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Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550752/intracellular-delivery-of-oligonucleotides-in-helicobacter-pylori-by-fusogenic-liposomes-in-the-presence-of-gastric-mucus
#1
Rita S Santos, George R Dakwar, Elisa Zagato, Toon Brans, Céu Figueiredo, Koen Raemdonck, Nuno F Azevedo, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
The rising antimicrobial resistance contributes to 25000 annual deaths in Europe. This threat to the public health can only be tackled if novel antimicrobials are developed, combined with a more precise use of the currently available antibiotics through the implementation of fast, specific, diagnostic methods. Nucleic acid mimics (NAMs) that are able to hybridize intracellular bacterial RNA have the potential to become such a new class of antimicrobials and additionally could serve as specific detection probes...
May 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550056/biofilm-formation-potential-of-heat-resistant-escherichia-coli-dairy-isolates-and-complete-genome-of-mdr-heat-resistant-strain-fam21845
#2
Roger Marti, Michael Schmid, Sandra Kulli, Kerstin Schneeberger, Javorka Naskova, Susanne Knøchel, Christian H Ahrens, Jörg Hummerjohann
We tested the biofilm formation potential of 30 heat resistant and six heat sensitive E. coli dairy isolates. The production of curli and cellulose, static biofilm formation on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel, formation of biofilm under dynamic conditions (Bioflux), and initial adhesion rates (IAR) were evaluated. Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media and assay. Our results highlight the importance of the experimental setup to determine biofilm formation under conditions of interest, as correlation between different assays was often not given...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549494/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-and-molecular-characterization-of-mycobacterium-fortuitum-isolates-in-china
#3
Hui Wen Zheng, Yu Pang, Guang Xue He, Yuan Yuan Song, Yan Lin Zhao
We performed molecular identification of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) and conducted drug susceptibility testing to analyze the in vitro susceptibility of clinical M. fortuitum isolates and potential molecular mechanism conferring resistance to fluoroquinolone and macrolide drugs. The results showed that moxifloxacin had the highest in vitro activity against M. fortuitum, and most M. fortuitum isolates were resistant to clarithromycin and linezolid in China. The loss of genetic mutation in clarithromycin- and amikacin-resistant isolates indicates that some other intrinsic mechanism conferring clarithromycin and amikacin resistance plays an essential role in M...
May 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549116/continued-evolution-of-gonococcal-antimicrobial-resistance
#4
Edward W Hook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549097/cluster-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-high-level-azithromycin-resistance-and-decreased-ceftriaxone-susceptibility-hawaii-2016
#5
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Robert D Kirkcaldy, A Christian Whelen, Olusegun O Soge, John R Papp, Ellen N Kersh, Glenn M Wasserman, Norman P O'Connor, Pamela S O'Brien, Douglas T Sato, Eloisa V Maningas, Gail Y Kunimoto, Juval E Tomas
Background.: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We report on a cluster of N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrating high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#6
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547390/mono-substitution-effects-on-antimicrobial-activity-of-stapled-heptapeptides
#7
Huy X Luong, Do-Hee Kim, Ngoan T Mai, Bong-Jin Lee, Young-Woo Kim
We previously reported a de novo design of antimicrobial heptapeptide helices using Verdine's all-hydrocarbon peptide stapling system. One of the important structure-activity relationships we found from these previous studies was that extending of the hydrophobic face by replacing of alanine with leucine in positon 5 increases antimicrobial activity. In this study, to further improve the activity profile of this peptide series, we investigated the substitution effects of position 5 on conformational and proteolytic stability as well as antimicrobial and hemolytic activity...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546830/antibiotic-resistance-serogroups-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-with-diarrhea-in-qinghai-plateau-china
#8
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Shucheng Huang, Fazul Nabi, Houqiang Luo, Yanfang Lan, Jiakui Li
BACKGROUND: Ruminants serve as one of the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection with E. coli, a foodborne enteropathogen, can lead to asymptomatic infections that can cause life-threatening complications in humans. Therefore, from a clinical and human health perspective, it is important to know which virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in E. coli strains in yaks with diarrheic infections. METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two rectal swabs were collected from diarrheic yaks in Qinghai Plateau, China...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546822/commercial-essential-oils-as-potential-antimicrobials-to-treat-skin-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Ané Orchard, Sandy van Vuuren
Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546688/collagen-cross-linking-for-microbial-keratitis
#10
Prashant Garg, Sujata Das, Aravind Roy
Collagen cross-linking is gaining popularity not only for arresting the progression of keratoconus but also other indications including management of corneal infections. In this review article, we analyzed the published literature to understand the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer. Photoactivated riboflavin and ultraviolet A light are known to possess antimicrobial properties. The treatment also induces formation of inter- and intra-fibrillar bonds, thereby making the corneal collagen resistant to the action of proteases arresting stromal melt...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#11
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the fast and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low resources settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th HDSS round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola. RESULTS: From the total 102 households piloted, 77...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545831/pre-post-evaluation-of-effects-of-a-titanium-dioxide-coating-on-environmental-contamination-of-an-intensive-care-unit-the-titanic-study
