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Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#1
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098790/synthesis-structure-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-novel-benzalkonium-chloride-analogues-with-pyridine-rings
#2
Bogumił Brycki, Izabela Małecka, Anna Koziróg, Anna Otlewska
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of compounds of great economic significance. They are widely used as emulsifiers, detergents, solubilizers and corrosion inhibitors in household and industrial products. Due to their excellent antimicrobial activity QACs have also gained a special meaning as antimicrobials in hospitals, agriculture and the food industry. The main representatives of the microbiocidal QACs are the benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), which exhibit biocidal activity against most bacteria, fungi, algae and some viruses...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098416/motuporamine-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-agents-and-antibiotic-enhancers-against-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#3
Diane Borselli, Marine Blanchet, Jean-Michel Bolla, Aaron Muth, Kristen Skruber, Otto Phanstiel, Jean Michel Brunel
Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram-negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU-N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer-membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de-energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump...
January 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098241/characterization-of-a-p1-like-bacteriophage-carrying-ctx-m-27-in-salmonella-spp-resistant-to-third-generation-cephalosporins-isolated-from-pork-in-china
#4
Ling Yang, Wan Li, Gui-Ze Jiang, Wen-Hui Zhang, Huan-Zhong Ding, Ya-Hong Liu, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Hong-Xia Jiang
The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of third generation cephalosporin resistant Samonella isolates from pork of a slaughterhouse in China and the features of transferable elements carrying blaCTX-M genes. One hundred and twenty-six (7.3%) Salmonella isolates were identified; S. Derby and S. Rissen were the most two prevalent serotypes. Among these isolates 20 (15.8%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and nine of them carried blaCTX-M-27. S1-PFGE and replicon typing of blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids showed that seven were untypeable plasmids of about 104 Kb and two were IncP plasmids of about 300 Kb...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097716/parental-knowledge-of-antibiotic-use-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Mia Pavelics Hallas, Susanne Kaae
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global problem. AMR threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics (AB) is the major contributor to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. To present and describe characteristics in parents' knowledge about when and how to use AB for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), their attitudes towards doctors and AB use in general, and their behaviour when their child suffers from an URTI...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097645/bacterial-subversion-of-camp-signalling-inhibits-cathelicidin-expression-which-is-required-for-innate-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Shashank Gupta, Kathryn Winglee, Richard Gallo, William R Bishai
Antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins are an important component of innate immune defence against inhaled microorganisms and have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with in vitro models. Despite this, little is known about the regulation and expression of cathelicidin during tuberculosis in vivo. We sought to determine whether the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (Cramp) gene, the murine functional homologue of the human cathelicidin gene (CAMP or LL-37), is required for regulating protective immunity during M...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097636/andrographolide-antibacterial-activity-against-common-bacteria-of-human-health-concern-and-possible-mechanism-of-action
#7
Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method...
January 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097041/effect-of-catechins-green-tea-extract-and-methylxanthines-in-combination-with-gentamicin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-combination-therapy-against-resistant-bacteria
#8
Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz, Sahar Sarabandi, Bahman Khameneh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial resistant infections have become a global health challenge and threaten the society's health. Thus, an urgent need exists to find ways to combat resistant pathogens. One promising approach to overcoming bacterial resistance is the use of herbal products. Green tea catechins, the major green tea polyphenols, show antimicrobial activity against resistant pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of catechins, green tea extract, and methylxanthines in combination with gentamicin against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097012/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antibiotics-in-critically-ill-acute-kidney-injury-patients
#9
REVIEW
Welder Zamoner, Fernanda M de Freitas, Durval S S Garms, Mariele Gobo de Oliveira, André L Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and is associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administer antimicrobials in doses that achieve adequate serum levels, avoiding both overdosing and drug toxicity as well as underdosing and the risk of antibiotic resistance and higher mortality. Currently, there are no validated guidelines on antibiotic dose adjustments in septic patients with AKI...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096984/chryseobacterium-indologenes-a-possible-emergent-organism-resistant-to-carbapenem-antimicrobials-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Osamu Imataki, Makiko Uemura
A 64-year-old female was diagnosed with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. She then underwent an unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with a reduced-intensity regimen. She achieved engraftment followed by HHV-6 encephalopathy. This was complicated by Chryseobacterium indologenes pneumonia. Chryseobacterium indologenes is now a possible emergent organism resistant to carbapenem after transplantation.
