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Diyendo Massilani, Silvia Guimaraes, Jean-Philip Brugal, E Andrew Bennett, Malgorzata Tokarska, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Gennady Baryshnikov, Gennady Boeskorov, Jean-Christophe Castel, Sergey Davydov, Stéphane Madelaine, Olivier Putelat, Natalia N Spasskaya, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl
BACKGROUND: Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe's megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European large mammals, narrowly escaped extinction at the onset of the 20th century owing to hunting and habitat fragmentation. Little is known, however, about its origin, evolutionary history and population dynamics during the Pleistocene. RESULTS: Through ancient DNA analysis we show that the emblematic European bison has experienced several waves of population expansion, contraction, and extinction during the last 50,000 years in Europe, culminating in a major reduction of genetic diversity during the Holocene...
October 21, 2016: BMC Biology
Julien Soubrier, Graham Gower, Kefei Chen, Stephen M Richards, Bastien Llamas, Kieren J Mitchell, Simon Y W Ho, Pavel Kosintsev, Michael S Y Lee, Gennady Baryshnikov, Ruth Bollongino, Pere Bover, Joachim Burger, David Chivall, Evelyne Crégut-Bonnoure, Jared E Decker, Vladimir B Doronichev, Katerina Douka, Damien A Fordham, Federica Fontana, Carole Fritz, Jan Glimmerveen, Liubov V Golovanova, Colin Groves, Antonio Guerreschi, Wolfgang Haak, Tom Higham, Emilia Hofman-Kamińska, Alexander Immel, Marie-Anne Julien, Johannes Krause, Oleksandra Krotova, Frauke Langbein, Greger Larson, Adam Rohrlach, Amelie Scheu, Robert D Schnabel, Jeremy F Taylor, Małgorzata Tokarska, Gilles Tosello, Johannes van der Plicht, Ayla van Loenen, Jean-Denis Vigne, Oliver Wooley, Ludovic Orlando, Rafał Kowalczyk, Beth Shapiro, Alan Cooper
The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<11.7 thousand years ago (kya)) remains a mystery. We use complete ancient mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide nuclear DNA surveys to reveal that the wisent is the product of hybridization between the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus) and ancestors of modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Beate Wickop, Steffen Härterich, Christian Sommer, Anne Daubmann, Michael Baehr, Claudia Langebrake
BACKGROUND: Several classifications to identify and avoid use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in the elderly have been published. To what extent these classifications match each other and whether there are differences in the prevalence of PIM use at admission, during the inpatient stay and at discharge are largely unreported. OBJECTIVES: To determine the PIM prevalence in elderly patients at a university hospital, with a special focus on different classification systems and the chronological sequence, and to examine a possible association between PIM use and the reason for admission, as well as severe side effects and consequences of PIM use during hospitalization...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Dirk Moßhammer, Hannah Haumann, Klaus Mörike, Stefanie Joos
BACKGROUND: Guideline-oriented treatments can lead to polypharmacy, i.e., the simultaneous long-term use of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy mainly affects elderly patients. The goal of this review is to survey the current scientific evidence about polypharmacy, focusing on clinical endpoints, and to point out implications for medical practice and research. METHODS: This selective literature review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "polypharmacy AND general practice...
September 23, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Diana Wucherer, Tilly Eichler, Johnanes Hertel, Ingo Kilimann, Steffen Richter, Bernhard Michalowsky, Jochen René Thyrian, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD). OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of PIM among primary care patients who were screened positive for dementia and (2) the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with the use of PIM. METHODS: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita, Adina Popa
BACKGROUND: The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication associated- risks is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the most frequent potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) recommended to ambulatory and institutionalized Romanian elderly, through an observational retrospective design. METHODS: All reimbursed medications prescribed to a sample of ambulatory elderly accessing two community pharmacies and all medications recommended to a group of institutionalized elderly (urban facilities, Romania, same month) were analyzed...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Karen Voigt, Mandy Gottschall, Juliane Köberlein-Neu, Jeannine Schübel, Nadine Quint, Antje Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Based on changes in pharmacokinetics and -dynamics in elderly patients, there are potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) that should be avoided in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Current studies showed prescription rates of PIM between 22.5 and 28.4 % in the primary care setting. The evidence concerning reasons for PIM prescription by FPs is limited. METHODS: This mixed method study consisted of three research parts: 1) semi-standardized content analysis of patients' records, 2) qualitative interviews with FPs using a) open questions and b) selected patient-specific case vignettes and 3) qualitative interviews with FPs' medical assistants...
2016: BMC Family Practice
N V Serdyuk, O R Potapova, A S Kharlamova, E N Maschenko, K S Kirikov, I S Pavlov, A V Protopopov, V V Plotnikov, S D Kolesov, A I Klimovskii
The paper presents the first morphological description of the internal organs of a frozen corpse of the steppe bison Bison priscus (Bojanus, 1827) from the Holocene of northern Yakutia. Necropsy revealed that most of the internal organs, including the brain, heart with the main vessels, and reproductive system were well preserved. It demonstrated that the anatomy of this bison was close to that of the genera Bos and Bison. Trauma or pathological changes in the organs were not detected. The cause of death of the bison remains unknown...
