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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550778/construction-of-efficient-xylose-fermenting-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-through-a-synthetic-isozyme-system-of-xylose-reductase-from-scheffersomyces-stipitis
#1
Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for ethanol production from xylose, the abundant sugar in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Development of engineered S. cerevisiae able to utilize xylose effectively is crucial for economical and sustainable production of fuels. To this end, the xylose-metabolic genes (XYL1, XYL2 and XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis have been introduced into S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strains, however, often exhibit undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550776/influence-of-sugarcane-bagasse-variability-on-sugar-recovery-for-cellulosic-ethanol-production
#2
Liliane Pires Andrade, Elaine Crespim, Nilton de Oliveira, Rafael Carinha de Campos, Juliana Conceição Teodoro, Célia Maria Araújo Galvão, Rubens Maciel Filho
In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550509/possible-involvement-of-acss2-gene-in-alcoholism
#3
Andrea Frozino Ribeiro, Roseli Boerngen de Lacerda, Diego Correia, Ana Lúcia Brunialti-Godard, Débora Marques de Miranda, Valdir Ribeiro Campos, Valéria Fernandes de Souza, Angela Maria Ribeiro
Alcoholism is a psychiatric disorder that composes one of the principal causes of health disabilities in the world population. Furthermore, the available pharmacotherapy is limited. Therefore, this research was carried out to better understand the basis of the underlying neurobiological processes of this disorder and to discover potential therapeutic targets. Real-time PCR analysis was performed in the amygdala nuclei region of the brain of mice exposed to a chronic three-bottle free-choice model (water, 5 and 10% v/v ethanol)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550049/recovery-of-ethanol-induced-akkermansia-muciniphila-depletion-ameliorates-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
Christoph Grander, Timon E Adolph, Verena Wieser, Patrick Lowe, Laura Wrzosek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Doyle V Ward, Felix Grabherr, Romana R Gerner, Alexandra Pfister, Barbara Enrich, Dragos Ciocan, Sophie Macheiner, Lisa Mayr, Matthias Drach, Patrizia Moser, Alexander R Moschen, Gabriel Perlemuter, Gyongyi Szabo, Anne Marie Cassard, Herbert Tilg
OBJECTIVE: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a global health problem with limited therapeutic options. Intestinal barrier integrity and the microbiota modulate susceptibility to ALD. Akkermansia muciniphila, a Gram-negative intestinal commensal, promotes barrier function partly by enhancing mucus production. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial alterations in ALD and to define the impact of A. muciniphila administration on the course of ALD. DESIGN: The intestinal microbiota was analysed in an unbiased approach by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing in a Lieber-DeCarli ALD mouse model, and faecal A...
May 26, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549967/hippocampal-nicotinic-receptors-have-a-modulatory-role-for-ethanol-and-mdma-interaction-in-memory-retrieval
#5
Maryam Rostami, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Khadijeh Alsadat Sharifi
The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549911/insecticidal-activity-of-stemona-collinsiae-root-extract-against-parasarcophaga-ruficornis-diptera-sarcophagidae
#6
Aurapa Sakulpanich, Siriluck Attrapadung, Wandee Gritsanapan
In Thai indigenous knowledge, Stemona plant has traditionally been used as insecticide on plantations. Recently, S. collinsiae extract was showed to be an anti-feedant and growth inhibitor and to exert strong insecticidal activity. Here, the insecticidal activity of S. collinsiae root extract against Parasarcophaga ruficornis is studied. The larvicidal and pupacidal activities of the ethanolic root extract of S. collinsiae were tested using contact toxicity tests, and adulticidal activity was tested using the topical contact toxicity and sugar bait methods The ethanolic extract at concentration ranging of 0...
