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Drosophila mushroom body

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#1
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008974/drosophila-microrna-34-impairs-axon-pruning-of-mushroom-body-%C3%AE-neurons-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-ecdysone-receptor
#2
Yen-Wei Lai, Sao-Yu Chu, Jia-Yi Wei, Chu-Ya Cheng, Jian-Chiuan Li, Po-Lin Chen, Chun-Hong Chen, Hung-Hsiang Yu
MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is crucial for preventing chronic large-scale neurite degeneration in the aged brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we investigated the role of miR-34 in two other types of large-scale axon degeneration in Drosophila: axotomy-induced axon degeneration in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and developmentally related axon pruning in mushroom body (MB) neurons. Ectopically overexpressed miR-34 did not inhibit axon degeneration in OSNs following axotomy, whereas ectopically overexpressed miR-34 in differentiated MB neurons impaired γ axon pruning...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008309/role-of-drosophila-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-memory-formation
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Preat, Valérie Goguel
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#4
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939707/synapsin-based-approaches-to-brain-plasticity-in-adult-social-insects
#5
REVIEW
Susan E Fahrbach, Byron N Van Nest
Development of the mushroom bodies continues after adult eclosion in social insects. Synapsins, phosphoproteins abundant in presynaptic boutons, are not required for development of the nervous system but have as their primary function modulation of synaptic transmission. A monoclonal antibody against a conserved region of Drosophila synapsin labels synaptic structures called microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies of adult social insects, permitting studies of microglomerular volume, density, and number. The results point to multiple forms of brain plasticity in social insects: age-based and experience-based maturation that results in a decrease in density coupled with an increase in volume of individual microglomeruli in simultaneous operation with shorter term changes in density produced by specific life experiences...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#7
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
January 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905548/neurexin-regulates-nighttime-sleep-by-modulating-synaptic-transmission
#8
Huawei Tong, Qian Li, Zi Chao Zhang, Yi Li, Junhai Han
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871975/the-role-of-the-drosophila-lateral-horn-in-olfactory-information-processing-and-behavioral-response
#9
REVIEW
Janna N Schultzhaus, Sehresh Saleem, Hina Iftikhar, Ginger E Carney
Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780041/regulation-of-drosophila-brain-wiring-by-neuropil-interactions-via-a-slit-robo-rptp-signaling-complex
#10
Carlos Oliva, Alessia Soldano, Natalia Mora, Natalie De Geest, Annelies Claeys, Maria-Luise Erfurth, Jimena Sierralta, Ariane Ramaekers, Dan Dascenco, Radoslaw K Ejsmont, Dietmar Schmucker, Natalia Sanchez-Soriano, Bassem A Hassan
The axonal wiring molecule Slit and its Round-About (Robo) receptors are conserved regulators of nerve cord patterning. Robo receptors also contribute to wiring brain circuits. Whether molecular mechanisms regulating these signals are modified to fit more complex brain wiring processes is unclear. We investigated the role of Slit and Robo receptors in wiring Drosophila higher-order brain circuits and identified differences in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Robo/Slit function. First, we find that signaling by Robo receptors in the brain is regulated by the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase RPTP69d...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#11
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#12
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762066/a-new-brain-dopamine-deficient-drosophila-and-its-pharmacological-and-genetic-rescue
#13
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760793/a-genetic-screen-to-assess-dopamine-receptor-dopr1-dependent-sleep-regulation-in-drosophila
#14
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here, we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilizes DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
December 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629706/drosophila-neprilysins-are-involved-in-middle-term-and-long-term-memory
#15
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571359/visual-attention-in-flies-dopamine-in-the-mushroom-bodies-mediates-the-after-effect-of-cueing
#16
Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568554/inhibiting-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-during-development-impairs-memory-in-adult-drosophila
#17
Ilaria Drago, Ronald L Davis
The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514716/dementia-related-bri2-brichos-is-a-versatile-molecular-chaperone-that-efficiently-inhibits-a%C3%AE-42-toxicity-in-drosophila
#18
Helen Poska, Martin Haslbeck, Firoz Roshan Kurudenkandy, Erik Hermansson, Gefei Chen, George Kostallas, Axel Abelein, Henrik Biverstål, Sophie Crux, André Fisahn, Jenny Presto, Jan Johansson
Formation of fibrils of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is suggested to play a central role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which no effective treatment exists. The BRICHOS domain is a part of several disease-related proproteins, the most studied ones being Bri2 associated with familial dementia and prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) associated with lung amyloid. BRICHOS from proSP-C has been found to be an efficient inhibitor of Aβ aggregation and toxicity, but its lung-specific expression makes it unsuited to target in AD...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466338/circuit-analysis-of-a-drosophila-dopamine-type-2-receptor-that-supports-anesthesia-resistant-memory
#19
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455861/retinal-homeobox-promotes-cell-growth-proliferation-and-survival-of-mushroom-body-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-brain
#20
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centers of olfactory learning and memory in the fly 'forebrain', develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
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