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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289222/fossil-and-genomic-evidence-constrains-the-timing-of-bison-arrival-in-north-america
#1
Duane Froese, Mathias Stiller, Peter D Heintzman, Alberto V Reyes, Grant D Zazula, André E R Soares, Matthias Meyer, Elizabeth Hall, Britta J L Jensen, Lee J Arnold, Ross D E MacPhee, Beth Shapiro
The arrival of bison in North America marks one of the most successful large-mammal dispersals from Asia within the last million years, yet the timing and nature of this event remain poorly determined. Here, we used a combined paleontological and paleogenomic approach to provide a robust timeline for the entry and subsequent evolution of bison within North America. We characterized two fossil-rich localities in Canada's Yukon and identified the oldest well-constrained bison fossil in North America, a 130,000-y-old steppe bison, Bison cf...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271916/prevalence-of-inappropriate-medication-use-in-residential-long-term-care-facilities-for-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#2
Hannelore Storms, Kristel Marquet, Bert Aertgeerts, Neree Claes
BACKGROUND: Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy of the elderly population enhances the probability of elderly in residential long-term care facilities experiencing inappropriate medication use. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to systematically review literature to assess the prevalence of inappropriate medication use in residential long-term care facilities for the elderly. METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) were searched for literature from 2004 to 2016 to identify studies examining inappropriate medication use in residential long-term care facilities for the elderly...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224283/health-service-use-costs-and-adverse-events-associated-with-potentially-inappropriate-medication-in-old-age-in-germany-retrospective-matched-cohort-study
#3
Dirk Heider, Herbert Matschinger, Andreas D Meid, Renate Quinzler, Jürgen-Bernhard Adler, Christian Günster, Walter E Haefeli, Hans-Helmut König
BACKGROUND: Drug-related problems are an important healthcare safety concern in the growing population of older people. Prescription of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is one aspect of this concern that is considered to increase the risk of adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the Health Economics of Potentially Inappropriate Medication (HEPIME) study was to analyze the association between the prescription of PIMs according to the German PRISCUS list and healthcare utilization, healthcare costs, and the occurrence of adverse events in old age...
April 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212616/general-practitioners-views-on-long-term-prescription-and-use-of-problematic-and-potentially-inappropriate-medication-for-oldest-old-patients-a-qualitative-interview-study-with-gps-cim-triad-study
#4
Nadine Janis Pohontsch, Kathrin Heser, Antje Löffler, Britta Haenisch, Debora Parker, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Wolfgang Maier, Frank Jessen, Martin Scherer
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is defined as medication with uncertain therapeutic effects and/or potential adverse drug reactions outweighing the clinical benefits. The prescription rate of PIM for oldest-old patients is high despite the existence of lists of PIM (e.g. the PRISCUS list) and efforts to raise awareness. This study aims at identifying general practitioners' views on PIM and aspects affecting the (long-term) use of PIM. METHODS: As part of the CIM-TRIAD study, we conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 47 general practitioners, discussing 25 patients with and 22 without PIM (according to the PRISCUS list)...
February 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187706/genome-data-on-the-extinct-bison-schoetensacki-establish-it-as-a-sister-species-of-the-extant-european-bison-bison-bonasus
#5
Pauline Palacio, Véronique Berthonaud, Claude Guérin, Josie Lambourdière, Frédéric Maksud, Michel Philippe, Delphine Plaire, Thomas Stafford, Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Jean-Marc Elalouf
BACKGROUND: The European bison (Bison bonasus), now found in Europe and the Caucasus, has been proposed to originate either from the extinct steppe/extant American bison lineage or from the extinct Bison schoetensacki lineage. Bison schoetensacki remains are documented in Eurasian Middle Pleistocene sites, but their presence in Upper Pleistocene sites has been questioned. Despite extensive genetic studies carried out on the steppe and European bison, no remains from the fossil record morphologically identified as Bison schoetensacki has been analyzed up to now...
February 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769298/past-climate-changes-population-dynamics-and-the-origin-of-bison-in-europe
#6
Diyendo Massilani, Silvia Guimaraes, Jean-Philip Brugal, E Andrew Bennett, Malgorzata Tokarska, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Gennady Baryshnikov, Gennady Boeskorov, Jean-Christophe Castel, Sergey Davydov, Stéphane Madelaine, Olivier Putelat, Natalia N Spasskaya, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl
BACKGROUND: Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe's megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European large mammals, narrowly escaped extinction at the onset of the 20th century owing to hunting and habitat fragmentation. Little is known, however, about its origin, evolutionary history and population dynamics during the Pleistocene. RESULTS: Through ancient DNA analysis we show that the emblematic European bison has experienced several waves of population expansion, contraction, and extinction during the last 50,000 years in Europe, culminating in a major reduction of genetic diversity during the Holocene...
