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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196744/a-simple-high-throughput-assay-to-evaluate-water-consumption-in-the-fruit-fly
#2
Man-Tat Lau, Yong Qi Lin, Stefan Kisling, James Cotterell, Yana A Wilson, Qiao-Ping Wang, Thang M Khuong, Noman Bakhshi, Tiffany A Cole, Lisa J Oyston, Adam R Cole, G Gregory Neely
Water intake is essential for survival and thus under strong regulation. Here, we describe a simple high throughput system to monitor water intake over time in Drosophila. The design of the assay involves dehydrating fly food and then adding water back separately so flies either eat or drink. Water consumption is then evaluated by weighing the water vessel and comparing this back to an evaporation control. Our system is high throughput, does not require animals to be artificially dehydrated, and is simple both in design and implementation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180783/ingestion-of-artificial-sweeteners-leads-to-caloric-frustration-memory-in-drosophila
#3
Pierre-Yves Musso, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Paul Tchenio, Thomas Preat
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are widely used in modern human food, raising the question about their health impact. Here we have asked whether NAS consumption is a neutral experience at neural and behavioral level, or if NAS can be interpreted and remembered as negative experience. We used behavioral and imaging approaches to demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster learn the non-caloric property of NAS through post-ingestion process. These results show that sweet taste is predictive of an energy value, and its absence leads to the formation of what we call Caloric Frustration Memory (CFM) that devalues the NAS or its caloric enantiomer...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166600/dopamine-receptor-damb-signals-via-gq-to-mediate-forgetting-in-drosophila
#4
Sophie Himmelreich, Ikuo Masuho, Jacob A Berry, Courtney MacMullen, Nickolas K Skamangas, Kirill A Martemyanov, Ronald L Davis
Prior studies have shown that aversive olfactory memory is acquired by dopamine acting on a specific receptor, dDA1, expressed by mushroom body neurons. Active forgetting is mediated by dopamine acting on another receptor, Damb, expressed by the same neurons. Surprisingly, prior studies have shown that both receptors stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, presenting an enigma of how mushroom body neurons distinguish between acquisition and forgetting signals. Here, we surveyed the spectrum of G protein coupling of dDA1 and Damb, and we confirmed that both receptors can couple to Gs to stimulate cAMP synthesis...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155751/dissection-and-immunofluorescent-staining-of-mushroom-body-and-photoreceptor-neurons-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-brains
#5
Seth M Kelly, Alexandra Elchert, Michael Kahl
Nervous system development involves a sequential series of events that are coordinated by several signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Many of the proteins involved in these pathways are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other eukaryotes, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that similar organizing principles exist during the development of these organisms. Importantly, Drosophila has been used extensively to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating processes that are required in mammals including neurogenesis, differentiation, axonal guidance, and synaptogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#6
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082071/rapid-adaptive-remote-focusing-microscope-for-sensing-of-volumetric-neural-activity
#7
Mantas Žurauskas, Oliver Barnstedt, Maria Frade-Rodriguez, Scott Waddell, Martin J Booth
The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#8
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074576/a-pre-synaptic-function-of-shank-protein-in-drosophila
#9
Song Wu, Guangming Gan, Zhiping Zhang, Jie Sun, Qifu Wang, Zhongbao Gao, Meixiang Li, Shan Jin, Juan Huang, Ulrich Thomas, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yan Li, Rui Tian, Yong Q Zhang
Human genetic studies support that loss of function mutations in the [highlight]SH[/highlight]3 domain and [highlight]ank[/highlight]yrin repeat containing family proteins (SHANK1-3), the large synaptic scaffolding proteins enriched at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, are causative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To better understand the in vivo functions of Shank and facilitate dissection of neuropathology associated with SHANK mutations in human, we generated multiple mutations in the Shank gene, the only member of the SHANK family in Drosophila melanogaster Both male and female Shank null mutants were fully viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or developmental defects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069077/functional-convergence-of-histone-methyltransferases-ehmt1-and-kmt2c-involved-in-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064449/molecular-affinity-of-mabolo-extracts-to-an-octopamine-receptor-of-a-fruit-fly
#11
Francoise Neil D Dacanay, Ma Carmina Joyce A Ladra, Hiyas A Junio, Ricky B Nellas
