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Sharon Arieli, Lilach Sagiv
This research investigates how the cultural mindset influences problem-solving. Drawing on the notion that cultural mindset influences the cognitive process individuals bring to bear at the moment of judgment, we propose that the congruency between the cultural mindset (individualistic vs. collectivistic) and problem type (rule-based vs. context-based) affects success in problem-solving. In 7 studies we incorporated the traditional approach to studying the impact of culture (i.e., comparing cultural groups) with contemporary approaches viewing cultural differences in a more dynamic and malleable manner...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
G Adamker, T Holzer, I Karakis, M Amitay, E Anis, S R Singer, Z Barnett-Itzhaki
Shigellosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries, mostly among infants and young children. The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people die from Shigellosis every year. In order to evaluate trends in Shigellosis in Israel in the years 2002-2015, we analysed national notifiable disease reporting data. Shigella sonnei was the most commonly identified Shigella species in Israel. Hospitalisation rates due to Shigella flexenri were higher in comparison with other Shigella species...
June 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Beata Trilesnik, Sabine C Koch, Thomas Stompe
BACKGROUND: Research on migration provides controversial findings regarding the links between mental health and migration as well as the factors influencing the mental health of migrants. Even though there is evidence for differences between migrant groups from different countries of origin, almost no empirical studies about individual migrant groups in Austria have been undertaken so far. METHODS: In the present population-based study we compared depression and anxiety of 96 ex-Soviet Jews to a sample of 101 Austrians matched by age and sex...
May 29, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Jennifer A Ruskey, Lior Greenbaum, Léanne Roncière, Armaghan Alam, Dan Spiegelman, Christopher Liong, Oren A Levy, Cheryl Waters, Stanley Fahn, Karen S Marder, Wendy Chung, Gilad Yahalom, Simon Israeli-Korn, Vered Livneh, Tsvia Fay-Karmon, Roy N Alcalay, Sharon Hassin-Baer, Ziv Gan-Or
BACKGROUND: Variants in GBA are the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), and are especially prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. However, most studies on GBA in AJ genotype only seven selected Gaucher-associated pathogenic variants rather than sequencing the whole gene, which may leave carriers of PD-associated GBA variants undiscovered. METHODS: GBA was fully sequenced using molecular inversion probes (MIPs) and Sanger sequencing in 735 AJ PD patients and 662 AJ controls, from Israel and New York...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Efrat Shadmi
The complex nature of studying health and healthcare disparities in general, and in the context of the Israeli healthcare system in particular, is depicted in two recent IJHPR articles. The first examines Emergency Department (ED) waiting times in a tertiary children's hospital and the second examines disparities in the health care for people with schizophrenia of an ethnic-national minority. Contrary to other Israeli studies on wide disparities in health and healthcare, these studies show no disparities -  ED waiting times did not differ among Arab and Jewish children and report no differences in performance of Hemoglobin A1C tests or in surgical interventions in patients with cardiovascular disease between Arabs and Jews with schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Yuval Ramot, Abraham Zlotogorski
While most alopecia areata (AA) cases resolve spontaneously, the more severe types of AA, alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), can be highly resistant to therapy. We report on a 33-year-old ultraorthodox Jewish man with an 11-year history of AA that resulted in complete loss of the scalp and body hair 7 years ago. Previous treatments with intralesional and systemic corticosteroids had only partial and temporary effects. The patient was treated with ruxolitinib, 20 mg twice daily, resulting in complete growth of the beard after 4 months of treatment...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Orit Twito, Yonatan Shapiro, Aviva Golan-Cohen, Yoav Dickstein, Rosane Ness-Abramof, Menachem Shapiro
Introduction: The co-existence of tissue-specific autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is well established. The published prevalence of anti-parietal cell antibodies (PC-Ab) is 20-25%, and that of celiac antibodies is 2-5%. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PC-Ab and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-Ab) in patients with ATD and to evaluate the correlation between anti-thyroid antibodies and the other antibodies. Material and methods: The files of 120 Israeli Jews and Arabs with ATD were evaluated for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), PC-Ab and tTG-Ab...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Eliyahu Stern
This essay addresses the reception of Karl Marx's writings among Russian Jewish revolutionaries in the 1870s. It explores the way Aaron Shemuel Lieberman (1843-1880), known as "the father of Jewish socialism," interpreted Marx through a kabbalistic prism. It argues that Jews were attracted to Marx in part because of the overlaps between historical materialism and certain strands of the kabbalistic tradition. It also sheds light on the early reception of Marx and the way his theory of revolution was reinterpreted to reflect the unique socio-economic conditions of the Russian Empire...
2018: Journal of the History of Ideas
Reut Shilo, Anika Weinsdörfer, Hannes Rakoczy, Gil Diesendruck
The present studies investigated the out-group homogeneity effect in 5- and 8-year-old Israeli and German children (n = 150) and adults (n = 96). Participants were asked to infer whether a given property (either biological or psychological) was true of an entire group-either the participants' in-group ("Jews" or "Germans") or their out-group ("Arabs" or "Turks"). To that end, participants had to select either a homogenous or a heterogeneous sample of group members...
May 7, 2018: Child Development
Ella Schwartz, Rabia Khalaila, Howard Litwin
OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to examine the links between contact frequency with one's social network and cognitive health in later life. It assessed both direct and indirect pathways and the possible role of ethnicity in the effect of the social network on cognitive function. METHOD: We used data from adults aged 50 and above, which was collected in Israel as part of the Survey of Ageing, Retirement and Health (SHARE). A moderated mediation analysis was conducted to test the direct and indirect associations between contact frequency and cognitive function, as well as the moderation of these associations by population group...