October 21, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754477/early-cave-art-and-ancient-dna-record-the-origin-of-european-bison
#7
Julien Soubrier, Graham Gower, Kefei Chen, Stephen M Richards, Bastien Llamas, Kieren J Mitchell, Simon Y W Ho, Pavel Kosintsev, Michael S Y Lee, Gennady Baryshnikov, Ruth Bollongino, Pere Bover, Joachim Burger, David Chivall, Evelyne Crégut-Bonnoure, Jared E Decker, Vladimir B Doronichev, Katerina Douka, Damien A Fordham, Federica Fontana, Carole Fritz, Jan Glimmerveen, Liubov V Golovanova, Colin Groves, Antonio Guerreschi, Wolfgang Haak, Tom Higham, Emilia Hofman-Kamińska, Alexander Immel, Marie-Anne Julien, Johannes Krause, Oleksandra Krotova, Frauke Langbein, Greger Larson, Adam Rohrlach, Amelie Scheu, Robert D Schnabel, Jeremy F Taylor, Małgorzata Tokarska, Gilles Tosello, Johannes van der Plicht, Ayla van Loenen, Jean-Denis Vigne, Oliver Wooley, Ludovic Orlando, Rafał Kowalczyk, Beth Shapiro, Alan Cooper
The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<11.7 thousand years ago (kya)) remains a mystery. We use complete ancient mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide nuclear DNA surveys to reveal that the wisent is the product of hybridization between the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus) and ancestors of modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747830/potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-in-multimorbid-elderly-inpatients-differences-between-the-forta-priscus-and-stopp-ratings
#8
Beate Wickop, Steffen Härterich, Christian Sommer, Anne Daubmann, Michael Baehr, Claudia Langebrake
BACKGROUND: Several classifications to identify and avoid use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in the elderly have been published. To what extent these classifications match each other and whether there are differences in the prevalence of PIM use at admission, during the inpatient stay and at discharge are largely unreported. OBJECTIVES: To determine the PIM prevalence in elderly patients at a university hospital, with a special focus on different classification systems and the chronological sequence, and to examine a possible association between PIM use and the reason for admission, as well as severe side effects and consequences of PIM use during hospitalization...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743469/polypharmacy-an-upward-trend-with-unpredictable-effects
#9
Dirk Moßhammer, Hannah Haumann, Klaus Mörike, Stefanie Joos
BACKGROUND: Guideline-oriented treatments can lead to polypharmacy, i.e., the simultaneous long-term use of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy mainly affects elderly patients. The goal of this review is to survey the current scientific evidence about polypharmacy, focusing on clinical endpoints, and to point out implications for medical practice and research. METHODS: This selective literature review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "polypharmacy AND general practice...
September 23, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716668/potentially-inappropriate-medication-in-community-dwelling-primary-care-patients-who-were-screened-positive-for-dementia
#10
Diana Wucherer, Tilly Eichler, Johannes Hertel, Ingo Kilimann, Steffen Richter, Bernhard Michalowsky, Jochen René Thyrian, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD). OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of PIM among primary care patients who were screened positive for dementia and (2) the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with the use of PIM. METHODS: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544266/potentially-inappropriate-medications-in-elderly-ambulatory-and-institutionalized-patients-an-observational-study
#11
Daniela Petruta Primejdie, Marius Traian Bojita, Adina Popa
BACKGROUND: The elderly are frequently exposed to drug related problems causing hospitalizations and increased costs of care. Information about Romanian prescribing practices among the elderly and potential medication associated- risks is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the most frequent potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) recommended to ambulatory and institutionalized Romanian elderly, through an observational retrospective design. METHODS: All reimbursed medications prescribed to a sample of ambulatory elderly accessing two community pharmacies and all medications recommended to a group of institutionalized elderly (urban facilities, Romania, same month) were analyzed...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449802/why-do-family-doctors-prescribe-potentially-inappropriate-medication-to-elderly-patients
#12
Karen Voigt, Mandy Gottschall, Juliane Köberlein-Neu, Jeannine Schübel, Nadine Quint, Antje Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Based on changes in pharmacokinetics and -dynamics in elderly patients, there are potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) that should be avoided in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Current studies showed prescription rates of PIM between 22.5 and 28.4 % in the primary care setting. The evidence concerning reasons for PIM prescription by FPs is limited. METHODS: This mixed method study consisted of three research parts: 1) semi-standardized content analysis of patients' records, 2) qualitative interviews with FPs using a) open questions and b) selected patient-specific case vignettes and 3) qualitative interviews with FPs' medical assistants...
