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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651094/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-to-a-commercial-citrus-fruit-extract
#1
Pedro J G de Nova, Ana Carvajal, Miguel Prieto, Pedro Rubio
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the main etiological agent of swine dysentery (SD). Nowadays, treatment and control of SD is increasingly difficult due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance together with the restrictions on the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate, as an alternative in the control of this disease, the antimicrobial activity and the main mechanism of action of BIOCITRO, a citrus extract commercialized as raw material and used as feed additive, against B...
June 20, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650938/outbreak-caused-by-escherichia-coli-o18-k1-h7-sequence-type-95-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-barcelona-spain
#2
Emma Sáez-López, Jordi Bosch, Maria Dolors Salvia, Dietmar Fernández-Orth, Virginio Cepas, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Jordi Vila, Sara M Soto
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to characterize an outbreak of neonatal sepsis occurring in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from April to August 2013. METHODS: After presentation of the index case, all E. coli isolates from previously hospitalized neonates, health care workers, and neonates admitted to the NICU from April to October 2013 were tested for K1 antigen positivity and epidemiologically compared by pulse-field gel electrophoresis...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650693/healthy-bovines-as-reservoirs-of-major-pathogenic-lineages-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-portugal
#3
Teresa Conceição, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa
The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Portugal is close to 50% and remains one of the highest in Europe. MRSA reservoirs in the animal setting in Portugal have been very poorly investigated, namely among animal husbandry. A total of 52 samples (nasal, inguinal region, and milk) were obtained from bovine animals and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650672/campylobacter-species-isolated-from-pigs-in-grenada-exhibited-novel-clones-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-sequence-types
#4
Victor A Amadi, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Charmarthy Subbarao, Isaac Kashoma, Gireesh Rajashekara, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan, Diana Stone
Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing...
June 26, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#5
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650129/in-vitro-efficacy-and-in-silico-analysis-of-cefixime-ofloxacin-combination-for-salmonella-typhi-from-bloodstream-infection
#6
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Thirumal Kumar D, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Baby Abirami S, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munusamy, Bhuvaneswari Thukkaram, Raji Ravi, George Priya Doss C, Balaji Veeraraghavan
AIMS: Recently, the cefixime-ofloxacin combination is approved by drug controller general of India (DCGI) to treat typhoid fever. We sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cefixime-ofloxacin combination against S. Typhi. METHODS AND RESULTS: 283 non-duplicate S. Typhi isolates collected during 2012 to 2014 were included in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefixime and ofloxacin was determined by using broth microdilution method. Combinational testing was performed by using checkerboard assay...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650032/antibiotics-from-gram-negative-bacteria-a-comprehensive-overview-and-selected-biosynthetic-highlights
#7
REVIEW
J Masschelein, M Jenner, G L Challis
Covering: up to 2017The overwhelming majority of antibiotics in clinical use originate from Gram-positive Actinobacteria. In recent years, however, Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly recognised as a rich yet underexplored source of novel antimicrobials, with the potential to combat the looming health threat posed by antibiotic resistance. In this article, we have compiled a comprehensive list of natural products with antimicrobial activity from Gram-negative bacteria, including information on their biosynthetic origin(s) and molecular target(s), where known...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649859/medical-authority-managerial-power-and-political-will-a-bourdieusian-analysis-of-antibiotics-in-the-hospital
#8
Emma Kirby, Alex Broom, Alexandra Gibson, Jennifer Broom, Trent Yarwood, Jeffrey Post
Antibiotic resistance poses a significant global threat, yet clinically inappropriate antibiotic use within hospitals continues despite the implementation of abatement strategies. Antibiotic use and the viability of existing antibiotic options now sit precariously at the nexus of political will, institutional governance and clinical priorities 'at the bedside'. Yet no study has hitherto explored the perspectives of managers, instead of focusing on clinicians. In this article, drawing on qualitative interviews with hospital managers, we explore accounts of responding to antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance and negotiating clinical and managerial priorities...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#9
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649410/komodo-dragon-inspired-synthetic-peptide-drgn-1-promotes-wound-healing-of-a-mixed-biofilm-infected-wound
#10
Ezra M C Chung, Scott N Dean, Crystal N Propst, Barney M Bishop, Monique L van Hoek
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional molecules that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. We have identified a histone H1-derived peptide from the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), called VK25. Using this peptide as inspiration, we designed a synthetic peptide called DRGN-1. We evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of both peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. DRGN-1, more than VK25, exhibited potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity, and permeabilized bacterial membranes...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649404/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-gardnerella-vaginalis-biofilms-vs-planktonic-cultures-using-rna-seq
#11
Joana Castro, Angela França, Katie R Bradwell, Myrna G Serrano, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common gynecological disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the development of a Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Recent data indicates that G. vaginalis biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and are able to incorporate other bacterial vaginosis -associated species, yielding a multi-species biofilm. However, despite its apparent role in bacterial vaginosis, little is known regarding the molecular determinants involved in biofilm formation by G...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649284/development-and-evaluation-of-a-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-azithromycin-resistant-campylobacter-isolated-from-diarrhoeal-patients-in-kolkata-india
