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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925565/regulators-of-long-term-memory-revealed-by-mushroom-body-specific-gene-expression-profiling-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Yves F Widmer, Adem Bilican, Rémy Bruggmann, Simon G Sprecher
Memory formation is achieved by genetically tightly controlled molecular pathways that result in a change of synaptic strength and synapse organization. While for short-term memory traces rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory formation...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893856/biallelic-missense-variants-in-zbtb11-can-cause-intellectual-disability-in-human
#2
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867361/calcium-in-kenyon-cell-somata-as-a-substrate-for-an-olfactory-sensory-memory-in-drosophila
#3
Alja Lüdke, Georg Raiser, Johannes Nehrkorn, Andreas V M Herz, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals can form associations between temporally separated stimuli. To do so, the nervous system has to retain a neural representation of the first stimulus until the second stimulus appears. The neural substrate of such sensory stimulus memories is unknown. Here, we search for a sensory odor memory in the insect olfactory system and characterize odorant-evoked Ca2+ activity at three consecutive layers of the olfactory system in Drosophila : in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, and in Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848652/flexible-memory-controls-sperm-competition-responses-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
J Rouse, K Watkinson, A Bretman
Males of many species use social cues to predict sperm competition (SC) and tailor their reproductive strategies, such as ejaculate or behavioural investment, accordingly. While these plastic strategies are widespread, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Plastic behaviour requires individuals to learn and memorize cues associated with environmental change before using this experience to modify behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster respond to an increase in SC threat by extending mating duration after exposure to a rival male...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848623/-corl-expression-in-the-drosophila-central-nervous-system-is-regulated-by-stage-specific-interactions-of-intertwined-activators-and-repressors
#5
Nancy L Tran, Norma T Takaesu, Elizabeth F Cornell, Stuart J Newfeld
CORL proteins (SKOR in mice and Fussel in humans) are a subfamily of central nervous system (CNS) specific proteins related to Sno/Ski oncogenes. Their developmental and homeostatic roles are largely unknown. We previously showed that Drosophila CORL ( dCORL ; fussel in Flybase) functions between the Activin receptor Baboon and Ecdysone Receptor-B1 (EcR-B1) activation in mushroom body neurons of third instar larval brains. To better understand dCORL regulation and function we generated a series of reporter genes...
May 30, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808570/the-interruptive-effect-of-electric-shock-on-odor-response-requires-mushroom-bodies-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Wei Song, Lirong Zhao, Yiting Tao, Xia Guo, Jia Jia, Lei He, Yang Huang, Yan Zhu, Peng Chen, Hongtao Qin
Nociceptive stimulus involuntarily interrupts concurrent activities. This interruptive effect is related to the protective function of nociception that is believed to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. To determine whether such interruptive effect is conserved in invertebrate and potentially uncover underlying neural circuits, we examined Drosophila melanogaster. Electric shock (ES) is a commonly used nociceptive stimulus for nociception related research in Drosophila. Here we showed that background noxious ES dramatically interrupted odor response behaviors in a T-maze, which is termed blocking odor-response by electric-shock (BOBE)...
May 28, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#7
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726098/mef2-induction-of-the-immediate-early-gene-hr38-nr4a-is-terminated-by-sirt1-to-promote-ethanol-tolerance
#8
Pratik Adhikari, Donnoban Orozco, Harpreet Randhawa, Fred W Wolf
Drug naïve animals given a single dose of ethanol show changed responses to subsequent doses, including the development of ethanol tolerance and ethanol preference. These simple forms of behavioral plasticity are due in part to changes in gene expression and neuronal properties. Surprisingly little is known about how ethanol initiates changes in gene expression or what the changes do. Here we demonstrate a role in ethanol plasticity for Hr38, the sole Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Nr4a1/2/3 class of immediate early response transcription factors...
May 3, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#9
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659025/synaptic-depression-induced-by-postsynaptic-camp-production-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-calyx
#10
Shoma Sato, Kohei Ueno, Minoru Saitoe, Takaomi Sakai
KEY POINTS: Synaptic potentiation in Drosophila is observed at cholinergic synapses between antennal lobe (AL) and mushroom body (MB) neurons in the adult brain; however, depression at the AL-MB synapses has not yet been identified. By ex vivo Ca2+ imaging in an isolated cultured Drosophila brain, we found novel activity-dependent depression at the AL-MB synapses. The degree of Ca2+ responses after repetitive AL stimulation is significantly reduced in the dendritic region of MB neurons (calyx) compared with those before AL stimulation, and this reduction of Ca2+ responses remains for at least 30 min...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#11
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551489/active-protection-learning-activated-raf-mapk-activity-protects-labile-memory-from-rac1-independent-forgetting
#12
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549237/functional-architecture-of-reward-learning-in-mushroom-body-extrinsic-neurons-of-larval-drosophila
#13
Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#14
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545390/elongator-complex-is-required-for-long-term-olfactory-memory-formation-in-drosophila
#15
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507112/rap1-canoe-and-mbt-cooperate-with-bazooka-to-promote-zonula-adherens-assembly-in-the-fly-photoreceptor
#16
Rhian F Walther, Mubarik Burki, Noelia Pinal, Clare Rogerson, Franck Pichaud
In Drosophila epithelial cells, apical exclusion of Bazooka (the Drosophila Par3 protein) defines the position of the zonula adherens (ZA), which demarcates the apical and lateral membrane and allows cells to assemble into sheets. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1, its effector Canoe (Cno) and the Cdc42 effector kinase Mushroom bodies tiny (Mbt), converge in regulating epithelial morphogenesis by coupling stabilization of the adherens junction (AJ) protein E-Cadherin and Bazooka retention at the ZA. Furthermore, our results show that the localization of Rap1, Cno and Mbt at the ZA is interdependent, indicating that their functions during ZA morphogenesis are interlinked...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490271/two-parallel-pathways-assign-opposing-odor-valences-during-drosophila-memory-formation
#17
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477608/mushroom-body-glycolysis-is-required-for-olfactory-memory-in-drosophila
#18
Chia-Lin Wu, Ching-Ching Chang, Jie-Kai Wu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Chu-Huai Yang, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang
Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473541/a-kinase-dependent-feedforward-loop-affects-crebb-stability-and-long-term-memory-formation
#19
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410515/the-pka-c3-catalytic-subunit-is-required-in-two-pairs-of-interneurons-for-successful-mating-of-drosophila
#20
Marlène Cassar, Elizabeth Sunderhaus, Jill S Wentzell, Sara Kuntz, Roland Strauss, Doris Kretzschmar
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to play a role in a plethora of cellular processes ranging from development to memory formation. Its activity is mediated by the catalytic subunits whereby many species express several paralogs. Drosophila encodes three catalytic subunits (PKA-C1-3) and whereas PKA-C1 has been well studied, the functions of the other two subunits were unknown. PKA-C3 is the orthologue of mammalian PRKX/Pkare and they are structurally more closely related to each other than to other catalytic subunits within their species...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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