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Positive parenting

Lucy A Stephenson, Katherine Beck, Paula Busuulwa, Camilla Rosan, Carmine M Pariante, Susan Pawlby, Vaheshta Sethna
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide problem with severe long-term consequences. A history of CSA can impact the childbearing experience of mothers and fathers; affecting their mental health, parenting skills and compromising infant development. Nonetheless, the perinatal period offers huge opportunity for intervention and hope. This literature review collates evidence for perinatal psychosocial interventions targeting both mothers and fathers who are survivors of CSA. Publications dating from 1970 to June 2016 were searched using Medline, Maternity and Infant Health, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, PubMed and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Seema Jayachandran, Rohini Pandi
Child stunting in India exceeds that in poorer regions like sub-Saharan Africa. Data on over 168,000 children show that, relative to Africa, India's height disadvantage increases sharply with birth order. We posit that India’s steep birth order gradient is due to favoritism toward eldest sons, which affects parents' fertility decisions and resource allocation across children. We show that, within India, the gradient is steeper for high-son-preference regions and religions. The gradient also varies with sibling gender as predicted...
September 2017: American Economic Review
Selene Valero-Moreno, Marián Pérez-Marín, Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla, Silvia Castillo-Corullón, Alvar Ramírez-Aguilar, Amparo Escribano-Montaner
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with asthma face problems inherent to this stage in their development, to which the challenges of taking over control of their disease, complying with a daily treatment and regular medical followup are added. Any rejection generated by this may lead to treatment non-adherence and poor asthma control, which brings about problems in family dynamics, made worse by the stress or the emotional distress that this situation causes in caregivers. OBJECTIVE: Identify adjustment profiles and predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Emily C Cook, Orianna Duncan, Mary Ellen Fernandez, Bryan Mercier, Jason Windrow, Laura R Stroud
Few laboratory paradigms exist that expose adolescents to conflict that might commonly be experienced in parent-adolescent relationships. Given the continued importance of parent-adolescent relationships on adolescent development, as well as the changing expectations in these relationships, we examined the effect of a novel parent-adolescent conflict paradigm on physiological and affective response in a sample of 52 adolescents. The parent-adolescent conflict stressor (PACS) involved adolescent participants (50% girls; M = 14...
March 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
James J Li
Atypical reward processing, including abnormal reward responsivity and sensitivity to punishment, has long been implicated in the etiology of ADHD. However, little is known about how these facets of behavior interact with positive (e.g., warmth, praise) and negative (e.g., hostility, harsh discipline) parenting behavior in the early expression of ADHD symptoms in young children. Understanding the interplay between children's reward processing and parenting may be crucial for identifying specific treatment targets in psychosocial interventions for ADHD, especially given that not all children benefit from contingency-based treatments (e...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Nicola Marie Stock, Matthew Ridley
BACKGROUND: During the school years, a cleft of the lip and/or palate (CL/P) may pose a risk to educational achievement. To further understand this multifaceted association, and to offer suggestions as to how young people's educational experiences might be improved, qualitative investigation is warranted. DESIGN: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with young people born with CL/P (n = 10; aged 10-16 years) and their parents (n = 10). The resulting data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Elliott Mark Weiss, Dawei Xie, Noah Cook, Katherine Coughlin, Steven Joffe
Importance: Little is known about how characteristics of particular clinical decisions influence decision-making preferences by patients or their surrogates. A better understanding of the factors underlying preferences is essential to improve the quality of shared decision making. Objective: To identify the characteristics of particular decisions that are associated with parents' preferences for family- vs medical team-centered decision making across the spectrum of clinical decisions that arise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Feda Almurnak, Alaa Jaradah, Husam Hamdouna
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Koren Hanson, Kevin P Haggerty, Charles B Fleming, Martie L Skinner, Mary Casey-Goldstein, W Alex Mason, Ronald W Thompson, Cleve Redmond
OBJECTIVE: As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. METHOD: Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Ana Fonseca, Bárbara Nazaré, Maria Cristina Canavarro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of one's attachment representations on one's and the partner's caregiving representations. BACKGROUND: According to attachment theory, individual differences in parenting and caregiving behaviours may be a function of parents' caregiving representations of the self as caregiver, and of others as worthy of care, which are rooted on parents' attachment representations. Furthermore, the care-seeking and caregiving interactions that occur within the couple relationship may also shape individuals' caregiving representations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Louis Dwyer-Hemmings
Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical 'firsts' - dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine - performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a 'dangerous fad'...
