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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630111/investigation-of-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-drosophila-model-of-human-epilepsy-with-optogenetic-stimulation
#1
Arunesh Saras, Veronica V Wu, Harlan J Brawer, Mark A Tanouye
We examined seizure-susceptibility in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy using optogenetic stimulation of ReaChR opsin. Photostimulation of the seizure-sensitive mutant para(bss1) causes behavioral paralysis that resembles paralysis caused by mechanical stimulation, in many aspects. Electrophysiology shows that photostimulation evokes abnormal seizure-like neuronal firing in para(bss1) followed by a quiescent period resembling synaptic failure and apparently responsible for paralysis. The pattern of neuronal activity concludes with seizure-like activity just prior to recovery (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627422/down-regulation-of-kv4-channel-in-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons-contributes-to-a%C3%AE-42-induced-courtship-memory-deficits
#2
Ge Feng, Jie Pang, Xin Yi, Qian Song, Jiaxing Zhang, Can Li, Guang He, Yong Ping
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is widely believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kv4 is an A-type K(+) channel, and our previous report shows the degradation of Kv4, induced by the Aβ42 accumulation, may be a critical contributor to the hyperexcitability of neurons in a Drosophila AD model. Here, we used well-established courtship memory assay to investigate the contribution of the Kv4 channel to short-term memory (STM) deficits in the Aβ42-expressing AD model. We found that Aβ42 over-expression in Drosophila leads to age-dependent courtship STM loss, which can be also induced by driving acute Aβ42 expression post-developmentally...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585544/serotonin-modulates-a-depression-like-state-in-drosophila-responsive-to-lithium-treatment
#3
Ariane-Saskia Ries, Tim Hermanns, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of patients; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Rodent models have been developed using chronic mild stress or unavoidable punishment (learned helplessness) to induce features of depression, like general inactivity and anhedonia. Here we report a three-day vibration-stress protocol for Drosophila that reduces voluntary behavioural activity. As in many MDD patients, lithium-chloride treatment can suppress this depression-like state in flies. The behavioural changes correlate with reduced serotonin (5-HT) release at the mushroom body (MB) and can be relieved by feeding the antidepressant 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or sucrose, which results in elevated 5-HT levels in the brain...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580949/upregulated-energy-metabolism-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-is-the-trigger-for-long-term-memory
#4
Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Éloïse de Tredern, Lisa Scheunemann, Séverine Trannoy, Valérie Goguel, Kyung-An Han, Guillaume Isabel, Thomas Preat
Efficient energy use has constrained the evolution of nervous systems. However, it is unresolved whether energy metabolism may resultantly regulate major brain functions. Our observation that Drosophila flies double their sucrose intake at an early stage of long-term memory formation initiated the investigation of how energy metabolism intervenes in this process. Cellular-resolution imaging of energy metabolism reveals a concurrent elevation of energy consumption in neurons of the mushroom body, the fly's major memory centre...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554773/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-by-dopecr-a-unique-dual-receptor-for-ecdysone-and-dopamine
#5
REVIEW
Arianna Lark, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Jean-René Martin
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for steroid hormones mediate unconventional steroid signaling and play a significant role in the rapid actions of steroids in a variety of biological processes, including those in the nervous system. However, the effects of these GPCRs on overall neuronal activity remain largely elusive. Drosophila DopEcR is a GPCR that responds to both ecdysone (the major steroid hormone in insects) and dopamine, regulating multiple second messenger systems. Recent studies have revealed that DopEcR is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and involved in behavioral regulation...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515683/a-population-of-projection-neurons-that-inhibits-the-lateral-horn-but-excites-the-antennal-lobe-through-chemical-synapses-in-drosophila
#6
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504254/neural-circuits-for-long-term-water-reward-memory-processing-in-thirsty-drosophila
#7
Wei-Huan Shyu, Tai-Hsiang Chiu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Yu-Chin Cheng, Ya-Lun Tsai, Tsai-Feng Fu, Tony Wu, Chia-Lin Wu
The intake of water is important for the survival of all animals and drinking water can be used as a reward in thirsty animals. Here we found that thirsty Drosophila melanogaster can associate drinking water with an odour to form a protein-synthesis-dependent water-reward long-term memory (LTM). Furthermore, we found that the reinforcement of LTM requires water-responsive dopaminergic neurons projecting to the restricted region of mushroom body (MB) β' lobe, which are different from the neurons required for the reinforcement of learning and short-term memory (STM)...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502772/representations-of-novelty-and-familiarity-in-a-mushroom-body-compartment
#8
Daisuke Hattori, Yoshinori Aso, Kurtis J Swartz, Gerald M Rubin, L F Abbott, Richard Axel
Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489528/reciprocal-synapses-between-mushroom-body-and-dopamine-neurons-form-a-positive-feedback-loop-required-for-learning
#9
Isaac Cervantes-Sandoval, Anna Phan, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
Current thought envisions dopamine neurons conveying the reinforcing effect of the unconditioned stimulus during associative learning to the axons of Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells for normal olfactory learning. Here, we show using functional GFP reconstitution experiments that Kenyon cells and dopamine neurons from axoaxonic reciprocal synapses. The dopamine neurons receive cholinergic input via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the Kenyon cells; knocking down these receptors impairs olfactory learning revealing the importance of these receptors at the synapse...
