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Antimicrobial resistance

Ruo Wang, Xueyang Yin, Yaohuan Zhang, Weitao Yan
Twelve novel propylene-tethered ciprofloxacin-isatin hybrids 3a-f and 4a-f were designed, synthesized and characterized by MS, HRMS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. All hybrids were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial pathogens, cytotoxicity in VERO cell line as well as metabolic stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. The preliminary results indicated that all mono-isatin-ciprofloxacin hybrids exhibited excellent antibacterial activities with MIC ranging from ≤0...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gaetano Maugeri, Iana Lychko, Rita Sobral, Ana Cecília A Roque
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most worrying threats to humankind with extremely high healthcare costs associated. The current technologies used in clinical microbiology to identify the bacterial agent and profile antimicrobial susceptibility are time-consuming and frequently expensive. As a result, physicians prescribe empirical antimicrobial therapies. This scenario is often the cause of therapeutic failures, causing higher mortality rates and healthcare costs, as well as the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria...
July 19, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Babita Aneja, Mudsser Azam, Shadab Alam, Ahmad Perwez, Ronan Maguire, Umesh Yadava, Kevin Kavanagh, Constantin G Daniliuc, M Moshahid A Rizvi, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haq, Mohammad Abid
Despite the vast availability of antibiotics, bacterial infections remain a leading cause of death worldwide. In an effort to enhance the armamentarium against resistant bacterial strains, 1,2,3-triazole ( 5a-x ) and sulfonate ( 7a-j ) analogues of natural bioactive precursors were designed and synthesized. Preliminary screening against two Gram-positive ( Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis ) and four Gram-negative bacterial strains ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Escherichia coli ) was performed to assess the potency of these analogues as antibacterial agents...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Meenakshi Jain, C V Ravi P Reddy, Moumita Halder, Savita Singh, Randheer Kumar, Sagar Gajbe Wasudeo, Prati Pal Singh, Shabana I Khan, Melissa R Jacob, Babu L Tekwani, Rahul Jain
In the search of therapeutic agents for emerging drug-resistant parasites, the synthesis of newer classes of 8-quinolinamines has emerged as a successful chemotherapeutic approach. We report synthesis of 8-quinolinamines bearing 5-alkoxy, 4-methyl, and 2- tert -butyl groups in the quinoline framework and their amino acid conjugates as broad-spectrum anti-infectives. 8-Quinolinamines exhibited potent in vitro antimalarial activity [IC50 = 20-4760 ng/mL (drug-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum D6 strain) and IC50 = 22-4760 ng/mL (drug-resistant P...
March 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Olga Sambalova, Kerstin Thorwarth, Norbert Victor Heeb, Davide Bleiner, Yucheng Zhang, Andreas Borgschulte, Alexandra Kroll
Biofilms causing medical conditions or interfering with technical applications can prove undesirably resistant to silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based antimicrobial treatment, whereas beneficial biofilms may be adversely affected by the released silver nanoparticles. Isolated biofilm matrices can induce reduction of silver ions and stabilization of the formed nanosilver, thus altering the exposure conditions. We thus study the reduction of silver nitrate solution in model experiments under chemically defined conditions as well as in stream biofilms...
January 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Oona Freudenthal, Fabienne Quilès, Grégory Francius
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently known for their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotics and new weapons against drug-resistant bacteria and biofilms. In the present work, the mechanism of action of a cyclic (colistin) and a linear (catestatin) AMP on a young E. coli biofilm was deciphered from the molecular to the cellular scale. To this end, infrared spectroscopy (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) assisted by chemometric analysis was combined with fluorescence and atomic force microscopies to address the very different behaviors of both AMPs...
September 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Pauric Bannigan, Edel Durack, Conor Madden, Matteo Lusi, Sarah P Hudson
Clofazimine is an antimycobacterial agent that is routinely used for the treatment of leprosy. Clofazimine has also been shown to have high clinical potential for the treatment of many Gram-positive pathogens, including those that exhibit high levels of antibiotic resistance in the medical community. The use of clofazimine against these pathogens has largely been limited by the inherently poor water solubility of the drug substance. In this work, the possibility of repurposing and reformulating clofazimine to maximize its clinical potential is investigated...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Ye Gao, Avijit Pramanik, Salma Begum, Carrie Sweet, Stacy Jones, Azmain Alamgir, Paresh Chandra Ray
According to the World Health Organization, more than two billion people in our world use drinking water sources which are not free from pathogens and heavy metal contamination. Unsafe drinking water is responsible for the death of several millions in the 21st century. To find facile and cost-effective routes for developing multifunctional materials, which has the capability to resolve many of the challenges associated with drinking water problem, here, we report the novel design of multifunctional fluorescence-magnetic biochar with the capability for highly efficient separation, identification, and removal of pathogenic superbugs and toxic metals from environmental water samples...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Anushya Petchiappan, Dipankar Chatterji
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious challenges that the world is currently facing. The number of people succumbing to drug-resistant infections is increasing every day, but the rate of drug discovery has failed to match the requisite demands. Most of the currently known antibiotics target the three essential pathways of central dogma. However, bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to survive these antibiotics. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to target auxiliary pathways for the discovery of new drugs...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Huimin Qian, Guoye Liu, Yin Chen, Ping Ma, Xiaoxiao Kong, Lu Zhou, Jie Hong, Changjun Bao, Bing Gu
Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Shigella sonnei ( S. sonnei ) and characterize the mechanism of its increasing resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin agent between 2012 and 2015. Methods: We investigated the drug resistance in 95 isolates of S. sonnei by K-B dilution method and isolates with the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
June 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Hani Z Asfour
Increasing extent of pathogenic resistance to drugs has encouraged the seeking for new anti-virulence drugs. Many pharmacological and pharmacognostical researches are performed to identify new drugs or discover new structures for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the antibiotic treatments. Although many phytochemicals show prominent antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercellular communication mechanism, which depends on bacterial cell population density and controls the pathogenesis of many organisms by regulating gene expression, including virulence determinants...
