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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978219/epidemiology-and-management-of-hyperlipidemia
#1
Samantha Karr
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among adults in the United States, and people with hyperlipidemia are at roughly twice the risk of developing CVD as compared to those with normal total cholesterol levels.1 Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have an even greater risk of developing CVD at an earlier age; therefore, early detection and treatment are imperative to reduce cardiovascular events and premature death. Statins are the mainstay treatment for hyperlipidemia; however, the limitations of statins include treatment resistance, intolerance due to adverse events, and a lack of adherence which contribute to poor outcomes...
June 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884604/novel-treatment-options-for-the-management-of-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Georgios Polychronopoulos, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Even though statins represent the mainstay of treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering efficacy is finite and most patients with FH will not achieve LDL-C targets with statin monotherapy. Addition of ezetimibe with or without bile acid sequestrants will also not lead to treatment goals in many of these patients, particularly in those with established cardiovascular disease. In this selected subgroup of the FH population, proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide substantial reductions in LDL-C levels, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and appear to be safe...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829437/control-of-phosphorothioate-stereochemistry-substantially-increases-the-efficacy-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#3
Naoki Iwamoto, David C D Butler, Nenad Svrzikapa, Susovan Mohapatra, Ivan Zlatev, Dinah W Y Sah, Meena, Stephany M Standley, Genliang Lu, Luciano H Apponi, Maria Frank-Kamenetsky, Jason Jingxin Zhang, Chandra Vargeese, Gregory L Verdine
Whereas stereochemical purity in drugs has become the standard for small molecules, stereoisomeric mixtures containing as many as a half million components persist in antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutics because it has been feasible neither to separate the individual stereoisomers, nor to synthesize stereochemically pure ASOs. Here we report the development of a scalable synthetic process that yields therapeutic ASOs having high stereochemical and chemical purity. Using this method, we synthesized rationally designed stereopure components of mipomersen, a drug comprising 524,288 stereoisomers...
September 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509890/balancing-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-and-hepatotoxicity-with-lomitapide-mesylate-and-mipomersen-in-patients-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#4
Jane I Won, Jun Zhang, Kristen M Tecson, Peter A McCullough
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an autosomal codominant disorder manifested by high concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and premature cardiovascular disease. Despite conventional lipid-lowering therapy, LDL cholesterol levels remain elevated in patients with HoFH; these patients are considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular events. In 2012-2013, two drugs with novel mechanisms of action were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HoFH: lomitapide mesylate and mipomersen...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506384/managing-the-challenging-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-patient-academic-insights-and-practical-approaches-for-a-severe-dyslipidemia-a-national-lipid-association-masters-summit
#5
EDITORIAL
G Kees Hovingh, Anne C Goldberg, Patrick M Moriarty
The following article represents material presented and discussed at a symposium hosted by the National Lipid Association hosted entitled "Managing the Challenging Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Patient-Academic Insights and Practical Approaches for a Severe Dyslipidemia" on November 7, 2015 in Orlando, FL. Presenters included G.K.H., A.C.G, and P.M.M. The diagnosis and genetic causes of extremely high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which has become known as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, were discussed...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445176/novel-lipid-modifying-drugs-to-lower-ldl-cholesterol
#6
Arjen J Cupido, Laurens F Reeskamp, John J P Kastelein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins have long been the cornerstone for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, because of perceived adverse effects and insufficient efficacy in certain groups of patients, considerable interest exists in the search for alternatives to lower LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and the recent approvals of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors underlines the success of this quest. Here, we give an updated overview on the most recent developments in the area of LDL-C lowering agents...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391901/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-negative-compound-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-two-lifetime-journeys-of-lipid-lowering-therapy
#7
Reyhana Yahya, Monique T Mulder, Eric J G Sijbrands, Monique Williams, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279833/effect-of-mipomersen-on-ldl-cholesterol-in-patients-with-severe-ldl-hypercholesterolaemia-and-atherosclerosis-treated-by-lipoprotein-apheresis-the-mica-study
#8
Elisa Waldmann, Anja Vogt, Alexander Crispin, Julia Altenhofer, Ina Riks, Klaus G Parhofer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of mipomersen in patients with severe LDL-hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, treated by lipid lowering drugs and regular lipoprotein apheresis. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled phase II single center trial enrolled 15 patients (9 males, 6 females; 59 ± 9 y, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m(2)) with established atherosclerosis, LDL-cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (3.4 mmol/L) despite maximal possible drug therapy, and fulfilling German criteria for regular lipoprotein apheresis...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248199/targeting-noncoding-rnas-in-disease
#9
REVIEW
Brian D Adams, Christine Parsons, Lisa Walker, Wen Cai Zhang, Frank J Slack
Many RNA species have been identified as important players in the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. Over the past decade, numerous studies have highlighted how regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the development of a disease state. It is clear that the aberrant expression of miRNAs promotes tumor initiation and progression, is linked with cardiac dysfunction, allows for the improper physiological response in maintaining glucose and insulin levels, and can prevent the appropriate integration of neuronal networks, resulting in neurodegenerative disorders...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242176/2017-taiwan-lipid-guidelines-for-high-risk-patients
#10
REVIEW
Yi-Heng Li, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Min-Ji Charng, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Kuo-Liong Chien, Chih-Yuan Wang, Ting-Hsing Chao, Ping-Yen Liu, Cheng-Huang Su, Shih-Chieh Chien, Chia-Wei Liou, Sung-Chun Tang, Chun-Chuan Lee, Tse-Ya Yu, Jaw-Wen Chen, Chau-Chung Wu, Hung-I Yeh
In Taiwan, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia increased due to lifestyle and dietary habit changes. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are all significant predicting factors of coronary artery disease in Taiwan. We recognized that lipid control is especially important in patients with existed atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), including coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Because the risk of ASCVD is high in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), lipid control is also necessary in these patients...
