-protector-devices-in-young-adults
#11
Sofie Degeest, Leen Maes, Laura Leyssens, Hannah Keppler
Context: Young people expose themselves to high noise levels during leisure activities, and might thus be at risk of acquiring hearing-related problems. Therefore, information regarding risk-taking behavior is necessary to prevent future hearing problems and to optimize future preventive campaigns. Aim: This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL) instrument...
March 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676161/symptoms-of-prolonged-grief-and-posttraumatic-stress-following-loss-a-latent-class-analysis
#12
Fiona Maccallum, Richard A Bryant
OBJECTIVE: Individuals vary in how they respond to bereavement. Those who experience poor bereavement outcomes often report symptoms from more than one diagnostic category. This study sought to identify groups of individuals who share similar patterns of prolonged grief disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms to determine whether these profiles are differentially related to negative appraisals thought to contribute to prolonged grief disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology...
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675855/sub-topographic-maps-for-regionally-enhanced-analysis-of-visual-space-in-the-mouse-retina
#13
Rana N El-Danaf, Andrew D Huberman
In many species, neurons are unevenly distributed across the retina, leading to nonuniform analysis of specific visual features at certain locations in visual space. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a premiere model for probing visual system function, development and disease. Thus, achieving a detailed understanding of mouse visual circuit architecture is of paramount importance. The general belief is that mice possess a relatively even topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)- the output neurons of the eye...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674206/using-extended-theory-of-planned-behavior-to-understand-aspirin-adherence-in-pregnant-women
#14
Chung-Ying Lin, Anders Broström, Per Nilsen, Amir H Pakpour
OBJECTIVE: To use the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) combined with action and coping planning plus global relationship with husband to explain the aspirin adherence in a sample of women with high-risk pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 535 Iranian women (mean age = 32.29 ± 4.98; year of marriage = 6.89 ± 3.61) completed the study. Each participant filled out several questionnaires on TPB (i.e., a widely applied theory describing how behaviors are influenced by beliefs, attitudes, perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions), action planning, coping planning and relationship with husband at baseline...
April 6, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673896/health-beliefs-and-medication-adherence-in-black-patients-with-diabetes-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Barry W Rovner, Robin J Casten
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate determinants of medication adherence and glycemic control in black patients with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 143 participants with mean age of 68.8 (SD: 6.7) years; 66.4% were women. RESULTS: Eighty-seven participants (60.8%) self-reported medication nonadherence; they had more negative beliefs about medicines, greater diabetes-related distress, and more difficulty with daily living activities and affording medications than adherent participants...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673581/hoping-for-more-how-cognitive-science-has-and-hasn-t-been-helpful-to-the-ocd-clinician
#16
REVIEW
Allison J Ouimet, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Adam S Radomsky
Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673271/beyond-silence-a-randomized-parallel-group-trial-exploring-the-impact-of-workplace-mental-health-literacy-training-with-healthcare-employees
#17
Sandra E Moll, Scott Patten, Heather Stuart, Joy C MacDermid, Bonnie Kirsh
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate whether a contact-based workplace education program was more effective than standard mental health literacy training in promoting early intervention and support for healthcare employees with mental health issues. METHOD: A parallel-group, randomised trial was conducted with employees in 2 multi-site Ontario hospitals with the evaluators blinded to the groups. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based education programs: Beyond Silence (comprising 6 in-person, 2-h sessions plus 5 online sessions co-led by employees who personally experienced mental health issues) or Mental Health First Aid (a standardised 2-day training program led by a trained facilitator)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673269/dual-diagnosis-a-problematic-construct-when-applied-to-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#18
John D McLennan
The term dual diagnosis can refer to the co-occurrence of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder. While such a term may have some advocacy rationale aimed at facilitating improved mental health care for those with intellectual disabilities, it is proposed that the construct has flawed underpinnings, and its application may problematize mental health service delivery. A core concern is the promotion of categorical diagnostic models, whereas dimensional models may more accurately reflect underlying continuums for both cognitive and mental health challenges...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673255/reducing-muslim-mammography-disparities-outcomes-from-a-religiously-tailored-mosque-based-intervention
#19
Aasim I Padela, Sana Malik, Syeda Akila Ally, Michael Quinn, Stephen Hall, Monica Peek
OBJECTIVE: To describe the design of, and participant-level outcomes related to, a religiously tailored, peer-led group education program aimed at enhancing Muslim women's mammography intention. METHOD: Using a community-engaged approach and mixed methods, we identified and addressed barrier beliefs impeding mammography screening among Muslim American women. Our religiously tailored, mosque-based, peer-led intervention involved facilitated discussions and expert-led didactics conveying health-related religious teachings, and information about the benefits and process of mammography...
April 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673135/factors-associated-with-hpv-vaccine-refusal-among-young-adult-women-after-ten-years-of-vaccine-implementation
#20
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Tiziana Francesca Fazio, Nicolò Casuccio, Claudio D'Angelo, Francesco Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio
In Italy, the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented for twelve years old girls in 2007, but its coverage was lower than the recommended level. Sicily is one of the Italian administrative regions with lower vaccination coverage, with a value of 59% for those born in 1996 increasing to 62% coverage for those born in 1999. The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with the refusal of HPV vaccination among young adult women of Palermo, Italy. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Policlinico “Paolo Giaccone” Hospital (Palermo 1) and the questionnaire was validated in a convenience sample representing 10% of the young women...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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