May 23, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549861/the-ethanol-extract-of-leonurus-sibiricus-l-induces-antioxidant-antinociceptive-and-topical-anti-inflammatory-effects
#7
Alan Santos Oliveira, Luana Mendonça Cercato, Marília Trindade de Santana Souza, Allan John de Oliveira Melo, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Marcelo Cavalcante Duarte, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araujo, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Enilton Aparecido Camargo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leonurus sibiricus L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as motherwort, or "erva-de-macaé" or "rubim" in Brazil, is a plant used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but few studies have evaluated this anti-inflammatory activity or other activities that may be relevant. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and topical anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of L. sibiricus (EELs)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549852/circular-dichroism-analysis-of-the-calicheamicin-dna-interaction-revisited
#8
Gloria Proni, Kristi Tami, Nina Berova, George A Ellestad
Calicheamicin, γ1(I), is a remarkable DNA binding-cleaving, enediyne-containing, natural product that exhibits potent antitumor activity. In this study, we used electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy to monitor potential drug-induced DNA conformational changes and DNA induced conformational changes in the calicheamicin aglycone. Three DNA dodecamer sequences were examined: one containing a primary TCCT binding/cleavage site and two dodecamers containing less prominent CTCT and TCTC sites. The binding was monitored by taking advantage of the drug's unique negative exciton couplet (-313nm/+275nm) in phosphate buffer/ethanol 10%...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549295/structural-characterization-of-astaxanthin-aggregates-as-revealed-by-analysis-and-simulation-of-optical-spectra
#9
Liping Lu, Taoping Hu, Zhigang Xu
Carotenoids can self-assemble in hydrated polar solvents to form J- or H-type aggregates, inducing dramatic changes in photophysical properties. Here, we measured absorption and emission spectra of astaxanthin in ethanol-water solution using ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectrometers. Two types of aggregates were distinguished in mixed solution at different water contents by absorption spectra. After addition of water, all probed samples immediately formed H-aggregates with maximum blue shift of 31nm...
May 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547389/anti-inflammation-compounds-from-the-seedpods-of-pongamia-pinnata-l-pierre-guided-by-the-bioactivity-and-uplc-hresims
#10
Hong Guo, Zisong Bai, Yangyang Xu, Xueqin Wu, Ning Li, Yan Zhu, Xiaoming Wang, Peng Zhang
Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre has anti-inflammatory activity and could significantly decrease serum tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-10 in arthritic rats. Previous research indicated the typical chemical constituent in P. pinnata is furanoflavone. Guided by anti-inflammatory active assay and UPLC-HRESIMS chromatography, 22 compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of P. pinnata seedpods. One novel furanoflavone, 4'-hydroxypinnatin, was elucidated by HRESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. The 21 known compounds, including 9 furanoflavone, were identified by comparing their NMR data with the previous data in reference...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546829/vinasse-fertirrigation-alters-soil-resistome-dynamics-an-analysis-based-on-metagenomic-profiles
#11
Lucas P P Braga, Rafael F Alves, Marina T F Dellias, Acacio A Navarrete, Thiago O Basso, Siu M Tsai
Every year around 300 Gl of vinasse, a by-product of ethanol distillation in sugarcane mills, are flushed into more than 9 Mha of sugarcane cropland in Brazil. This practice links fermentation waste management to fertilization for plant biomass production, and it is known as fertirrigation. Here we evaluate public datasets of soil metagenomes mining for changes in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of soils from sugarcane mesocosms repeatedly amended with vinasse. The metagenomes were annotated using the ResFam database...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546769/treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain-new-approaches-on-the-horizon
#12
REVIEW
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Shane Mandalia, Jennifer Raasch, Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido
Back pain is the second leading cause of disability among American adults and is currently treated either with conservative therapy or interventional pain procedures. However, the question that remains is whether we, as physicians, have adequate therapeutic options to offer to the patients who suffer from chronic low back pain but fail both conservative therapy and interventional pain procedures before they consider surgical options such as discectomy, disc arthroplasty, or spinal fusion. The purpose of this article is to review the potential novel therapies that are on the horizon for the treatment of chronic low back pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546434/behavioral-deficits-following-withdrawal-from-chronic-ethanol-are-influenced-by-slo-channel-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Luisa L Scott, Scott J Davis, Rachel C Yen, Greg J Ordemann, Sarah K Nordquist, Deepthi Bannai, Jonathan T Pierce
Symptoms of withdrawal from chronic alcohol use are a driving force for relapse in alcohol dependence. Thus, uncovering molecular targets to lessen their severity is key to breaking the cycle of dependence. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether one highly conserved ethanol target, the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (known as the BK channel or Slo1), modulates ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with a previous report, we found that C. elegans displays withdrawal-related behavioral impairments after cessation of chronic ethanol exposure...
