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Mammary stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109147/-co-culture-with-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-synthesis-and-mechnism-of-milk-protein-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
Yankun Zhao, Wei Shao, Chenglong Luo, Kaile Wu, Xiong Yu
Objective To explore the possible mechanism of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) regulating milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs). Methods UCMSCs and BMECs were co-cultured by double-chamber Transwell(TM), and other BMECs were cultured alone as a control group. Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor AG1024 was used to treat cells. IGF-1, β casein (CSN2) and κ casein (CSN3) content in the supernatants were determined by ELISA; the relative expression abundance of Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway-related genes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); and after the cells were treated with JAK2 signal blocker AG490, qRT-PCR was performed to test the relative expression abundance of CSN2 and CSN3 mRNAs...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108623/tumor-induced-stromal-stat1-accelerates-breast-cancer-via-deregulating-tissue-homeostasis
#2
Victoria R Zellmer, Patricia M Schnepp, Sarah L Fracci, Xuejuan Tan, Erin N Howe, Siyuan Zhang
: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic tissue space in which the tumor exists, plays a significant role in tumor initiation, and is a key contributor in cancer progression; however, little is known about tumor-induced changes in the adjacent tissue stroma. Herein, tumor-induced changes in the TME were explored at the morphological and molecular level to further understand cancer progression. Tumor-adjacent mammary glands (TAGs) displayed altered branching morphology, expansion of myofibroblasts, and increased mammosphere formation, broadly suggesting a tumor-induced field effect...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108512/constitutive-notch3-signaling-promotes-the-growth-of-basal-breast-cancers
#3
Lisa Choy, Thijs Hagenbeek, Margaret Solon, Dorothy M French, David Finkle, Amy Shelton, Rayna Venook, Matthew J Brauer, Christian W Siebel
Notch ligands signal through one of four receptors on neighboring cells to mediate cell-cell communication and control cell fate, proliferation and survival. Although aberrant Notch activation has been implicated in numerous malignancies, including breast cancer, the importance of individual receptors in distinct breast cancer subtypes and the mechanisms of receptor activation remain unclear. Using a novel antibody to detect active NOTCH3, we report here that NOTCH3 signals constitutively in a panel of basal breast cancer cell lines and in more than one-third of basal tumors...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103884/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-cytochrome-p450%C3%A2-1a1-pathway-mediates-breast-cancer-stem-cells-expansion-through-pten-inhibition-and-%C3%AE-catenin-and-akt-activation
#4
Abdullah Al-Dhfyan, Ali Alhoshani, Hesham M Korashy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are small sub-type of the whole cancer cells that drive tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/cytochrome P4501A1 pathway in CSCs expansion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: The current study was designed to a) determine the effect of AhR activation and inhibition on breast CSCs development, maintenance, self-renewal, and chemoresistance at the in vitro and in vivo levels and b) explore the role of β-Catenin, PI3K/Akt, and PTEN signaling pathways...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100467/an-essential-role-of-cbl-and-cbl-b-ubiquitin-ligases-in-mammary-stem-cell-maintenance
#5
Bhopal Mohapatra, Neha Zutshi, Wei An, Benjamin Goetz, Priyanka Arya, Timothy A Bielecki, Insha Mustaq, Matthew D Storck, Jane L Meza, Vimla Band, Hamid Band
CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases are negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling with established roles in the immune system. However, their physiological roles in epithelial tissues are unknown. Here we used the MMTV-Cre-mediated Cbl gene deletion on a Cbl-b-null background as well as a tamoxifen-inducible mammary stem cell (MaSC)-specific Cbl/Cbl-b double knockout (DKO), using Lgr5-GFP-CreERT, to demonstrate a mammary epithelial cell-autonomous requirement of CBL and CBL-B in the maintenance of MaSCs...
January 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071703/mammary-extracellular-matrix-directs-differentiation-of-testicular-and-embryonic-stem-cells-to-form-functional-mammary-glands-in-vivo
#6
Robert D Bruno, Jodie M Fleming, Andrea L George, Corinne A Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H Smith
Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068668/the-hippo-kinases-lats1-and-2-control-human-breast-cell-fate-via-crosstalk-with-er%C3%AE
#7
Adrian Britschgi, Stephan Duss, Sungeun Kim, Joana Pinto Couto, Heike Brinkhaus, Shany Koren, Duvini De Silva, Kirsten D Mertz, Daniela Kaup, Zsuzsanna Varga, Hans Voshol, Alexandra Vissieres, Cedric Leroy, Tim Roloff, Michael B Stadler, Christina H Scheel, Loren J Miraglia, Anthony P Orth, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Venkateshwar A Reddy, Mohamed Bentires-Alj
Cell fate perturbations underlie many human diseases, including breast cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which breast cell fate are regulated are largely unknown. The mammary gland epithelium consists of differentiated luminal epithelial and basal myoepithelial cells, as well as undifferentiated stem cells and more restricted progenitors. Breast cancer originates from this epithelium, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie breast epithelial hierarchy remain ill-defined. Here, we use a high-content confocal image-based short hairpin RNA screen to identify tumour suppressors that regulate breast cell fate in primary human breast epithelial cells...