May 3, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Ruth Birk, Eliyahu M Heifetz
BACKGROUND: Biochemical laboratory values are an essential tool in medical diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up; however, they are known to vary between populations. Establishment of ethnicity-adjusted reference values is recommended by health organizations. AIM: To investigate the ethnicity element in biochemical lab values studying women of different ethnic groups. METHODS: Biochemical lab values (n = 27) of 503 adult Israeli women of three ethnicities (Jewish Ashkenazi, Jewish Sephardic, and Bedouin Arab) attending a single medical center were analyzed...
April 28, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
David H Rosmarin, Steven Pirutinsky, Moses Appel, Talia Kaplan, David Pelcovitz
Current estimates of childhood sexual abuse among Jews in the United States are only available for females and do not include a spectrum of religiosity. We examined sexual abuse, mental health, and religion, in a religiously diverse sample of male and female Jewish adults from North America, using a novel methodology to minimize sampling/response biases. A total of 372 diversely religious Jews participated. Prevalence of any form of childhood sexual abuse was statistically equivalent to national rates, except that females reported less involuntary penetration (OR = 0...
April 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jack Y Vanderhoek
In the early seventeenth century, the Jews formally established two separate communities in Amsterdam, the Portuguese Sephardi and the High German Ashkenazi congregations. Until the end of the eighteenth century, medical care for the Amsterdam indigent Jews had been controlled and regulated by the powerful Parnasim, the de facto rulers, of each community. The primary communal organizations that were exclusively responsible for medical care for the poor were the Bikur Holim societies. This approach for the care of the indigent Jewish sick became ineffective in the nineteenth century and was replaced by a hospital-based system...
April 19, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Ekaterina Zavershneva, René van der Veer
On the basis of both published and unpublished manuscripts written from 1914 to 1917, this article gives an overview of Lev Vygotsky's early ideas. It turns out that Vygotsky was very much involved in issues of Jewish culture and politics. Rather surprisingly, the young Vygotsky rejected all contemporary ideas to save the Jewish people from discrimination and persecution by creating an autonomous state in Palestine or elsewhere. Instead, until well into 1917, Vygotsky proposed the rather traditional option of strengthening the spiritual roots of the Jews by returning to the religious writings...
February 2018: History of the Human Sciences
Joshua Harold, Eric Fong
In this paper, we envisage how the sociohistorical experiences of groups are related to their residential patterns. We posit that the residential clustering of a group can be strongly related to the group's mnemonic institutions, which are organizational symbols of collective identity that link the present to the past. We present the case of Jewish residential clustering patterns in Toronto to demonstrate our arguments. We employ 2001 Canadian Census tract-level data to show Jewish residential clustering patterns in relation to the presence of a synagogue or Jewish community center, the mnemonic institutions of Jews...
May 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Assaf Buch, Lital Keinan-Boker, Yitshal Berner, Eli Carmeli, Rebecca Goldsmith, Naftali Stern
BACKGROUND: Increasing longevity presents new social and medical challenges in developed countries. The prevalence of frailty is of interest because of its association with health prognosis and outcomes, but so far there is no single best diagnostic tool for this entity. Therefore, estimated prevalence of frailty in countries varies considerably and ranges between 5% and 58%. In Israel, the nation-wide prevalence of frailty in the elderly population is presently unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the rate of the frailty in elderly Israelis...
April 12, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Sari Lieberman, Amnon Lahad, Ariela Tomer, Sivan Koka, Malka BenUziyahu, Aviad Raz, Ephrat Levy-Lahad
PurposePopulation BRCA1/BRCA2 screening identifies carriers irrespective of family history, yet this information is actionable for relatives. We examined familial communication rates and cascade testing in the screening setting and assessed sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors.MethodsParticipants in a BRCA1/BRCA2 screening study of healthy Ashkenazi Jews self-administered a family communication questionnaire. Intent to communicate was determined before genetic status was known, along with result communication (carriers and noncarriers) 6 months and 2 years after enrollment...
March 29, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Mahmud Mahamid, Daniela Amital, Bishara Bisharat, Naim Mahroum, Kassem Sharif, Adi Guy, Amin Adawi, Hussein Mahagna, Arsalan Abu Much, Samaa Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad
Israel represents a complex and pluralistic society comprising two major ethno-national groups, Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, which differ in terms of religious and cultural values as well as social constructs. According to the so-called "diversification hypothesis", within the framework of e-health and in the era of new information and communication technologies, seeking online health information could be a channel to increase health literacy, especially among disadvantaged groups. However, little is known concerning digital seeking behavior and, in particular, digital mental health literacy...
2018: PeerJ
Dalia A Ahmed, Dalia F Slima
Many agricultural soils in Egypt irrigated with untreated wastewater. Herein, we investigated the effect of untreated industrial wastewater irrigation on the soil and fodder plant Corchorus olittorius (Jew mallow). It also aimed to assess its effect on the growth measurements as well as analyses of soils, irrigation waters, and plants for heavy metal and nutrient concentrations. Significant differences between irrigation waters and soil irrigated with fresh and wastewater were recognized. Wastewater irrigation leads to remarkable reduction in the growth parameters and reduced its vegetative biomass...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yasmine Ghantous, Sharon Akrish, Yoav Leiser, Imad Abu El-Naaj
BACKGROUND: Several types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been found to be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Still, the significance of HPV infection and its relationship to patient prognosis remains an important matter of debate. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of HPV infection in OSCC patients in northern Israel populations to determine its role in the etiology and prognosis of OSCC. METHODS: OSCC tissues were gathered from the pathology departments at Rambam and Padeh medical centers in northern Israel...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
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