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Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Luisanna Cocco, Michele Marchesi
In January 3, 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto gave rise to the "Bitcoin Blockchain", creating the first block of the chain hashing on his computer's central processing unit (CPU). Since then, the hash calculations to mine Bitcoin have been getting more and more complex, and consequently the mining hardware evolved to adapt to this increasing difficulty. Three generations of mining hardware have followed the CPU's generation. They are GPU's, FPGA's and ASIC's generations. This work presents an agent-based artificial market model of the Bitcoin mining process and of the Bitcoin transactions...
2016: PloS One
Maksim Storozhuk, Elena Kondratskaya, Lyudmila Nikolaenko, Oleg Krishtal
Rapid acidification occurring during synaptic vesicle release can activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) both on pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In the latter case, a fraction of postsynaptic current would be mediated by cation-selective acid-sensing ion channels. Additionally, in both cases, activation of acid-sensing ion channels could modulate synaptic strength by affecting transmitter release and/or sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors. To address potential involvement of acid-sensing ion channels in mediation/modulation of synaptic transmission at hippocampal GABAergic synapses, we studied effects of three structurally different blockers of acid-sensing ion channels on evoked postsynaptic currents using the patch-clamp technique...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Brain
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Cui Liu, Li-Li Zhu, Si-Guang Xu, Hong-Long Ji, Xiu-Min Li
The epithelial Na(+) channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily, including the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), is characterized by a high degree of similarity in structure but highly diverse in physiological functions. These ion channels have been shown to be important in several physiological functions of normal epithelial cells, including salt homeostasis, fluid transportation and cell mobility. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ENaC/DEG channels are critically engaged in cancer cell biology, such as proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, playing a role in tumor development and progression...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Dragana Srebro, Sonja Vučković, Milica Prostran
We previously showed that magnesium sulfate (MS) has systemic antinociceptive and local peripheral pronociceptive effects. The role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the mechanism of action of MS has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to explore the participation of TRP channels in the pronociceptive action of MS in rats after its intraplantar injection. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimuli was measured by the electronic von Frey test...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Teresia Kling, Roberto Ferrarese, Darren Ó hAilín, Patrik Johansson, Dieter Henrik Heiland, Fangping Dai, Ioannis Vasilikos, Astrid Weyerbrock, Rebecka Jörnsten, Maria Stella Carro, Sven Nelander
Glioblastomas are characterized by transcriptionally distinct subtypes, but despite possible clinical relevance, their regulation remains poorly understood. The commonly used molecular classification systems for GBM all identify a subtype with high expression of mesenchymal marker transcripts, strongly associated with invasive growth. We used a comprehensive data-driven network modeling technique (augmented sparse inverse covariance selection, aSICS) to define separate genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptional regulators of glioblastoma subtypes...
September 18, 2016: EBioMedicine
Jaemyung Lim, Coskun Tekes, F Levent Degertekin, Maysam Ghovanloo
Having intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging capability on guide wires used in cardiovascular interventions may eliminate the need for separate IVUS catheters and expand the use of IVUS in a larger portion of the vasculature. High frequency capacitive micro machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays should be integrated with interface electronics and placed on the guide wire for this purpose. Besides small size, this system-on-a-chip (SoC) front-end should connect to the back-end imaging system with a minimum number of wires to preserve the critical mechanical properties of the guide wire...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Chris Clarke, Robert Rieger, Martin Schuettler, Nick Donaldson, John Taylor
Detection and classification of electroneurogram (ENG) signals in the peripheral nervous system can be achieved by velocity selective recording (VSR) using multi-electrode arrays. This paper describes an implantable VSR-based ENG recording system representing a significant development in the field since it is the first system of its type that can record naturally evoked ENG and be interfaced wirelessly using a low data rate transcutaneous link. The system consists of two CMOS ASICs one of which is placed close to the multi-electrode cuff array (MEC), whilst the other is mounted close to the wireless link...
September 16, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
T K Munkholm, L Arendt-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Tissue pH is lowered in inflamed tissues, and the increased proton concentration activates acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), contributing to pain and hyperalgesia. ASICs can be upregulated by nerve growth factor (NGF). The aim of this study was to investigate two new human experimental pain models combining NGF- and acid-induced pain in a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. METHODS: In experiment 1, volunteers (N = 16) received an injection of either NGF or isotonic saline in each infrapatellar fat pad (IFP)...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Xiaobin Xu, Fang Zhao, Wendong Wang, Hui Tian
To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information...