January 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068325/trim28-interacts-with-ezh2-and-swi-snf-to-activate-genes-that-promote-mammosphere-formation
#8
J Li, Y Xi, W Li, R L McCarthy, S A Stratton, W Zou, W Li, S Y Dent, A K Jain, M C Barton
Histone methyl transferase EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2) is generally associated with H3K27 methylation and gene silencing, as a member of the polycomb repressor 2 (PRC2) complex. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of the EZH2-protein interactome in estrogen receptor positive, breast cancer-derived MCF7 cells revealed EZH2 interactions with subunits of chromatin remodeler SWI/SNF complex and TRIM28, which formed a complex with EZH2 distinct from PRC2. Unexpectedly, transcriptome profiling showed that EZH2 primarily activates, rather than represses, transcription in MCF7 cells and with TRIM28 co-regulates a set of genes associated with stem cell maintenance and poor survival of breast cancer patients...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062556/the-cellular-origin-and-evolution-of-breast-cancer
#9
Mei Zhang, Adrian V Lee, Jeffrey M Rosen
In this review, we will discuss how the cell of origin may modulate breast cancer intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) as well as the role of ITH in the evolution of cancer. The clonal evolution and the cancer stem cell (CSC) models, as well as a model that integrates clonal evolution with a CSC hierarchy, have all been proposed to explain the development of ITH. The extent of ITH correlates with clinical outcome and reflects the cellular complexity and dynamics within a tumor. A unique subtype of breast cancer, the claudin-low subtype that is highly resistant to chemotherapy and most closely resembles mammary epithelial stem cells, will be discussed...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061785/short-term-early-exposure-to-lapatinib-confers-lifelong-protection-from-mammary-tumor-development-in-mmtv-erbb-2-transgenic-mice
#10
Zhikun Ma, Amanda B Parris, Zhengzheng Xiao, Erin W Howard, Stanley D Kosanke, Xiaoshan Feng, Xiaohe Yang
BACKGROUND: Although chemopreventative agents targeting the estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) pathway have been effective for ER(+) breast cancers, prevention of hormone receptor-negative breast cancers, such as Her2/erbB-2(+) breast cancers, remains a significant issue. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of EGFR/erbB-2-targeting lapatinib to MMTV-erbB-2 transgenic mice inhibited mammary tumor development. The prevention, however, was achieved by prolonged high dose exposure...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051153/the-metastasis-suppressor-rarres3-as-an-endogenous-inhibitor-of-the-immunoproteasome-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Alison M Anderson, Murugan Kalimutho, Sarah Harten, Devathri M Nanayakkara, Kum Kum Khanna, Mark A Ragan
In breast cancer metastasis, the dynamic continuum involving pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators can become compromised. Over 600 genes have been implicated in metastasis to bone, lung or brain but how these genes might contribute to perturbation of immune function is poorly understood. To gain insight, we adopted a gene co-expression network approach that draws on the functional parallels between naturally occurring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our network analyses indicate a key role for metastasis suppressor RARRES3, including potential to regulate the immunoproteasome (IP), a specialized proteasome induced under inflammatory conditions...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041896/a-quiescent-bcl11b-high-stem-cell-population-is-required-for-maintenance-of-the-mammary-gland
#12
Shang Cai, Tomer Kalisky, Debashis Sahoo, Piero Dalerba, Weiguo Feng, Yuan Lin, Dalong Qian, Angela Kong, Jeffrey Yu, Flora Wang, Elizabeth Y Chen, Ferenc A Scheeren, Angera H Kuo, Shaheen S Sikandar, Shigeo Hisamori, Linda J van Weele, Diane Heiser, Sopheak Sim, Jessica Lam, Stephen Quake, Michael F Clarke
Stem cells in many tissues sustain themselves by entering a quiescent state to avoid genomic insults and to prevent exhaustion caused by excessive proliferation. In the mammary gland, the identity and characteristics of quiescent epithelial stem cells are not clear. Here, we identify a quiescent mammary epithelial cell population expressing high levels of Bcl11b and located at the interface between luminal and basal cells. Bcl11b(high) cells are enriched for cells that can regenerate mammary glands in secondary transplants...
December 19, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039619/labeling-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-quantum-dots-provides-stable-and-long-term-fluorescent-signal-for-ex-vivo-cell-tracking
#13
Clautina R M Costa, Matheus L T Feitosa, Dayseanny O Bezerra, Yulla K P Carvalho, Rodrigo F G Olivindo, Pablo B Fernando, Gustavo C Silva, Mirna L G Silva, Carlos E Ambrósio, Airton M Conde Júnior, Napoleão M Argolo Neto, Laís M Costa Silva, Maria A M Carvalho
Stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC) have been used in cell therapy as an alternative to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. Using biomedical and image trials to track the cells when infused in the target tissue is essential to control cell migration and adhesion. The objective of the present study was to label and assess the adhesion of goat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (g-ADSC) after cell infusion in animal models by tracking luminescent intracytoplasmatic nanocrystals. The cells were labeled by using Qdots...
