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Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350901/gram-negative-bacterial-infections-research-priorities-accomplishments-and-future-directions-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#1
Yohei Doi, Robert A Bonomo, David C Hooper, Keith S Kaye, James R Johnson, Cornelius J Clancy, Joshua T Thaden, Martin E Stryjewski, David van Duin
Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is one of the most pressing challenges in the field of infectious diseases and is one of 4 key areas of unmet medical need identified by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The mission of the Gram-Negative Committee is to advance our knowledge of these challenging infections and implement studies to improve patient outcomes. Studies have fallen primarily into 2 broad categories: prospective cohort studies and interventional trials...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350900/gram-positive-bacterial-infections-research-priorities-accomplishments-and-future-directions-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#2
Sarah B Doernberg, Thomas P Lodise, Joshua T Thaden, Jose M Munita, Sara E Cosgrove, Cesar A Arias, Helen W Boucher, G Ralph Corey, Franklin D Lowy, Barbara Murray, Loren G Miller, Thomas L Holland
Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria remains a challenge in infectious diseases. The mission of the Gram-Positive Committee of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is to advance knowledge in the prevention, management, and treatment of these challenging infections to improve patient outcomes. Our committee has prioritized projects involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) due to the scope of the medical threat posed by these pathogens...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350898/leading-antibacterial-laboratory-research-by-integrating-conventional-and-innovative-approaches-the-laboratory-center-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#3
Claudia Manca, Carol Hill, Andrea M Hujer, Robin Patel, Scott R Evans, Robert A Bonomo, Barry N Kreiswirth
The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) Laboratory Center (LC) leads the evaluation, development, and implementation of laboratory-based research by providing scientific leadership and supporting standard/specialized laboratory services. The LC has developed a physical biorepository and a virtual biorepository. The physical biorepository contains bacterial isolates from ARLG-funded studies located in a centralized laboratory and they are available to ARLG investigators. The Web-based virtual biorepository strain catalogue includes well-characterized gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains published by ARLG investigators...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350870/bacterial-clonal-diagnostics-as-a-tool-for-evidence-based-empiric-antibiotic-selection
#4
Veronika Tchesnokova, Hovhannes Avagyan, Elena Rechkina, Diana Chan, Mariya Muradova, Helen Ghirmai Haile, Matthew Radey, Scott Weissman, Kim Riddell, Delia Scholes, James R Johnson, Evgeni V Sokurenko
Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350745/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#5
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350449/long-chained-4-aminoquinolines-as-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-in-serratia-marcescens-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Ivana Aleksić, Sandra Šegan, Filip Andric, Mario Zlatović, Ivana Moric, Dejan M Opsenica, Lidija Senerovic
Antibiotic resistance has become serious global threat to public health; therefore, the improved strategies and structurally novel antimicrobials are urgently needed to combat infectious diseases. Here we report a new type of highly potent 4-aminoquinoline derivatives as quorum sensing inhibitors in Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exhibiting weak bactericidal activities (MIC > 400 μM). Through detailed structure-activity study we have identified 7-Cl and 7-CF3 substituted N-dodecylamino-4-aminoquinolines (5 and 10) as biofilm formation inhibitors with 50% biofilm inhibition at 69 μM and 63 μM in S...
March 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350437/bacteria-activated-theranostic-nanoprobes-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#7
Zhiwei Zhao, Rong Yan, Xuan Yi, Jingling Li, Jiaming Rao, Zhengqing Guo, Yanmei Yang, Weifeng Li, Yong-Qiang Li, Chunying Chen
Despite numerous advanced imaging and sterilization techniques available nowadays, the sensitive in vivo diagnosis and complete elimination of drug-resistant bacterial infections remain to be big challenge. Here we report a strategy to design activatable theranostic nanoprobes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. This probe is based on silica nanoparticles coated with vancomycin-modified polyelectrolyte-cypate complexes (SiO2-Cy-Van), which is activated by an interesting phenomenon of bacteria-responsive dissociation of the polyelectrolyte from silica nanoparticles...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346844/inactivation-of-i-clostridium-difficile-i-spore-outgrowth-by-synergistic-effects-of-nisin-and-lysozyme
#8
Changhoon Chai, Kyung-Soo Lee, Goo-Sang Imm, Young Soon Kim, Se-Wook Oh
Inactivating <i>Clostridium difficile</i> spores is difficult, as they are resistant to heat, chemicals, and antimicrobials. However, this note describes inactivation of <i>C. difficile</i> spore outgrowth by incubation in a solution containing a germinant (1% w/v sodium taurocholate), co-germinants (1% w/v tryptose and 1% w/v NaCl), and natural antimicrobials (20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme). <i>C. difficile</i> spores were resistant to nisin and lysozyme but became susceptible during germination and outgrowth triggered and promoted by sodium taurocholate, tryptose, and NaCl...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346839/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-fresh-produces-and-human-fecal-samples
#9
Min-Chan Kim, Min-Hyeok Cha, Jae-Gee Ryu, Gun-Jo Woo
Increased enterococcal infections in hospitals and multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from humans, animals, and food sources raised public health concern on the presence of VRE in multiple sources. We performed a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial resistance and genetics of VRE isolates derived from fresh produce and human fecal samples. Of 389 Enterococcus isolates, 8 fecal and 3 produce isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin; all harbored vanA gene...