May 25, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545967/preparation-and-characterization-of-non-crystalline-granular-starch-and-corresponding-carboxymethyl-starch
#14
Bao Zhang, Xiaomin Li, Qiutao Xie, Han Tao, Wu Wang, Han-Qing Chen
Native corn starch slurried in 50% ethanol solution was treated at 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 85°C, respectively. The resultant starches were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The Maltese cross of ethanol-heating treated starch gradually weaken with increasing temperature and completely disappeared at 85°C. SEM data indicated the treated granular exhibited a rougher surface with more pores and grooves than native starch granular, but the shape of the treated starch was still intact...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545669/are-russian-propolis-ethanol-extracts-the-future-for-the-prevention-of-medical-and-biomedical-implant-contaminations
#15
Ashwin Ambi, Julia Bryan, Katherine Borbon, Daniel Centeno, Tianchi Liu, Tung Po Chen, Thomas Cattabiani, Christian Traba
BACKGROUND: Most studies reveal that the mechanism of action of propolis against bacteria is functional rather than structural and is attributed to a synergism between the compounds in the extracts. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Propolis is said to inhibit bacterial adherence, division, inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, and protein synthesis. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Russian propolis ethanol extracts is structural rather than functional and may be attributed to the metals found in propolis...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545435/urinary-metabolomics-study-on-the-protective-role-of-orthosiphon-stamineus-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats-via-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#16
Amalina Ahmad Azam, Raghunath Pariyani, Intan Safinar Ismail, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas, Khozirah Shaari
BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a herb known in ethnomedicine for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, a (1)H NMR based urine metabolomics tool has been used for the first time to identify the metabolic protective mechanism of OS in DM using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental model in rats. METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544221/single-atom-electrocatalysts
#17
Chengzhou Zhu, Shaofang Fu, Qiurong Shi, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin
Recent years have witnessed the increasing production of the sustainable and renewable energy. The limitations of electrochemical performances are closely associated with the search for highly efficient electrocatalysts with more rational control of size, shape, composition and structure. Specifically, the rapidly emerging studies on single-atom catalysts (SACs) have sparked new interests in electrocatalysis because of the unique properties such as high catalytic activity, selectivity and 100% atom utilization...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543932/tolerance-to-winemaking-stress-conditions-of-patagonian-strains-of-saccharomyces-eubayanus-and-saccharomyces-uvarum
#18
Andrea Cecilia Origone, Silvana María Del Mónaco, José Ricardo Ávila, Melisa González Flores, María Eugenia Rodríguez, Christian Ariel Lopes
AIMS: Evaluating the winemaking stress tolerance of a set of both S. eubayanus and S. uvarum strains from diverse Patagonian habitats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Yeast strains growth was analysed under increasing ethanol concentrations; all of them were able to grow until 8% v/v ethanol. The effect of different temperature and pH conditions as well as at SO2 and hexose concentrations was evaluated by means of a Central Composite Experimental Design. Only two S. uvarum strains (NPCC 1289 and 1321) were able to grow in most stress conditions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543171/phenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-properties-of-arabinoxylan-hydrolyzates-from-defatted-rice-bran
#19
Prachit Yuwang, Ira Sulaeva, Ute Henniges, Stefan Böhmdorfer, Thomas Rosenau, Benjamart Chitsomboon, Sunanta Tongta
BACKGROUND: The water unextractable arabinoxylans (WUAX) contain beneficial phenolic compounds that can be used for food rather than for animal feed. The antioxidant activities of defatted rice bran obtained by xylanase-aided extraction is reported herein. The chemical and molecular characteristics of extracted fractions were investigated. RESULTS: The WUAX hydrolyzate precipitated by 0-60% ethanol (F60), 60-90% ethanol (F6090), and more than 90% ethanol (F90) had the decreased molar masses with increasing ethanol concentration...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543099/evidence-of-altered-mitochondrial-protein-expression-after-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-the-aged-estrogen-deficient-female-rat-heart
#20
Alexandra M Garvin, J L Miller-Lee, D R Sharda, G M Kanski, J C Hunter, Donna H Korzick
BACKGROUND: Estrogen loss has been implicated to increase the risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to identify novel mitochondrial protein targets for the treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in aged women using a state-of-the-art proteomics approach. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion exacerbates maladaptive mitochondrial protein expression in the aged female heart METHODS: Adult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly assigned an EtOH or control Lieber-DeCarli 'all liquid' diet for 20 wks...
May 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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