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Antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346493/antimicrobial-studies-using-the-therapeutic-tissue-cross-linking-agent-sodium-hydroxymethylglycinate-implication-for-treating-infectious-keratitis
#1
Patrick B Rapuano, Alexandra H Scanameo, Daeryl E Amponin, Sefy A Paulose, Mariya Zyablitskaya, Anna Takaoka, Leejee H Suh, Takayuki Nagasaki, Stephen L Trokel, David C Paik
Purpose: Our recent studies raise the possibility of using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG), for pharmacologic therapeutic tissue cross-linking (TXL) of the cornea. The present study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of SMG for potential use in treating infectious keratitis. Methods: In initial (group 1) experiments, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were treated with SMG (10-40 mM) for 10 to 120 minutes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#2
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345957/besifloxacin-a-critical-review-of-its-characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods
#3
Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial conjunctivitis has high impact on the health of the population, since it represents more than a third of ocular pathologies reported by health services worldwide. There is a high incidence of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobials most commonly used for the treatment of conjunctivitis. In this context, besifloxacin stands out, since it is a fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for topical ophthalmic use, presenting a low risk of developing resistance due to its reduced systemic exposure. Bausch & Lomb markets it as ophthalmic suspension, under the trade name Besivance™...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344434/rare-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-aids
#4
Cherry O Onaiwu, Manasa Velagapudi, Luay Sarsam, Lindsay Utley, Lauren Bricker, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Renuga Vivekanandan
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Inhalation is the primary route for exposure via dust particles. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk of disseminated disease. A challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is that it can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Nocardia farcinica tends to be a more virulent, multidrug-resistant strain with an increased tendency to disseminate. This report describes a 64-year-old man with AIDS found to have pulmonary nocardiosis that did not respond to standard antibiotic therapy...
November 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344096/prevention-is-better-than-cure-the-role-of-infection-prevention-in-the-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
EDITORIAL
Martin Kiernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343542/clinical-validation-of-the-sensitest%C3%A2-colistin-a-broth-microdilution-based-method-to-evaluate-colistin-mics
#7
Edoardo Carretto, Flavia Brovarone, Giuseppe Russello, Paola Nardini, Maisra El-Bouseary, Ali Aboklaish, Timothy R Walsh, Jonathan M Tyrrell
The global spread of multi-drug resistant Gram negative has led to the return of colistin for treating severe infections. Recently, different plasmid-mediated genes conferring resistance to this drug were described and reported worldwide. International committees (EUCAST/CLSI) re-evaluated inconsistencies surrounding colistin antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), concluding that broth microdilution (BMD) should serve as the reference method for AST. The development of an accurate, reproducible commercial test based on BMD is therefore highly desirable...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#8
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343220/antimicrobial-resistance-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-germany-low-levels-of-cephalosporin-resistance-but-high-azithromycin-resistance
#9
Susanne Buder, Sandra Dudareva, Klaus Jansen, Anna Loenenbach, Sergejs Nikisins, Andrea Sailer, Eva Guhl, Peter K Kohl, Viviane Bremer
BACKGROUND: The widespread antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious problem for the treatment and control of gonorrhoea. Many of the previously effective therapeutic agents are no longer viable. Because N. gonorrhoeae infections are not reportable in Germany, only limited data on disease epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are available. The Gonococcal Resistance Network (GORENET) is a surveillance project to monitor trends in the antimicrobial susceptibility of N...
January 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343037/-mechanisms-of-fosfomycin-resistance-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#10
Y J Xu, J J Quan, K R Shi, Y S Yu
Objective: To study the in vitro activity of fosfomycin to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and to explore the mechanisms of fosfomycin resistance. Methods: A total of 1 052 ESBLs-producing E. coli(ESBL-EC) and K. pneumoniae(ESBL-KP) isolates were collected from bloodstream infections of 28 hospitals of 22 provinces and municipalities, which were stored by our laboratory.Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fosfomycin against these clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution methods according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)(2015)...