March 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346714/discrepant-serological-assays-for-pneumococcus-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#10
Jay A Fishman, David N Iklé, Robert A Wilkinson
Vaccine immunoprotection for Streptococcus pneumoniae is mediated by opsonizing antibodies targeting serotype-specific capsular polysaccharides. Quantitative antibody levels (ELISA) and antibody-mediated opsonophagcytic assays (OPA) measure vaccine-induced protection; correlation of these assays in transplantation requires investigation. This study examines the laboratory assessment of antibody titers in vaccinated renal recipients. Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A is common in immunocompromised hosts and is represented in protein-conjugate vaccines (PCV) and polysaccharide vaccines (PSV)...
March 27, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346540/fragment-library-screening-identifies-hits-that-bind-to-the-non-catalytic-surface-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dsba1
#11
Biswaranjan Mohanty, Kieran Rimmer, Róisín M McMahon, Stephen J Headey, Mansha Vazirani, Stephen R Shouldice, Mathieu Coinçon, Stephanie Tay, Craig J Morton, Jamie S Simpson, Jennifer L Martin, Martin J Scanlon
At a time when the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline has stalled, antibiotic resistance is accelerating with catastrophic implications for our ability to treat bacterial infections. Globally we face the prospect of a future when common infections can once again kill. Anti-virulence approaches that target the capacity of the bacterium to cause disease rather than the growth or survival of the bacterium itself offer a tantalizing prospect of novel antimicrobials. They may also reduce the propensity to induce resistance by removing the strong selection pressure imparted by bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#12
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#13
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345794/the-relationship-between-the-biovars-and-the-antimicrobial-resistance-of-ureaplasma-urealyticum-in-female-patients-with-urogenital-infections
#14
Yan Zhang, Chuan Hua, Su-Li Li
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum is considered as one of the main pathogens found in women with urogenital infection. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the biovars, serovars, and their antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics in female patients with urogenital infection. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six cervical secretion samples (125 female outpatients as the patient group, 121 healthy female subjects as the control group) were first collected and analyzed for U...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345623/liposomes-loaded-with-bioactive-lipids-enhance-antibacterial-innate-immunity-irrespective-of-drug-resistance
#15
Noemi Poerio, Francesca Bugli, Francesco Taus, Marilina B Santucci, Carlo Rodolfo, Francesco Cecconi, Riccardo Torelli, Francesco Varone, Riccardo Inchingolo, Fabio Majo, Vincenzina Lucidi, Sabrina Mariotti, Roberto Nisini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Maurizio Fraziano
Phagocytosis is a key mechanism of innate immunity, and promotion of phagosome maturation may represent a therapeutic target to enhance antibacterial host response. Phagosome maturation is favored by the timely and coordinated intervention of lipids and may be altered in infections. Here we used apoptotic body-like liposomes (ABL) to selectively deliver bioactive lipids to innate cells, and then tested their function in models of pathogen-inhibited and host-impaired phagosome maturation. Stimulation of macrophages with ABLs carrying phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) or PI5P increased intracellular killing of BCG, by inducing phagosome acidification and ROS generation...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345481/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-implementing-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-critical-care-units
#16
Jesus Ruiz-Ramos, Juan Frasquet, Eva Romá, Jose Luis Poveda-Andres, Miguel Salavert-Leti, Alvaro Catellanos, Paula Ramirez
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programme implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345225/highly-potent-host-external-immunity-acts-as-a-strong-selective-force-enhancing-rapid-parasite-virulence-evolution
#17
Charlotte Rafaluk, Wentao Yang, Andreas Mitschke, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Gerrit Joop
Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345188/treatment-of-gonorrhoea-in-auckland-new-zealand-marked-variation-in-prescriber-adherence-to-treatment-guidelines
#18
Rose Forster, Ms Diana Ng, Arlo Upton, Rick Franklin, Mark Thomas
BACKGROUND: The relentless emergence and spread of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are resistant to many antimicrobial agents has led to frequent changes in treatment guidelines, with a consequent risk that prescribers may not be aware of current guidelines. METHODS: We audited the treatment given to adult patients with laboratory proven gonorrhoea in Auckland, New Zealand, during the first six months of 2015. RESULTS: Treatment compliant with the current New Zealand Sexual Health Society (NZSHS) guidelines was administered in only 65% (458/706) episodes overall...
March 27, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#19
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344773/escherichia-coli-st131-a-multidrug-resistant-clone-primed-for-global-domination
#20
REVIEW
Johann D D Pitout, Rebekah DeVinney
A single extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) clone, named sequence type (ST) 131, is responsible for millions of global antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections annually. Population genetics indicate that ST131 consists of different clades (i.e. A, B, and C); however, clade C is the most dominant globally. A ST131 subclade, named C1-M27, is emerging in Japan and has been responsible for the recent increase in AMR ExPEC in that country. The sequential acquisition of several virulence and AMR genes associated with mobile genetic elements during the 1960s to 1980s primed clade C (and its subclades C1 and C2) for success in the 1990s to 2000s...
2017: F1000Research
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