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Gender role

Dylan Tanzer, Karen Smith, Michael Tanzer
BACKGROUND: The implementation of care pathways in hip arthroplasty programs has been shown to result in a decreased length of stay (LOS), but often multiple elements of a care pathway are implemented at the same time. As a result, it is difficult to understand the impact each of the individual modifications has made to the patient's prepathway care. In particular, it is unknown what the role of patient expectations pertaining to anticipated LOS alone is on the LOS after primary THA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does changing the patient's expectations regarding his or her anticipated LOS, without intentionally changing the rest of the care pathway, result in a change in the patient's LOS after primary THA? (2) Is the resultant LOS associated with the patient's age, gender, or day of the week the surgery was performed? METHODS: We retrospectively compared the LOS in 100 consecutive patients undergoing THA immediately after the implementation of a 4-day care pathway (4-day Group) with 100 consecutive patients, 3 months later, who were also in the same pathway but were told by their surgeon preoperatively and in the hospital to expect a LOS of 2 days (2-day Group)...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Cary L Klemmer, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
Psychological processes may mediate the relationship between minority stress and mental health though limited data exist showing this pathway among trans women. Trans women's degree of satisfaction with their body is associated with mental health outcomes. This study used a model of minority stress to explore for indirect effects on the association between transphobia-based victimization and anxiety and depression through one's degree of body satisfaction. Analysis also explored for racial differences. Transgender women ( N = 233) were recruited in 2013 using respondent-driven sampling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
María-Jesús Cava, Sofía Buelga, Inés Tomás
Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ellen L Vaughan, Lauren A Wright, Miguel Ángel Cano, Marcel A de Dios
This study addresses gaps in the literature by testing gender differences in the associations between substance use norms and substance use among Latino college students. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2009 National College Health Assessment. Participants selected for this study were 4,336 Latino undergraduates. Linear mixed modeling was used to test gender as a moderator of the relationship between alcohol use norms and alcohol use as well as marijuana use norms and marijuana use...
March 12, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Patricia M Raskin
The purpose of this article is to present a case history of an individual client deeply affected by the 2016 election of Donald Trump: an unexpected key to her self-empowerment. Raised in poverty and with a history of being sexually abused, the client's anger and frustration at Hillary Clinton's loss in the election led to an examination in therapy of the role of gender in her life and enabled her to strengthen her sense of agency in her world.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Aydan Akyüz Özdemir, Cihat Burak Sayın, Rengin Erdal, Cihangir Özcan, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease through a "gender role perspective." Patients were on hemodialysis treatment and on a wait list for transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at the Başkent University Adana, Ankara, and Istanbul hemodialysis centers. Patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires voluntarily to evaluate quality of life. The questions were answered independently by patients while they were undergoing hemodialysis treatment...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
José A Morales-González, María de Lourdes Sernas-Morales, Ángel Morales-González, Laura Ligía González-López, Eduardo Osiris Madrigal-Santillán, Nancy Vargas-Mendoza, Tomás Alejandro Fregoso-Aguilar, Liliana Anguiano-Robledo, Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Isela Álvarez-González, Germán Chamorro-Cevallos
AIM: To examine the association between weekend alcohol consumption and the biochemical and histological alterations at two different concentrations of alcohol in both genders in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 170-200 g were divided into groups as follows: (1) Control groups; and (2) weekend alcohol-consumption group: 2 d/weekly per 12 wk, at two different concentrations: (1) Group of males or females with a consumption of a solution of alcohol at 40%; and (2) group of males or females with a consumption of a solution of alcohol at 5%...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Reza Rahimian, Pierre Cordeau, Jasna Kriz
Microglia are the principle immune cells of the brain. Once activated, microglial cells may exhibit a wide repertoire of the context-dependent profiles ranging from highly neurotoxic to more protective and pro-regenerative cellular phenotypes. While to date the mechanisms involved in the molecular regulation of the microglia polarization phenotypes remain elusive, a growing evidence suggests that gender may markedly affect the inflammatory and/or glial responses following brain injuries. In the recent years, special attention has been given to the role of microglia in sexual dimorphism, both in healthy brain and diseased brain...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Somayyeh Azimi, Zahra Ghorbani, Erfan Ghasemi, Marc Tennant, Estie Kruger
Oral cancer is a life-threatening disease with low survival rates, especially when diagnosed in an advanced stage. Lack of awareness about this cancer among the population is proposed as a possible reason for this diagnostic delay. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral cancer awareness, as well as the association of this with sociodemographic status in Tehran. In this cross-sectional population-based survey, 1800 self-administered questionnaires (collecting sociodemographic data, questions regarding oral cancer awareness and the source of information) were distributed through multistage stratified random sampling...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Tamasin Taylor, Yijiao Wang, William Rogerson, Lynda Bavin, Cindy Sharon, Grant Beban, Nicholas Evennett, Greg Gamble, Timothy Cundy
BACKGROUND: Factors such as ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status may play a role in both access to and attrition from bariatric programs before surgery is undertaken. New Zealand (NZ) has high rates of obesity in its Pacific population and the indigenous Māori. These groups also experience poorer health outcomes and therefore have the greatest need for surgery. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 704 people referred for and accepted onto a publicly funded bariatric surgery from 2007 to 2016...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Vincent Johan Nijenhuis, Joyce Peper, Veronique M M Vorselaars, Martin J Swaans, Thom De Kroon, Jan A S Van der Heyden, Benno J W M Rensing, Robin Heijmen, Willem-Jan W Bos, Jurrien M Ten Berg
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), but can also improve the kidney function (IKF). We assessed the effects of kidney function changes in relation to baseline kidney function on 2-year clinical outcomes after TAVI. In total, 639 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI were stratified into 3 groups according to the ratio of serum creatinine post- to pre-TAVI: IKF (≤0.80; n = 95 [15%]), stable kidney function (0.80 to 1.5; n = 477 [75%]), and AKI (≥1...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
MingXia Yu, Tao Cao, Dan Yu, Fusheng Huang
Genetic susceptibility to high mercury body burden has been suggested as an autism risk factor in children. Metallothionein III (MT3) is the brain-specific form of the metallothionein family, which plays a key role in metal metabolism. We therefore looked for genetic variations in the MT3 gene that might increase the predisposition to autism. DNA was extracted from 132 autistic children and 132 age and gender-matched unrelated controls. All the samples were analyzed for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency > 10% in the MT3 gene...