January 9, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342994/-report-of-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-program-in-chinese-children-in-2016
#11
C Q Wang, A M Wang, H Yu, H M Xu, C M Jing, J K Deng, R Z Zhao, C Z Hua, Y H Chen, X J Chen, T Zhang, H Zhang, Y P Chen, J G Yang, A W Lin, S F Wang, Q Cao, X Wang, H L Deng, S C Cao, J H He, W Gao, S Z Han
Objective: To analyze the antimicrobial resistance profile in Chinese children. Methods: This was a prevalence survey. From January 1 through December 31, 2016, the isolates were collected from 10 tertiary children hospitals in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by routine laboratory methods. The penicillin susceptibility of streptococcus pneumonia and Meropenem susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria were detected by E-test and disk diffusion method respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility results were interpreted according to the criteria of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Guideline 2016...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342216/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-glycopolymer-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott A Giatpaiboon, John Uhrig, Paul Orwin, William Wiesmann, Shenda M Baker, Stacy M Townsend
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341954/carbapenemase-production-of-clinical-isolates-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-a-bulgarian-university-hospital
#13
Atanaska P Petrova, Irina D Stanimirova, Ivan N Ivanov, Michael M Petrov, Tsonka M Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Vasil I Grivnev, Velichka S Kardjeva, Todor V Kantardzhiev, Mariana A Murdjeva
BACKGROUND: Production of Bla OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58 and hyperexpression of OXA-51 due to ISAba1 insertion sequence are the leading causes of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. The loss of OprD transmembrane protein and the overexpression of some effl ux pumps are considered to be the main factors for carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas metallo-enzymes' production has a secondary role. AIM: Тo examine the carbapenem resistance due to carbapenemase production among clinically signifi cant Gram-negative non-fermenters from St George University hospital, Plovdiv: A...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341844/empiric-antibiotics-for-sepsis
#14
Sara A Buckman, Isaiah R Turnbull, John E Mazuski
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early recognition and treatment are the cornerstones of management. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature. RESULTS: For both sepsis and septic shock "antimicrobials [should be] be initiated as soon as possible and within one hour" (Surviving Sepsis Campaign). The risk of progression from severe sepsis to septic shock increases 8% for each hour before antibiotics are started...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341498/review-article-sepsis-in-the-emergency-department-part-2-investigations-and-monitoring
#15
REVIEW
Amith Shetty, Stephen Pj Macdonald, Gerben Keijzers, Julian M Williams, Benjamin Tang, Bas de Groot, Kelly Thompson, John F Fraser, Simon Finfer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jonathan Iredell
Sepsis is characterised by organ dysfunction resulting from infection, with no reliable single objective test and current diagnosis based on clinical features and results of investigations. In the ED, investigations may be conducted to diagnose infection as the cause of the presenting illness, identify the source, distinguish sepsis from uncomplicated infection (i.e. without organ dysfunction) and/ or risk stratification. Appropriate sample collection for microbiological testing remains key for subsequent confirmation of diagnosis and rationalisation of antimicrobials...
January 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341373/antibiotic-allergy-labels-the-impact-of-taking-a-clinical-history
#16
Adrienne Torda, Victor Chan
BACKGROUND: Many patients admitted to hospital have an antibiotic allergy (AAL) documented in their medical record. In many of these, the reaction is not a hypersensitivity reaction or may no longer be relevant. Despite this, the label adversely affects patient care directly in terms of antibiotic selection, and indirectly in terms of patient costs and the development of antimicrobial resistance. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of AALs in a cohort of hospitalised patients, to investigate the feasibility of de-labelling through re-challenge based solely upon clinical grounds...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341032/-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-update-2017-s3-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-german-society-for-infectious-diseases-the-german-society-for-hygiene-and-microbiology
#17
K Dalhoff, M Abele-Horn, S Andreas, M Deja, S Ewig, P Gastmeier, S Gatermann, H Gerlach, B Grabein, C P Heußel, G Höffken, M Kolditz, E Kramme, H Kühl, C Lange, K Mayer, I Nachtigall, M Panning, M Pletz, P-M Rath, G Rohde, S Rosseau, B Schaaf, D Schreiter, H Schütte, H Seifert, C Spies, T Welte
Nosocomial pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent complication of hospital care. Most data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, infections on general wards are increasing. A central issue are infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens which are difficult to treat in the empirical setting potentially leading to inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.This guideline update was compiled by an interdisciplinary group on the basis of a systematic literature review. Recommendations are made according to GRADE giving guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP on the basis of quality of evidence and benefit/risk ratio...
January 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340600/development-and-impact-of-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#18
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#19
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340588/antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriage-and-infection-in-specialized-geriatric-care-wards-linked-to-acquisition-in-the-referring-hospital
#20
Claire L Gorrie, Mirjana Mirceta, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Kelly L Wyres, Nicholas R Thomson, Richard A Strugnell, Nigel F Pratt, Jill S Garlick, Kerrie M Watson, Peter C Hunter, Steve A McGloughlin, Denis W Spelman, Adam W J Jenney, Kathryn E Holt
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk. Methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to two geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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