April 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183512/a-test-in-context-lipoprotein-a-diagnosis-prognosis-controversies-and-emerging-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Sotirios Tsimikas
Evidence that elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is substantial. Development of isoform-independent assays, in concert with genetic, epidemiological, translational, and pathophysiological insights, have established Lp(a) as an independent, genetic, and likely causal risk factor for CVD and CAVS. These observations are consistent across a broad spectrum of patients, risk factors, and concomitant therapies, including patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dl...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179607/half-a-century-tales-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-fh-in-japan
#12
REVIEW
Hiroshi Mabuchi
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a disease characterized by a triad: elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, tendon xanthomas, and premature coronary heart disease. Thus, it can be considered as a model disease for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). For the diagnosis of hetero-FH, the detection of Achilles tendon xanthomas by palpation or on X-ray is an indispensable diagnostic skill in clinical lipidology. To prevent the under-diagnosis and under-treatment of FH, the diagnostic criteria should be more convenient and user-friendly...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032426/lipoprotein-a-in-postmenopausal-women-assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-options
#13
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Spyridon Karras, Irene Lambrinoudaki, John C Stevenson, Dimitrios G Goulis
INTRODUCTION: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle, has been independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in various populations, such as postmenopausal women. The purpose of this narrative review is to present current data on the role of Lp(a) in augmenting CVD risk in postmenopausal women and focus on the available therapeutic strategies. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English language publications until November 2015 under the following terms: "therapy" OR "treatment" AND ["lipoprotein (a)" OR "Lp(a)"] AND ("postmenopausal women" OR "menopausal women" OR "menopause")...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018102/apolipoprotein-b100-is-required-for-hepatitis-c-infectivity-and-mipomersen-inhibits-hepatitis-c
#14
Esperance A K Schaefer, James Meixiong, Christina Mark, Amy Deik, Daniel L Motola, Dahlene Fusco, Andrew Yang, Cynthia Brisac, Shadi Salloum, Wenyu Lin, Clary B Clish, Lee F Peng, Raymond T Chung
AIM: To characterize the role of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) in hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. METHODS: In this study, we utilize a gene editing tool, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), to generate human hepatoma cells with a stable genetic deletion of APOB to assess of apoB in HCV. Using infectious cell culture-competent HCV, viral pseudoparticles, replicon models, and lipidomic analysis we determined the contribution of apoB to each step of the viral lifecycle...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967828/homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-update-on-management
#15
REVIEW
Michael France
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is an inherited disease causing an approximately fourfold increase in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) from birth compared with the age-matched normal population owing to reduced low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity. Such elevated cholesterol is associated with accelerated atheromatous disease, particularly of the aortic root and coronary arteries. However, HoFH is clinically heterogeneous, reflecting residual low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity...
November 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919344/jcl-roundtable-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategy
#16
REVIEW
W Virgil Brown, Dean A Bramlet, Joyce L Ross, James A Underberg
Many factors enter into the decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new drug for use by physicians and other health care providers in treating diseases. Initially, the FDA authority was restricted to issues of safety and only later did the documentation of efficacy become part of the review process required for approval. However, all drugs have the potential for causing harm at some dose level to all and at lower doses in certain patients with vulnerability to the particular pharmacology of the agent...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809385/in-vitro-selection-of-ph-activated-dna-nanostructures
#17
Faye Yi Fong, Seung Soo Oh, Craig J Hawker, H Tom Soh
We report the first in vitro selection of DNA nanostructures that switch their conformation when triggered by change in pH. Previously, most pH-active nanostructures were designed using known pH-active motifs, such as the i-motif or the triplex structure. In contrast, we performed de novo selections starting from a random library and generated nanostructures that can sequester and release Mipomersen, a clinically approved antisense DNA drug, in response to pH change. We demonstrate extraordinary pH-selectivity, releasing up to 714-fold more Mipomersen at pH 5...
December 5, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797643/modern-management-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#18
P Barton Duell, Ishwarlal Jialal
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that can manifest clinically as both the severe homozygous (HoFH) form that often presents in childhood and the commoner heterozygous (HeFH) form that is typically identified in adults. The majority of genetic causes are due to defects in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor synthesis and action. Until recently, it was exceedingly difficult to achieve the goal of a 50% reduction in LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C < 70-100 in these patients. Established therapies include statins, niacin, bile-acid sequestrants, and ezetimibe in various combinations...
December 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711959/novel-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#19
REVIEW
L Bonanni, A Cutolo, M Dalla Vestra
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.The extent of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of individuals with FH is largely unknown.The LDL-lowering capacity of statins in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs is maximally around 50-60%. FH patients have a strongly elevated LDL-C and in most cases maximal current treatment is not sufficient to reach the desired LDL targets.Therefore, FH patients have a large residual cardiovascular risk despite the use of statins and there is a medical need for new additional drugs to further lower LDL-C in patients with FH to improve their prognosis...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620638/novel-therapies-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#20
REVIEW
Justin Parizo, Ashish Sarraju, Joshua W Knowles
Both HeFH and HoFH require dietary and lifestyle modification. Pharmacotherapy of adult HeFH patients is largely driven by the American Heart Association (AHA) algorithm. A high-potency statin is started initially with a goal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction of >50 %. The LDL-C target is adjusted to <100 or <70 mg/dL in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) with ezetimibe being second line. If necessary, a third adjunctive therapy, such as a PSCK9 inhibitor (not yet approved in children) or bile acid-binding resin, can be added...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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