2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193884/new-data-on-the-internal-organs-of-a-frozen-yukagir-bison-mummy-bison-priscus-bojanus-1827-yakutia-russia
#13
N V Serdyuk, O R Potapova, A S Kharlamova, E N Maschenko, K S Kirikov, I S Pavlov, A V Protopopov, V V Plotnikov, S D Kolesov, A I Klimovskii
The paper presents the first morphological description of the internal organs of a frozen corpse of the steppe bison Bison priscus (Bojanus, 1827) from the Holocene of northern Yakutia. Necropsy revealed that most of the internal organs, including the brain, heart with the main vessels, and reproductive system were well preserved. It demonstrated that the anatomy of this bison was close to that of the genera Bos and Bison. Trauma or pathological changes in the organs were not detected. The cause of death of the bison remains unknown...
March 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039188/potentially-inappropriate-medication-in-the-elderly-in-germany-an-economic-appraisal-of-the-priscus-list
#14
Katharina Pohl-Dernick, Florian Meier, Renke Maas, Oliver Schöffski, Martin Emmert
BACKGROUND: Several lists of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for elderly patients have been developed worldwide in recent years. Those lists intend to reduce prescriptions of drugs that carry an unnecessarily high risk of adverse drug events in elderly patients. In 2010, an expert panel published the PRISCUS list for the German drug market. This study calculates the amount of drug reimbursement for PIM in Germany and potential cost effects from the perspective of statutory health insurance when these are replaced by the substitutes recommended by the PRISCUS list...
April 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893606/how-to-build-your-dragon-scaling-of-muscle-architecture-from-the-world-s-smallest-to-the-world-s-largest-monitor-lizard
#15
Taylor J M Dick, Christofer J Clemente
BACKGROUND: The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrically scaled up versions of smaller animals, increases in body size would cause an increase in musculoskeletal stress, a result of the greater scaling of mass in comparison to area. In large animals these stresses would come dangerously close to points of failure. By examining the architecture of 22 hindlimb muscles in 27 individuals from 9 species of varanid lizards ranging from the tiny 7...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840396/association-between-potentially-inappropriate-medication-pim-use-and-risk-of-hospitalization-in-older-adults-an-observational-study-based-on-routine-data-comparing-pim-use-with-use-of-pim-alternatives
#16
Heinz G Endres, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Valerie Steeb, Erik Bauer, Caroline Böttner, Petra Thürmann
OBJECTIVE: The safety of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients is still debated. Using the PRISCUS list, we examined the incident all-cause hospitalization risk associated with PIMs compared to PIM alternatives during the 180 days post individual first pharmacy dispensing (index date). METHODS: Routine claims data from a German health insurer on 392,337 ambulatory patients aged ≥65 years, were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization associated with incident PIM use...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546136/application-of-three-different-sets-of-explicit-criteria-for-assessing-inappropriate-prescribing-in-older-patients-a-nationwide-prevalence-study-of-ambulatory-care-visits-in-taiwan
#17
Chirn-Bin Chang, Shu-Yu Yang, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Ru-Shu Wu, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Hsiu-Ying Hsu, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Ding-Cheng Chan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the national prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) prescribed in ambulatory care clinics in Taiwan according to three different sets of regional criteria and the correlates of PIM use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This analysis included older patients who visited ambulatory care clinics in 2009 and represented half of the older population included on the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database...
2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407687/potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-in-community-dwelling-older-people-across-europe-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Eline Tommelein, Els Mehuys, Mirko Petrovic, Annemie Somers, Pieter Colin, Koen Boussery
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is one of the main risk factors for adverse drug events (ADEs) in older people. PURPOSE: This systematic literature review aims to determine prevalence and type of PIP in community-dwelling older people across Europe, as well as identifying risk factors for PIP. METHODS: The PubMed and Web of Science database were searched systematically for relevant manuscripts (January 1, 2000-December 31, 2014)...
December 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147790/association-between-drug-specific-indicators-of-prescribing-quality-and-quality-of-drug-treatment-a-validation-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Susanna M Wallerstedt, Björn Belfrage, Johan Fastbom
PURPOSE: To evaluate the concurrent validity of three European sets of drug-specific indicators of prescribing quality METHODS: In 200 hip fracture patients (≥65 years), consecutively recruited to a randomized controlled study in Sahlgrenska University Hospital in 2009, quality of drug treatment at study entry was assessed according to a gold standard as well as to three drug-specific indicator sets (Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, French consensus panel list, and German PRISCUS list)...
September 2015: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26083419/hunting-the-extinct-steppe-bison-bison-priscus-mitochondrial-genome-in-the-trois-fr%C3%A3-res-paleolithic-painted-cave
#20
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Pauline Palacio, Véronique Berthonaud, Frédéric Maksud, Thomas Stafford, Robert Bégouën, Jean-Marc Elalouf
Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA...
2015: PloS One
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