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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#2
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905548/neurexin-regulates-nighttime-sleep-by-modulating-synaptic-transmission
#3
Huawei Tong, Qian Li, Zi Chao Zhang, Yi Li, Junhai Han
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871975/the-role-of-the-drosophila-lateral-horn-in-olfactory-information-processing-and-behavioral-response
#4
REVIEW
Janna N Schultzhaus, Sehresh Saleem, Hina Iftikhar, Ginger E Carney
Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780041/regulation-of-drosophila-brain-wiring-by-neuropil-interactions-via-a-slit-robo-rptp-signaling-complex
#5
Carlos Oliva, Alessia Soldano, Natalia Mora, Natalie De Geest, Annelies Claeys, Maria-Luise Erfurth, Jimena Sierralta, Ariane Ramaekers, Dan Dascenco, Radoslaw K Ejsmont, Dietmar Schmucker, Natalia Sanchez-Soriano, Bassem A Hassan
The axonal wiring molecule Slit and its Round-About (Robo) receptors are conserved regulators of nerve cord patterning. Robo receptors also contribute to wiring brain circuits. Whether molecular mechanisms regulating these signals are modified to fit more complex brain wiring processes is unclear. We investigated the role of Slit and Robo receptors in wiring Drosophila higher-order brain circuits and identified differences in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Robo/Slit function. First, we find that signaling by Robo receptors in the brain is regulated by the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase RPTP69d...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#6
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#7
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762066/a-new-brain-dopamine-deficient-drosophila-and-its-pharmacological-and-genetic-rescue
#8
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760793/a-genetic-screen-to-assess-dopamine-receptor-dopr1-dependent-sleep-regulation-in-drosophila
#9
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629706/drosophila-neprilysins-are-involved-in-middle-term-and-long-term-memory
#10
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571359/visual-attention-in-flies-dopamine-in-the-mushroom-bodies-mediates-the-after-effect-of-cueing
#11
Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568554/inhibiting-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-during-development-impairs-memory-in-adult-drosophila
#12
Ilaria Drago, Ronald L Davis
The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514716/dementia-related-bri2-brichos-is-a-versatile-molecular-chaperone-that-efficiently-inhibits-a%C3%AE-42-toxicity-in-drosophila
#13
Helen Poska, Martin Haslbeck, Firoz Roshan Kurudenkandy, Erik Hermansson, Gefei Chen, George Kostallas, Axel Abelein, Henrik Biverstål, Sophie Crux, André Fisahn, Jenny Presto, Jan Johansson
Formation of fibrils of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is suggested to play a central role in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which no effective treatment exists. The BRICHOS domain is a part of several disease-related proproteins, the most studied ones being Bri2 associated with familial dementia and prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) associated with lung amyloid. BRICHOS from proSP-C has been found to be an efficient inhibitor of Aβ aggregation and toxicity, but its lung-specific expression makes it unsuited to target in AD...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466338/circuit-analysis-of-a-drosophila-dopamine-type-2-receptor-that-supports-anesthesia-resistant-memory
#14
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455861/retinal-homeobox-promotes-cell-growth-proliferation-and-survival-of-mushroom-body-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centres of olfactory learning and memory in the fly `forebrain´, develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
July 22, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454757/tip60-hat-action-mediates-environmental-enrichment-induced-cognitive-restoration
#16
Songjun Xu, Priyalakshmi Panikker, Sahira Iqbal, Felice Elefant
Environmental enrichment (EE) conditions have beneficial effects for reinstating cognitive ability in neuropathological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). While EE benefits involve epigenetic gene control mechanisms that comprise histone acetylation, the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) involved remain largely unknown. Here, we examine a role for Tip60 HAT action in mediating activity- dependent beneficial neuroadaptations to EE using the Drosophila CNS mushroom body (MB) as a well-characterized cognition model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441388/dopaminergic-neurons-write-and-update-memories-with-cell-type-specific-rules
#17
Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M Rubin
Associative learning is thought to involve parallel and distributed mechanisms of memory formation and storage. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative odor memory formation. Previously we described the anatomy of the adult MB and defined 20 types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that each innervate distinct MB compartments (Aso et al., 2014a, 2014b). Here we compare the properties of memories formed by optogenetic activation of individual DAN cell types. We found extensive differences in training requirements for memory formation, decay dynamics, storage capacity and flexibility to learn new associations...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404960/convergence-of-multimodal-sensory-pathways-to-the-mushroom-body-calyx-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Ryosuke Yagi, Yuta Mabuchi, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385016/the-drosophila-neurogenin-tap-functionally-interacts-with-the-wnt-pcp-pathway-to-regulate-neuronal-extension-and-guidance
#19
Liqun Yuan, Shu Hu, Zeynep Okray, Xi Ren, Natalie De Geest, Annelies Claeys, Jiekun Yan, Eric Bellefroid, Bassem A Hassan, Xiao-Jiang Quan
The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled...
August 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354193/a-fly-inspired-mushroom-bodies-model-for-sensory-motor-control-through-sequence-and-subsequence-learning
#20
Paolo Arena, Marco Calí, Luca Patané, Agnese Portera, Roland Strauss
Classification and sequence learning are relevant capabilities used by living beings to extract complex information from the environment for behavioral control. The insect world is full of examples where the presentation time of specific stimuli shapes the behavioral response. On the basis of previously developed neural models, inspired by Drosophila melanogaster, a new architecture for classification and sequence learning is here presented under the perspective of the Neural Reuse theory. Classification of relevant input stimuli is performed through resonant neurons, activated by the complex dynamics generated in a lattice of recurrent spiking neurons modeling the insect Mushroom Bodies neuropile...
September 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
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