Essential oils extracted from plants are composed of volatile organic compounds that can affect insect behavior. Identifying the active components of the essential oils to their biochemical target is necessary to design novel biopesticides. In this study, essential oils extracted from Diospyros discolor (Willd.) were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to create an untargeted metabolite profile. Subsequently, a conformational ensemble of the Drosophila melanogaster octopamine receptor in mushroom bodies (OAMB) was created from a molecular dynamics simulation to resemble a flexible receptor for docking studies...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061687/environmental-effects-on-drosophila-brain-development-and-learning
#12
Xia Wang, Amei Amei, J Steven de Belle, Stephen P Roberts
Brain development and behavior are sensitive to a variety of environmental influences including social interactions and physicochemical stressors. Sensory input in situ is a mosaic of both enrichment and stress, yet little is known about how multiple environmental factors interact to affect brain anatomical structures, circuits, and cognitive function. In this study, we address these issues by testing the individual and combined effects of sub-adulthood thermal stress, larval density, and early-adulthood living spatial enrichment on brain anatomy and olfactory associative learning in adult Drosophila melanogaster In response to heat stress, the mushroom bodies (MBs) were the most volumetrically impaired among all of the brain structures, an effect highly correlated with reduced odor learning performance...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#13
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973902/drk-mediated-signaling-to-rho-kinase-is-required-for-anesthesia-resistant-memory-in-drosophila
#14
Vasileia Kotoula, Anastasios Moressis, Ourania Semelidou, Efthimios M C Skoulakis
Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) was described decades ago, but the mechanisms that underlie this protein synthesis-independent form of consolidated memory in Drosophila remain poorly understood. Whether the several signaling molecules, receptors, and synaptic proteins currently implicated in ARM operate in one or more pathways and how they function in the process remain unclear. We present evidence that Drk, the Drosophila ortholog of the adaptor protein Grb2, is essential for ARM within adult mushroom body neurons...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966087/steroid-hormone-ecdysone-signaling-specifies-mushroom-body-neuron-sequential-fate-via-chinmo
#15
Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
The functional variety in neuronal composition of an adult brain is established during development. Recent studies proposed that interactions between genetic intrinsic programs and external cues are necessary to generate proper neural diversity [1]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are still poorly understood. Three main subtypes of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons are sequentially generated during development and provide a good example of developmental neural plasticity [2]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943854/insulin-signaling-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-regulates-female-sexual-receptivity-during-starvation-in-drosophila
#16
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931572/drosophila-neprilysin-1-rescues-memory-deficits-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#17
Oriane Turrel, Valérie Goguel, Thomas Preat
Neprilysins are Type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides, in particular the mammalian amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In Drosophila, several neprilysins expressed in the brain are required for middle-term (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, a pair of large neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MB), the center of olfactory memory. These data indicate that one or several peptides need to be degraded for MTM and LTM. We have previously shown that the fly amyloid precursor protein (APPL) is required for memory in the MB...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921711/foxp-expression-identifies-a-kenyon-cell-subtype-in-the-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-linking-them-to-fruitfly-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-neurons
#18
Adriana Schatton, Constance Scharff
The arthropod mushroom bodies (MB) are a higher order sensory integration center. In insects, they play a central role in associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), the highly ordered connectivity of heterogeneous MB neuron populations has been mapped using sophisticated molecular genetic and anatomical techniques. The MB-core subpopulation was recently shown to express the transcription factor FoxP with relevance for decision-making. Here we report the development and adult distribution of a FoxP-expressing neuron population in the MB of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) using in situ hybridization and a custom-made antiserum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#19
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900185/anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibodies-restore-memory-acquisition-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Alfonso Martin-Peña, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder triggered by the accumulation of soluble assemblies of the amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide. Despite remarkable advances in understanding the pathogenesis of AD, the development of palliative therapies is still lacking. Engineered anti-Aβ42 antibodies are a promising strategy to stall the progression of the disease. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies increase brain penetration and offer flexible options for delivery while maintaining the epitope targeting of full antibodies...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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