March 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Tze-An Yuan, Frank Meyskens, Feng Liu-Smith
PURPOSE: Most melanoma studies have been performed in the white population who exhibits the highest incidence rate due to their skin sensitivity to UV radiation. Previous publications have shown that young women (approximately under the menopausal age) exhibit higher incidence rates than men of the same age, and the causes are mostly attributed to their sun behavior or indoor tanning. In our recent publications, we suggested that higher risk in younger women was due to pathophysiological factors, such as hormonal impact, and thus this higher risk in young women should be shared across ethnicities regardless of their skin color or UV behavior...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Sung Keun Park, Jae-Hong Ryoo, Chang-Mo Oh, Joong Myung Choi, Ju Young Jung
BACKGROUND: Body fat plays the significant role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, it is not fully identified how body fat percentage (BF%) has an impact on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, this study was to evaluate the incidental risk for T2DM according to BF% level. METHODS: In a community based Korean cohort, 5,972 Korean adults were divided into quintile groups by BF% and followed-up for 10 years to monitor the development of T2DM...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Z L Rai, H E Fowles, C Wright, H Joseph, A H Morice
INTRODUCTION: Citric acid has been used for over six decades to induce cough; however the mechanism of its pro-tussive effect is still not fully understood. We assessed the response to inhalation of citric acid at varying levels of acidity to determine if the pH of the solution plays a role in the induction of cough. Data was collected from both healthy volunteers and patients with chronic cough. METHODS: 20 chronic cough patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent three cough challenges on separate days...
March 6, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Mazlum Sahin, Helin El
AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of the FARP2 scoring system in predicting early graft failure after infrainguinal bypass surgery (IBS). METHODS: Patient charts which underwent IBS between January 2014 and January 2017 , in two tertiary academic centers were evaluated retrospectively. In follow ups, one week after operation, detailed physical examination was done and doppler ultrasonography was performed one month after operation and integrity of the graft was evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Sharon Geva, Elizabeth A Warburton
Objective: Inner speech, or the ability to talk to yourself in your head, is one of the most ubiquitous phenomena of everyday experience. Recent years have seen growing interest in the role and function of inner speech in various typical and cognitively impaired populations. Although people vary in their ability to produce inner speech, there is currently no test battery which can be used to evaluate people's inner speech ability. Here we developed a test battery which can be used to evaluate individual differences in the ability to access the auditory word form internally...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Carolin Laqua, Eric Hahn, Kerem Böge, Lara K Martensen, Tat Dinh Nguyen, Georg Schomerus, Tien Duc Cao, Michael Dettling, Anita von Poser, Joerg-Christian Lanca, Albert Diefenbacher, Matthias C Angermeyer, Thi Minh Tam Ta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the need to protect human rights in psychiatry. Within the last years, considerable effort has been made to reduce restrictive measures in mental health settings. Reducing restrictive measures within mental health care has also moved increasingly into the focus of public debate. This study aims, for the first time in a Southeast Asian sample, to explore whether socio-demographic factors affect public attitudes toward restrictions on mentally ill people in Hanoi, Vietnam...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Peng-Wei Wang, Nai-Ying Ko, Ray C Hsiao, Mu-Hong Chen, Huang-Chi Lin, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study aimed to examine the associations of suicidality in emerging adulthood with time of coming out, gender role nonconformity, sexual orientation, traditional and cyber homophobic bullying victimization, and family and peer support during childhood in gay and bisexual men in Taiwan. The frequency of "experiencing suicide ideation" and "attempting suicide" in the past year among 500 gay or bisexual men was examined. The participants' time of coming out, level of subjective masculinity, sexual orientation, experiences of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying victimization, and levels of family and peer support during childhood were also evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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