#12
B de Jong, A M Meeder, K W A C Koekkoek, M A Schouten, P Westers, A R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Among patients admitted to European hospitals or intensive care units (ICUs), 5.7% and 19.5% will encounter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), respectively, and antimicrobial resistance is emerging. As hospital surfaces are contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria, environmental cleanliness is an essential aspect to reduce HAIs. AIM: To address the efficacy of a titanium dioxide coating in reducing the microbial colonization of environmental surfaces in an ICU...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545411/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-hefei-2014-2015-genetic-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
Fa-Xing Jiang, Qian Lan, Wen-Jing Le, Xiao-Hong Su
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genetic determinants of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hefei, China, were characterized adding a breadth of information to the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal resistance in China. METHODS: 126 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from a hospital clinic in Hefei, were collected between January, 2014, and November, 2015. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates for seven antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545064/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-to-epigallocatechin-gallate-by-rna-seq
#14
Xiaoxiang Liu, Bimiao Shen, Peng Du, Nan Wang, Jiaxue Wang, Jianrong Li, Aihua Sun
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a main constituent of green tea polyphenols that are widely used as food preservatives and are considered to be safe for consumption. However, the underlying antimicrobial mechanism of EGCG and the bacterial response to EGCG are not clearly understood. In the present study, a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of a typical spoilage bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens that responded to EGCG was performed using RNA-seq technology. A total of 26,365,414 and 23,287,092 clean reads were generated from P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544960/anti-biofilm-effect-of-dihydromyricetin-loaded-nanocapsules-on-urinary-catheter-infected-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
A J F Dalcin, C G Santos, S S Gündel, I Roggia, R P Raffin, A F Ourique, R C V Santos, P Gomes
Nosocomial infections associated with biofilm formation on urinary catheters are among the leading causes of complications due to biofilm characteristics and high antimicrobial resistance. An interesting alternative are natural products, such as Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a flavonoid which presents several pharmacological properties, including strong antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. However, DMY, has low aqueous solubility and consequently low bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation can contribute to the improvement of characteristics of some drugs, by increasing the apparent solubility and sustained release has been reported among other advantages...
May 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544570/relative-susceptibility-of-airway-organisms-to-antimicrobial-effects-of-nitric-oxide
#16
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is released in the airway as a critical component of innate immune defense against invading pathogenic organisms. It is well documented that bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of NO are concentration-dependent. However, few data exist comparing relative susceptibility of common pathogens to NO at physiologic concentrations. In this study we evaluated the effects of NO on 4 common airway bacteria and 1 fungus, and examined the potential implications of discrepancies in sensitivity...
May 25, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544416/global-analysis-of-strategies-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance
#17
Funke Adeniji
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health issue driven by inappropriate use of antimicrobials resulting in decreased efficacy on the background of an extremely limited pipeline for new antibiotics. We sought to analyse the effectiveness of key policies and strategies in tackling AMR globally and identify gaps in these. METHOD: The scope, magnitude, history and drivers of AMR were reviewed using supporting evidence. Our methodology included a literature review and semi-structured survey, whilst the analyses process was guided by an adapted health policy analyses framework...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542807/genetic-diversity-virulotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-susceptibility-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-isolated-from-pigs-and-porcine-products-in-malaysia
#18
Kwai Lin Thong, Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n=27; 1B/O:8, n=3; 1A/O:5, n=2) were analysed. About 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with MAR index <0.2 and majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542602/antimicrobial-resistance-status-of-enterococcus-from-australian-cattle-populations-at-slaughter
#19
Robert S Barlow, Kate E McMillan, Lesley L Duffy, Narelle Fegan, David Jordan, Glen E Mellor
Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. A consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. Australia is a major exporter of beef; however it does not have an ongoing surveillance system for AMR in cattle or foods derived from these animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542482/down-regulation-of-macrophage-ifngr1-exacerbates-systemic-l-monocytogenes-infection
#20
Emily M Eshleman, Christine Delgado, Staci J Kearney, Rachel S Friedman, Laurel L Lenz
Interferons (IFNs) target macrophages to regulate inflammation and resistance to microbial infections. The type II IFN (IFNγ) acts on a cell surface receptor (IFNGR) to promote gene expression that enhance macrophage inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. Type I IFNs can dampen macrophage responsiveness to IFNγ and are associated with increased susceptibility to numerous bacterial infections. The precise mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Type I IFNs silence macrophage ifngr1 transcription and thus reduce cell surface expression of IFNGR1...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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