March 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Katharina Pohl-Dernick, Florian Meier, Renke Maas, Oliver Schöffski, Martin Emmert
BACKGROUND: Several lists of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for elderly patients have been developed worldwide in recent years. Those lists intend to reduce prescriptions of drugs that carry an unnecessarily high risk of adverse drug events in elderly patients. In 2010, an expert panel published the PRISCUS list for the German drug market. This study calculates the amount of drug reimbursement for PIM in Germany and potential cost effects from the perspective of statutory health insurance when these are replaced by the substitutes recommended by the PRISCUS list...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Taylor J M Dick, Christofer J Clemente
BACKGROUND: The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrically scaled up versions of smaller animals, increases in body size would cause an increase in musculoskeletal stress, a result of the greater scaling of mass in comparison to area. In large animals these stresses would come dangerously close to points of failure. By examining the architecture of 22 hindlimb muscles in 27 individuals from 9 species of varanid lizards ranging from the tiny 7...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Heinz G Endres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Valerie Steeb, Erik Bauer, Caroline Böttner, Petra Thürmann
OBJECTIVE: The safety of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients is still debated. Using the PRISCUS list, we examined the incident all-cause hospitalization risk associated with PIMs compared to PIM alternatives during the 180 days post individual first pharmacy dispensing (index date). METHODS: Routine claims data from a German health insurer on 392,337 ambulatory patients aged ≥65 years, were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization associated with incident PIM use...
2016: PloS One
Chirn-Bin Chang, Shu-Yu Yang, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Ru-Shu Wu, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Hsiu-Ying Hsu, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Ding-Cheng Chan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the national prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) prescribed in ambulatory care clinics in Taiwan according to three different sets of regional criteria and the correlates of PIM use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This analysis included older patients who visited ambulatory care clinics in 2009 and represented half of the older population included on the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database...
2015: BMJ Open
Eline Tommelein, Els Mehuys, Mirko Petrovic, Annemie Somers, Pieter Colin, Koen Boussery
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is one of the main risk factors for adverse drug events (ADEs) in older people. PURPOSE: This systematic literature review aims to determine prevalence and type of PIP in community-dwelling older people across Europe, as well as identifying risk factors for PIP. METHODS: The PubMed and Web of Science database were searched systematically for relevant manuscripts (January 1, 2000-December 31, 2014)...
December 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Susanna M Wallerstedt, Björn Belfrage, Johan Fastbom
PURPOSE: To evaluate the concurrent validity of three European sets of drug-specific indicators of prescribing quality METHODS: In 200 hip fracture patients (≥65 years), consecutively recruited to a randomized controlled study in Sahlgrenska University Hospital in 2009, quality of drug treatment at study entry was assessed according to a gold standard as well as to three drug-specific indicator sets (Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, French consensus panel list, and German PRISCUS list)...
September 2015: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Pauline Palacio, Véronique Berthonaud, Frédéric Maksud, Thomas Stafford, Robert Bégouën, Jean-Marc Elalouf
Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA...
2015: PloS One
Eva Blozik, Roland Rapold, Oliver Reich
BACKGROUND: Drugs can be supplied either directly from the prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD]) or via a pharmacy. It is unclear whether the dispensing channel is associated with quality problems. Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is associated with adverse outcomes in older persons and can be considered a marker for quality deficits in prescribing. We investigated whether prevalence of PIM differs across dispensing channels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed basic health insurance claims of 50,747 person quarter years with PIM use of residents of the Swiss cantons Aargau and Lucerne of the years 2012 and 2013...
2015: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Anna Renom-Guiteras, Gabriele Meyer, Petra A Thürmann
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to develop a European list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for older people, which can be used for the analysis and comparison of prescribing patterns across European countries and for clinical practice. METHODS: A preliminary PIM list was developed, based on the German PRISCUS list of potentially inappropriate medications and other PIM lists from the USA, Canada and France. Thirty experts on geriatric prescribing from Estonia, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden participated; eight experts performed a structured expansion of the list, suggesting further medications; twenty-seven experts participated in a two-round Delphi survey assessing the appropriateness of drugs and suggesting dose adjustments and therapeutic alternatives...
July 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A V Kachalkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Mikrobiologiia
Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse, Lilli Neumann, Björn Klugmann, Andreas Liebetrau, Stefan Golgert, Ulrike Dapp, Birgit Frilling
BACKGROUND: Hospitals are now faced with increasing numbers of cognitively impaired patients aged 80 and older who are at increased risk of treatment complications. This study concerns the outcomes when such patients are treated in a specialized ward for cognitive geriatric medicine. METHODS: Observation of a cohort of 2084 patients from 2009 to 2014, supplemented by a sample of 380 patients from the hospital cohort of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) for the years 2010 and 2011...
February 13, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Lucas Morin, Johan Fastbom, Marie-Laure Laroche, Kristina Johnell
AIMS: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use among older people in Sweden according to five different published sets of explicit criteria from Europe and the US. METHODS: This was a nationwide cross-sectional, register-based study across the whole of Sweden in 2008. All individuals aged 65 years and older were included (n = 1 346 709, both community-dwelling and institutionalized persons). We applied all drug-specific criteria included in the 2012 Beers Criteria, the Laroche's list, the PRISCUS list, the NORGEP criteria and the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare criteria...
August 2015: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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