December 30, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039264/immunization-against-hif-1%C3%AE-inhibits-the-growth-of-basal-mammary-tumors-and-targets-mammary-stem-cells-in-vivo
#14
Denise L Cecil, Meredith Slota, Megan M O'Meara, Benjamin C Curtis, Ekram Gad, Yushe Dang, Daniel Herendeen, Lauren Rastetter, Mary L Disis
PURPOSE: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a cancer stem cell enriched phenotype. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) induces the expression of proteins associated with stemness and is highly upregulated in TNBC. We questioned whether HIF-1α was immunogenic and whether vaccination targeting HIF-1α would impact the growth of basal-like mammary tumors in transgenic mice. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated HIF-1α-specific IgG in sera from controls and patients with breast cancer...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017655/cd59-regulation-by-sox2-is-required-for-epithelial-cancer-stem-cells-to-evade-complement-surveillance
#15
Jianfeng Chen, Peipei Ding, Ling Li, Hongyu Gu, Xin Zhang, Long Zhang, Na Wang, Lu Gan, Qi Wang, Wei Zhang, Weiguo Hu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are highly associated with therapy resistance and metastasis. Interplay between CSCs and various immune components is required for tumor survival. However, the response of CSCs to complement surveillance remains unknown. Herein, using stem-like sphere-forming cells prepared from a mammary tumor and a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, we found that CD59 was upregulated to protect CSCs from complement-dependent cytotoxicity. CD59 silencing significantly enhanced complement destruction and completely suppressed tumorigenesis in CSC-xenografted nude mice...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012841/endocrine-disruptors-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-a-new-paradigm-in-breast-cancer-biology
#16
Hope Burks, Nicholas Pashos, Elizabeth Martin, John Mclachlan, Bruce Bunnell, Matthew Burow
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in women and is characterized by predominantly estrogen dependent growth. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) have estrogenic properties which have been shown to increase breast cancer risk. While the direct effects of EDCs on breast cancer cell biology and tumor progression have been well studied, the roles for EDCs on tumor microenvironment composition, signaling and structure are incompletely defined. Estrogen targeting of tumor stromal cells can drive paracrine signaling to breast cancer cells regulating tumorigenesis and progression...
December 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002811/aberrant-regulation-of-rankl-opg-in-women-at-high-risk-of-developing-breast-cancer
#17
Stefan Kiechl, Daniel Schramek, Martin Widschwendter, Evangelia-Ourania Fourkala, Alexey Zaikin, Allison Jones, Bernadette Jaeger, Brigitte Rack, Wolfgang Janni, Christoph Scholz, Johann Willeit, Siegfried Weger, Agnes Mayr, Andrew Teschendorff, Adam Rosenthal, Lindsay Fraser, Susan Philpott, Louis Dubeau, Mohammed Keshtgar, Rebecca Roylance, Ian J Jacobs, Usha Menon, Georg Schett, Josef M Penninger
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their lifetime in North America and Europe. Receptor Activator of NF-kB Ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK and the natural antagonist osteoprotegerin (OPG) are essential regulators of bone resorption. We have initially shown that RANKL/RANK are essential for hormone-driven mammary epithelial proliferation in pregnancy and RANKL/RANK have been implicated in mammary stem cell biology. Using genetic mouse-models, we and others identified the RANKL/RANK system as a key regulator of sex hormone, BRCA1-mutation, and oncogene-driven breast cancer and we proposed that RANKL/RANK might be involved in the initiation of breast tumors...
December 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993977/derivation-of-a-robust-mouse-mammary-organoid-system-for-studying-tissue-dynamics
#18
Paul R Jamieson, Johanna F Dekkers, Anne C Rios, Nai Yang Fu, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Jane E Visvader
Advances in stem cell research have enabled the generation of mini-organs or organoids that recapitulate phenotypic traits of the original biological specimen. Although organoids have been demonstrated for multiple organ systems, there are more limited options for studying mouse mammary gland formation in vitro Here we have built upon previously described culture assays to define culture conditions that enable the efficient generation of clonal organoid structures from single-sorted basal mammary epithelial cells (MECs)...
December 19, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993142/identification-and-characterization-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-canine-mammary-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Agata Rybicka, Magdalena Król
Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials...
December 19, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939360/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-alcohol-induced-aggressiveness-of-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Yongchao Wang, Mei Xu, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Both Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. While alcohol exposure may promote the carcinogenesis or onset of breast cancer, it may as well enhance the progression and aggressiveness of existing mammary tumors. Recent progress in this line of research suggests that alcohol exposure is associated with invasive breast cancer and promotes the growth and metastasis of mammary tumors...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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