January 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#11
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096686/peptide-consensus-sequence-determination-for-the-enhancement-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-selectivity-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#12
Ammar Almaaytah, Ya'u Ajingi, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Shadi Tarazi, Nizar Alshar'i, Qosay Al-Balas
The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria is causing a serious threat to the world's human population. Recent reports have identified bacterial strains displaying pan drug resistance against antibiotics and generating fears among medical health specialists that humanity is on the dawn of entering a post-antibiotics era. Global research is currently focused on expanding the lifetime of current antibiotics and the development of new antimicrobial agents to tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we designed a novel consensus peptide named "Pepcon" through peptide consensus sequence determination among members of a highly homologous group of scorpion antimicrobial peptides...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096254/factors-predicting-antibiotic-prescription-and-referral-to-hospital-for-children-with-respiratory-symptoms-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-study-at-out-of-hours-services-in-primary-care
#13
Ingrid Keilegavlen Rebnord, Hogne Sandvik, Anders Batman Mjelle, Steinar Hunskaar
OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory infections and fever among children are highly prevalent in primary care. It is challenging to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Norway has a relatively low prescription rate of antibiotics, but it is still regarded as too high as the antimicrobial resistance is increasing. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for prescribing antibiotics or referral to hospital among children. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096164/pharmacodynamics-of-ceftaroline-plus-ampicillin-against-enterococcus-faecalis-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-of-simulated-endocardial-vegetations
#14
Brian J Werth, Laura M Shireman
The combination of ampicillin plus ceftaroline has been suggested to be more reliably synergistic against E. faecalis than ampicillin plus ceftriaxone using time-kill methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if this trend persists in a two-compartment-model of simulated endocardial vegetations(SEV) using clinically relevant pharmacokinetic exposures of these antimicrobials. Three clinically-derived E. faecalis strains were included in the study. The MICs of study antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095835/antimicrobial-activity-of-some-plant-materials-used-in-armenian-traditional-medicine
#15
Mikayel Ginovyan, Margarit Petrosyan, Armen Trchounian
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance has become one of the major problems facing humanity. The need for new antimicrobials has been increased dramatically. Plants are considered as one of the most promising sources for new antimicrobials discovery. Despite relatively small area, Armenia has large diversity of flora with many endemic species. In Armenian folk medicine plant materials have been used to treat various microbial diseases since ancient times. The goal of our research was to evaluate antimicrobial efficiency of different parts of five wild plants species which are commonly used in Armenian traditional medicine...
January 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095778/the-pangenome-of-antarctic-pseudoalteromonas-bacteria-evolutionary-and-functional-insights
#16
Emanuele Bosi, Marco Fondi, Valerio Orlandini, Elena Perrin, Isabel Maida, Donatella de Pascale, Maria Luisa Tutino, Ermenegilda Parrilli, Angelina Lo Giudice, Alain Filloux, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of ubiquitous marine bacteria used as model organisms to study the biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation to cold conditions. A remarkable feature shared by these bacteria is their ability to produce secondary metabolites with a strong antimicrobial and antitumor activity. Despite their biotechnological relevance, representatives of this genus are still lacking (with few exceptions) an extensive genomic characterization, including features involved in the evolution of secondary metabolites production...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095730/anaerobic-biodegradation-of-spiramycin-i-and-characterization-of-its-new-metabolites
#17
Jian Yao, Lei Shao, Daijie Chen, Pengyu Liu, Yubin Zhang
Activated sludge was used to treat the wastewater containing spiramycin I. Three new metabolites were isolated and identified, which produced by oxidation of C6-aldehyde, hydrolysis of C5-mycaminose-mycarose and macrolactone ring-open reaction of spiramycin I in anaerobic digestion. And their antimicrobial activities were inactivated. Our results indicated that anaerobic biodegradation metabolites of spiramycin I could not induce bacterial resistance in environment.
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095537/spotlight-on-the-use-of-nitric-oxide-in-dermatology-what-is-it-what-does-it-do-can-it-become-an-important-addition-to-the-therapeutic-armamentarium-for-skin-disease
#18
James Q Del Rosso, Leon H Kircik
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic gas that is synthesized within and released by multiple host cell types functioning to provide a variety of physiologic and homeostatic effects. Nitric oxide exhibits a variety of effects that relate significantly with outcomes that can provide therapeutic benefit if properly formulated and released. These include anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, vasodilatory properties, and effects that are beneficial to wound healing. Lack of antibiotic resistance appears to be one major advantage of topically delivered NO...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095290/study-of-the-microbiological-quality-of-bulgarian-bottled-water-in-terms-of-its-contamination-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Vesela Georgieva, Yulia Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: Due to the widespread use of bottled water, it is important from a hygienic point of view to ensure that these products have good quality and meet the requirements set out in regulations. METHODS: In the period 2000-2013, a large-scale study (2,500 samples) was carried out on the quality of Bulgarian bottled water as per the microbiological parameters laid down in the European and Bulgarian legislation. Standard microbiological methods were applied. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that the most frequently isolated contaminant in these products was Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094807/antimicrobial-probiotics-reduce-salmonella-enterica-in-turkey-gastrointestinal-tracts
#20
Brittany Forkus, Seth Ritter, Michail Vlysidis, Kathryn Geldart, Yiannis N Kaznessis
Despite the arsenal of technologies employed to control foodborne nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), infections have not declined in decades. Poultry is the primary source of NTS outbreaks, as well as the fastest growing meat sector worldwide. With recent FDA rules for phasing-out antibiotics in animal production, pressure is mounting to develop new pathogen reduction strategies. We report on a technology to reduce Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. We engineered probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917, to express and secrete the antimicrobial peptide, Microcin J25...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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