#12
Piyali Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a well-known bacterial pathogen for triggering acute gastroenteritis in humans both in developed and developing countries. This organism is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides are very much useful for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is necessary. However, increasing resistance to azithromycin, a potent macrolide has been reported in Campylobacter in recent years. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter is found mainly due to point mutation in V region of 23S rRNA...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649083/report-prevalence-of-hospital-acquired-burkholderia-cepacia-infection-and-its-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-a-chinese-hospital
#13
Jinju Duan, Jianbang Kang, Ting Han, Yuqin Ma, Qian Guo, Yan Song, Qiang Zhao, Yan Yang, Ruiqin Zhang
This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility of hospital acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection in Shanxi (China) during August 2009 and December 2012. To characterize an emerging nocosomial infection. The medical records of 112 patients that were tested positive for B. cepacia were retrospectively analyzed. The K-B disk diffusion method was used to determine the drug susceptibility of the isolated strains. A hundred and fifty strains of B. cepacia were isolated from 112 patients. The sensitivity rates of B...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648851/the-influence-of-mild-acidity-on-lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-lipid-membrane-physico-chemical-properties-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Reg P Rehal, Helene Marbach, Alasdair T M Hubbard, Anam A Sacranie, Federica Sebastiani, Giovanna Fragneto, Richard D Harvey
The increased biosynthesis of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in Staphylococcus aureus when cultured under conditions of mild acidity and the resultant increased proportion of this lipid in the plasma membrane of the bacterium, alters the physico-chemical properties of lipid bilayers in a manner which is itself dependent upon environmental pH. Clinically relevant strains of S. aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, all exhibited increased lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in response to mild environmental acidity, albeit to differing degrees, from ∼30% to ∼55% total phospholipid...
June 22, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648795/povidone-iodine-in-wound-healing-a-review-of-current-concepts-and-practices
#15
REVIEW
Paul Lorenz Bigliardi, Syed Abdul Latiff Alsagoff, Hossam Yehia El-Kafrawi, Jai-Kyong Pyon, Chad Tse Cheuk Wa, Martin Anthony Villa
BACKGROUND: Of the many antimicrobial agents available, iodophore-based formulations such as povidone iodine have remained popular after decades of use for antisepsis and wound healing applications due to their favorable efficacy and tolerability. Povidone iodine's broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate biofilms, lack of associated resistance, anti-inflammatory properties, low cytotoxicity and good tolerability have been cited as important factors, and no negative effect on wound healing has been observed in clinical practice...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648640/pulmonary-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-of-fluoroquinolone-antibiotic-complemented-with-proteolytic-enzyme-a-novel-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-strategy
#16
Purnima V Gupta, Abhijit M Nirwane, Tejashree Bellubi, Mangal S Nagarsenker
Bacterial resistance remains a major hindrance in treatment with antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we assessed the improved antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Levofloxacin (LFX) and Serratiopeptidase (SRP) combinations in in vitro microbiological studies. Further, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal LFX in combination with SRP (LFX liposome-SRP) were performed in S. aureus infected rats. LFX at sub-MIC with SRP eradicated >90% of the preformed biofilm. The entrapment efficiency of LFX in liposome was >80% and the co-spray dried product had MMAD <5μ...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648390/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-unusual-manifestations-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#17
Adrian Sousa, Maria Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrés Nodar, Lucía Martínez-Lamas, Francisco Jose Vasallo, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández, Manuel Crespo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically presents as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae can produce infection at any level of the body (endocarditis, arthritis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.), which is also known as unusual IPD (uIPD). There are very limited data available about the clinical and microbiological profile of these uncommon manifestations of pneumococcal disease. Our aim was to analyse clinical forms, microbiological profile, epidemiology and prognosis of a cohort of patients with unusual invasive pneumococcal disease (uIPD)...
June 22, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647106/-outpatient-consumption-of-antibiotics-with-a-bacterial-resistance-risk-in-2014-in-france
#18
Marie-Céline Casaurancq, Emilie Patras de Campaigno, Manuela Rueter, Bérangère Baricault, Robert Bourrel, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Agnès Sommet
AIM: This article proposes a description of French regional consumption of antibiotics with a bacterial resistance risk (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, third-generation cephalosporins [C3G] and fluoroquinolones). METHODS: Antibiotics reimbursements data were obtained by Open Medic website. The antibiotic consumption profile has been established using some indicators of the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) in daily-defined dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) or in percentage...
May 26, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#19
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646205/comparative-nanouplc-ms-e-analysis-between-magainin-i-susceptible-and-resistant-escherichia-coli-strains
#20
Marlon H Cardoso, Keyla C de Almeida, Elizabete de S Cândido, André M Murad, Simoni C Dias, Octávio L Franco
In recent years the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been prospected and designed as new alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Indeed, AMPs have presented great potential toward pathogenic bacterial strains by means of complex mechanisms of action. However, reports have increasingly emerged regarding the mechanisms by which bacteria resist AMP administration. In this context, we performed a comparative proteomic study by using the total bacterial lysate of magainin I-susceptible and -resistant E. coli strains...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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