April 2018: Medical History
Hetty Rooth, Ulla Forinder, Maja Söderbäck, Eija Viitasara, Katarina Piuva
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. METHOD: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
Helen M Milojevich, Mary E Haskett
Parents are perhaps the most direct and profound influences on children's development of emotional competence. For example, how and what emotions parents express in the family has implications for children's ability to understand and regulate their emotions. What is less well understood is what potential environmental or contextual factors impact parents' emotional expressiveness, particularly in high-risk samples prone to atypical emotional expressiveness (e.g., deficits in the production and recognition of emotional expressions)...
January 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Krista M Perreira, Ashley N Marchante, Seth J Schwartz, Carmen R Isasi, Mercedes R Carnethon, Heather L Corliss, Robert C Kaplan, Daniel A Santisteban, Denise C Vidot, Linda Van Horn, Alan M Delamater
This study examined associations of immigrant generation, acculturation, and sources of stress and resilience with four outcomes-depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, alcohol susceptibility, and smoking susceptibility. We used data from 1466 youth (ages 8-16) enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth), a probability sample of Hispanic/Latino youth living in Chicago (IL), Miami (FL), Bronx (NY), and San Diego (CA). We found no evidence of an immigrant paradox. Greater children's acculturative stress was associated with depression/anxiety symptoms; greater parent's acculturative stress was associated with smoking susceptibility...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Pin Hou, Zhe Yan, Fred S Cannon, Ye Yue, Timothy Byrne, Cesar Nieto-Delgado
In order to obtain a high adsorption capacity for perchlorate, the epoxide-forming quaternary ammonium (EQA) compounds were chemically bonded onto granular activated carbon (GAC) surface by cationic reaction. The optimum preparation condition of the cationic GAC was achieved while applying softwood-based Gran C as the parent GAC, dosing EQA first at a pH of 12, preparation time of 48 h, preparation temperature of 50 °C, and mole ratio of EQA/oxygen groups of 2.5. The most favorable cationic GAC that had the QUAB360 pre-anchored exhibited the highest perchlorate adsorption capacity of 24...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Jennifer Smith, Xin Zheng, Kevin Lafreniere, Ian Pike
BACKGROUND: Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. METHODS: Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch...
March 16, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Honor Young, Lorraine Burke, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
BACKGROUND: The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people's sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available. METHODS: This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people's sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 years as part of a broader examination of health behaviour and their context...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Anna M Hammersmith
Purpose: Parents' and children's lives are interwoven over the life course. Parents' positivity and negativity toward children relate to children's and parents' transitions, although the nature of this relationship is unclear. This study investigated the extent to which transitions-like those tied to residence, unions, employment, parenthood, and health-related to parents' positivity and negativity. Method: This study used the Health and Retirement Study's Psychosocial Survey from 2006 and 2010 to examine how parents' and children's transitions related to parents' positivity and negativity toward children...
March 14, 2018: Gerontologist
Nathan H Johnson, Carol Vidal, Flavius R W Lilly
Background: Current prevalence estimates are 15% for depression and 20% for anxiety disorders among college students. These disorders are known to negatively impact academic achievement and persistence. It is important to understand the effects of parental military service on the mental health of children across development. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of being raised in a military household on current and historical depression and anxiety disorders among college students...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
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