May 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#10
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465232/identification-of-glaikit-in-a-genome-wide-expression-profiling-for-axonal-bifurcation-of-the-mushroom-body-in-drosophila
#11
Yohei Nitta, Atsushi Sugie
Axonal branching is a fundamental requirement for sending electrical signals to multiple targets. However, despite the importance of axonal branching in neural development and function, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. Previous studies have hardly addressed the intracellular signaling cascade of axonal bifurcation characterized by growth cone splitting. Recently we reported that DISCO interacting protein 2 (DIP2) regulates bifurcation of mushroom body axons in Drosophila melanogaster...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#12
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438481/genes-and-neural-circuits-for-sleep-of-the-fruit-fly
#13
REVIEW
Jun Tomita, Gosuke Ban, Kazuhiko Kume
Sleep is a universal physiological state evolutionarily conserved among species, but the molecular basis for its regulation is still largely unknown. Due to its electroencephalogram criteria, sleep has long been investigated and described mostly in mammalian species. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a genetic model organism for studying sleep. The Drosophila sleep is behaviorally defined, and is tightly regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes, like mammals. Genetic analyses using Drosophila have successfully identified a number of conserved regulatory mechanisms underlying sleep between flies and mammals...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437454/age-associated-increase-of-the-active-zone-protein-bruchpilot-within-the-honeybee-mushroom-body
#14
Katrin B Gehring, Karin Heufelder, Harald Depner, Isabella Kersting, Stephan J Sigrist, Dorothea Eisenhardt
In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#15
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#16
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401598/dcf1-improves-behavior-deficit-in-drosophila-and-mice-caused-by-optogenetic-suppression
#17
Qiang Liu, Linhua Gan, Jian Ni, Yu Chen, Yanlu Chen, Zhili Huang, Xu Huang, Tieqiao Wen
Optogenetics play a significant role in neuroscientific research by providing a tool for understanding neural circuits and brain functions. Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) actively pumps chloride ions into the cells and hyperpolarizes neuronal membranes in response to yellow light. In this study, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing NpHR under the control of the Gal4/UAS system and virus-infected mice expressing NpHR to explore the effect of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) on the behavior mediated by the mushroom body in Drosophila and the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396840/suppression-of-a-single-pair-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila-triggers-aversive-associations
#18
Yutaro Ueoka, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Tetsuya Tabata
Memory includes the processes of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. In the study of aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster, flies are first exposed to an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) that is associated with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), then to another odor (CS-) without the US, before allowing the flies to choose to avoid one of the two odors. The center for memory formation is the mushroom body which consists of Kenyon cells (KCs), dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and mushroom body output neurons (MBONs)...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396149/disco-interacting-protein-2-determines-direction-of-axon-projection-under-the-regulation-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body
#19
Yohei Nitta, Atsushi Sugie
Precisely controlled axon guidance for complex neuronal wiring is essential for appropriate neuronal function. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was found to play a role in axon guidance recently as well as in cell proliferation, protection and apoptosis. In spite of many genetic and molecular studies on these biological processes regulated by JNK, how JNK regulates axon guidance accurately has not been fully explained thus far. To address this question, we use the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) as a model since the α/β axons project in two distinct directions...
May 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#20
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
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