2016: Sensors
Israel Hanukoglu
The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are members of a superfamily of channels that play critical roles in mechanosensation, chemosensation, nociception, and regulation of blood volume and pressure. These channels look and function like a tripartite funnel that directs the flow of Na(+) ions into the cytoplasm via the channel pore in the membrane. The subunits that form these channels share a common structure with two transmembrane segments (TM1 and TM2) and a large extracellular part...
August 31, 2016: FEBS Journal
Elina I Nagaeva, Tatiana B Tikhonova, Lev G Magazanik, Denis B Tikhonov
Although acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in brain functions, the exact mechanism of their physiological activation remain unclear. A possible answer to the intriguing question is that some presently unknown endogenous ligand(s) positively modulate ASICs and enhance their responses to physiologically significant level. In the present work we found that histamine selectively potentiates ASIC1a homomers in CHO cells. Action of histamine was particularly pronounced at modest acidifications, which cause minor response...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jing-Jing Wang, Tian-Le Xu
Protons are widespread in cells and serve a variety of important functions. In certain pathological conditions, acid-base balance was disrupted and therefore excessive protons were generated and accumulated, which is termed acidosis and proved toxic to the organism. In the nervous system, it has been reported that acidosis was a common phenomenon and contributed to neuronal injury in various kinds of neurological diseases, such as ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) is the key receptor of protons and mediates acidosis-induced neuronal injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
M Levanti, B Randazzo, E Viña, G Montalbano, O Garcia-Suarez, A Germanà, J A Vega, F Abbate
Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others...
September 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Ren-Peng Zhou, Xiao-Shan Wu, Zhi-Sen Wang, Ya-Ya Xie, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Degenerative diseases often strike older adults and are characterized by progressive deterioration of cells, eventually leading to tissue and organ degeneration for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of extracellular H(+)-activated ligand-gated ion channels, play critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Aberrant activation of ASICs is reported to regulate cell apoptosis, differentiation and autophagy. Accumulating evidence has highlighted a dramatic increase and activation of ASICs in degenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, intervertebral disc degeneration and arthritis...
August 2016: Aging and Disease
Hae-Jin Kweon, Dong-Il Kim, Yeonju Bae, Jae-Yong Park, Byung-Chang Suh
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that play important roles as typical proton sensors during pathophysiological conditions and normal synaptic activities. Among the ASIC subunits, ASIC2a and ASIC2b are alternative splicing products from the same gene, ACCN1. It has been shown that ASIC2 isoforms have differential subcellular distribution: ASIC2a targets the cell surface by itself, while ASIC2b resides in the ER. However, the underlying mechanism for this differential subcellular localization remained to be further elucidated...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Su Gu, Fen Wang, Cai-Yi Zhang, Cheng-Jie Mao, Jing Yang, Ya-Ping Yang, Sha Liu, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active component extracted from the roots of Paeonialactiflora, a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). The degeneration of dopaminergic (DA-) neurons in PD may be caused by pathological activation of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Thus, we designed a series of experiments to evaluate the therapeutic effects of PF and to test whether its effects are related to its inhibitory effect on ASIC1a...
July 22, 2016: Neurochemical Research
F Abbate, M Madrigrano, T Scopitteri, M Levanti, J L Cobo, A Germanà, J A Vega, R Laurà
The neuromasts are the morphofunctional unit of the lateral line system serving as mechanosensors for water flow and movement. The mechanisms underlying the detection of the mechanical stimuli in the vertebrate mechanosensory cells remain poorly understood at the molecular level, and no information is available on neuromasts. Mechanotransduction is the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into an electrical signal via activation of ion channels. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are presumably involved in mechanosensation, and therefore are expected to be expressed in the mechanoreceptors...
September 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Siguang Xu, Cui Liu, Yana Ma, Hong-Long Ji, Xiumin Li
The ENaC/degenerin ion channel superfamily includes the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and acid sensitive ionic channel (ASIC). ENaC is a multimeric ion channel formed by heteromultimeric membrane glycoproteins, which participate in a multitude of biological processes by mediating the transport of sodium (Na(+)) across epithelial tissues such as the kidney, lungs, bladder, and gut. Aberrant ENaC functions contribute to several human disease states including pseudohypoaldosteronism, Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and salt-sensitive hypertension...
2016: BioMed Research International
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