January 2018: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
Kinga Wieczorek, Tomasz Wołkowicz, Jacek Osek
The objective of this study was to test the prevalence of virulence-associated markers and antimicrobial resistance in 624 C. jejuni isolated from poultry food chain, i. e., chicken feces ( n = 160), poultry carcasses ( n = 157), poultry meat ( n = 152) and from humans ( n = 155). All human strains were positive for 9 out of 13 putative virulence genes responsible for expression of pathogenic factors involved in different stages of the infection. The presence of all markers was also high in strains from chicken feces, carcasses and meat although not all of them were identified in 100% of the isolates...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christian Schnaars, Geir Kildahl-Andersen, Anthony Prandina, Roya Popal, Sylvie Large Radix, Marc Le Borgne, Tor Gjoen, Adriana Magalhães Santos Andresen, Adam Heikal, Ole Andreas Økstad, Christopher Fröhlich, Ørjan Samuelsen, Silje Lauksund, Lars Petter Jordheim, Pål Rongved, Ove Alexander Høgmoen Åstrand
The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide and the increasing spread of multidrug resistant organisms expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) require the development of efficient and clinically available MBL inhibitors. At present, no such inhibitor is available, and research is urgently needed to advance this field. We report herein the development, synthesis and biological evaluation of chemical compounds based on the selective zinc chelator tris-picolylamine (TPA) that can restore the bactericidal activity of meropenem (MEM) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae expressing the carbapenemases Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM-2) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), respectively...
July 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Tapas Kumar Sar, Indranil Samanta, Achintya Mahanti, Shabnam Akhtar, Jeevan Ranjan Dash
Persistence of antibacterial drugs for prolonged period in milk increases the probability of antimicrobial resistance progress. Ceftizoxime was found to be excreted in milk for a prolonged period in goats, cows and buffaloes following intravenous injection of ceftriaxone and ceftizoxime. A single dose of ceftriaxone was administered intravenously in healthy control goats (group I) and a single oral dose of the commercial mammary protective polyherbal drug (1.9 gm) was given one hour prior to intravenous ceftriaxone injection in healthy (group II) and induced mastitic (group III) goats to evaluate milk disposition of ceftizoxime following single intravenous dosing of ceftriaxone at 42...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Louise Roer, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Frank Hansen, Kristian Schønning, Mikala Wang, Bent L Røder, Dennis S Hansen, Ulrik S Justesen, Leif P Andersen, David Fulgsang-Damgaard, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford, Linda Falgenhauer, Trinad Chakraborty, Ørjan Samuelsen, Karin Sjöström, Thor B Johannesen, Kim Ng, Jens Nielsen, Steen Ethelberg, Marc Stegger, Anette M Hammerum, Henrik Hasman
Escherichia coli sequence type 410 (ST410) has been reported worldwide as an extraintestinal pathogen associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. In the present study, we investigated national epidemiology of ST410 E. coli isolates from Danish patients. Furthermore, E. coli ST410 was investigated in a global context to provide further insight into the acquisition of the carbapenemase genes bla OXA-181 and bla NDM-5 of this successful lineage. From 127 whole-genome-sequenced isolates, we reconstructed an evolutionary framework of E...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
DeDe Kwun-Wai Man, Tokuwa Kanno, Giorgia Manzo, Brian D Robertson, Jenny K W Lam, A James Mason
The mycobacterial cell wall affords natural resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) modify the surface properties of mycobacteria and can act synergistically with antibiotics from differing classes. Here, we investigate the response of Mycobacterium smegmatis to the presence of rifampin or capreomycin, either alone or in combination with two synthetic, cationic, α-helical AMPs that are distinguished by the presence (D-LAK120-HP13) or absence (D-LAK120-A) of a kink-inducing proline. Using a combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) metabolomics, diphenylhexatriene (DPH) fluorescence anisotropy measurements, and laurdan emission spectroscopy, we show that M...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
Jaimie Mittal, Wendy A Szymczak, Yi Guo, Michael H Levi, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Paul F Riska, Priya Nori
We report a case of a complex orthopaedic infection in a patient returning to New York City from Bangladesh where he was involved in a serious motor vehicle accident. He developed extensive osteomyelitis with a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae The isolate was unique due to the coexistence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 and Oxacillinase type-181 carbapenemases, which are relatively uncommon in North America and were presumably acquired in Bangladesh. Herein, we explore challenges associated with management of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections, including limited available data on effective antimicrobial therapy...
July 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ji-Sun Kim, Ji-Ho Jeong, Jang-Hee Cho, Dong-Hee Lee, Yongae Kim
We previously reported on lactophoricin (LPcin), a cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptide derived from bovine milk, which has antimicrobial effects on Candida albicans as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we designed the LPcin-YK3 peptide, a shorter analog of LPcin, and investigated its antimicrobial activity. This peptide, consisting of 15 amino acids with + 3 net charges, was an effective antimicrobial agent against the on the Gram-positive strain, Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 0...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fabiana Lorencatto, Esmita Charani, Nick Sevdalis, Carolyn Tarrant, Peter Davey
Addressing the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is, in part, reliant on the complex challenge of changing human behaviour-in terms of reducing inappropriate antibiotic use and preventing infection. Whilst there is no 'one size fits all' recommended behavioural solution for improving antimicrobial stewardship, the behavioural and social sciences offer a range of theories, frameworks, methods and evidence-based principles that can help inform the design of behaviour change interventions that are context-specific and thus more likely to be effective...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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