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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#1
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT:  Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE:  To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747787/effect-of-forefoot-strike-on-lower-extremity-muscle-activity-and-knee-joint-angle-during-cutting-in-female-team-handball-players
#2
Naruto Yoshida, Shun Kunugi, Sonoko Mashimo, Yoshihiro Okuma, Akihiko Masunari, Shogo Miyazaki, Tatsuya Hisajima, Shumpei Miyakawa
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. METHODS: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741056/differences-in-spatio-temporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#3
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626955/are-muscle-activation-patterns-altered-during-shod-and-barefoot-running-with-a-forefoot-footfall-pattern
#4
Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Luis Mochizuki, Aylton Figueira, Joseph Hamill
This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624557/initial-foot-contact-and-related-kinematics-affect-impact-loading-rate-in-running
#5
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Ine Van Caekenberghe, Pieter Fiers, Edward C Frederick, Dirk De Clercq
This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s(-1) while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617625/different-running-patterns-along-the-aerial-terrestrial-continuum-can-result-in-similar-running-economy
#6
Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Kim Hébert-Losier, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Philippe Gimenez, Laurent Mourot
PURPOSE: There is no unique or 'ideal' running pattern that is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into two categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen® method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare RE between aerial and terrestrial runners. METHODS: Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n=29) or terrestrial (n=29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594087/running-quietly-reduces-ground-reaction-force-and-vertical-loading-rate-and-alters-foot-strike-technique
#7
Xuan Phan, Tiffany L Grisbrook, Kevin Wernli, Sarah M Stearne, Paul Davey, Leo Ng
This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593384/relationship-between-foot-strike-pattern-running-speed-and-footwear-condition-in-recreational-distance-runners
#8
Roy T H Cheung, Rodney Y L Wong, Tim K W Chung, R T Choi, Wendy W Y Leung, Diana H Y Shek
Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89...
September 4, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592823/ground-reaction-forces-during-steeplechase-hurdling-and-waterjumps
#9
Shalaya Kipp, Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram
Athletes in the 3,000 m steeplechase track and field event negotiate unmovable hurdles and waterjumps. Ground reaction forces (GRF) in the steeplechase were quantified to elucidate injury risks / mechanisms and to inform coaches. Five male and five female steeplechasers participated. GRF were measured during treadmill running, and using specially mounted force platforms, during hurdle and waterjump takeoffs and landings at 5.54 m/s (males) or 5.00 m/s (females). Results are presented as: male mean ± SD / female mean ± SD...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571390/kinetic-changes-during-a-six-week-minimal-footwear-and-gait-retraining-intervention-in-runners
#10
Joe P Warne, Barry P Smyth, John O'C Fagan, Michelle E Hone, Chris Richter, Alan M Nevill, Kieran A Moran, Giles D Warrington
An evaluation of a six-week Combined minimal footwear transition and gait-retraining combination vs. gait retraining only on impact characteristics and leg stiffness. Twenty-four trained male runners were randomly assigned to either (1) Minimalist footwear transition Combined with gait-retraining over a six-week period ("Combined" group; n = 12) examined in both footwear, or (2) a gait-retraining group only with no minimalist footwear exposure ("Control"; n = 12). Participants were assessed for loading rate, impact peak, vertical, knee and ankle stiffness, and foot-strike using 3D and kinetic analysis...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387292/footwear-matters-influence-of-footwear-and-foot-strike-on-loadrates-during-running
#11
Hannah M Rice, Steve T Jamison, Irene S Davis
INTRODUCTION: Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical loadrate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant loadrate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant loadrate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loadrate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions...
July 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346636/initiating-running-barefoot-effects-on-muscle-activation-and-impact-accelerations-in-habitually-rearfoot-shod-runners
#12
Angel Gabriel Lucas-Cuevas, José Ignacio Priego Quesada, José Vicente Giménez, Inma Aparicio, Irene Jimenez-Perez, Pedro Pérez-Soriano
Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266886/reliability-of-a-qualitative-video-analysis-for-running
#13
Andrew Pipkin, Kristy Kotecki, Scott Hetzel, Bryan Heiderscheit
Study Design Reliability study. Background Video analysis of running gait is frequently performed in orthopaedic and sports medicine practices to assess biomechanical factors that may contribute to injury. However, the reliability of a whole-body assessment has not been determined. Objective To determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the qualitative assessment of specific running kinematics from a 2-dimensional video. Methods Running-gait analysis was performed on videos recorded from 15 individuals (8 male, 7 female) running at a self-selected pace (3...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250859/lower-limb-joint-angles-and-ground-reaction-forces-in-forefoot-strike-and-rearfoot-strike-runners-during-overground-downhill-and-uphill-running
#14
Erik Kowalski, Jing Xian Li
This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167559/biomechanics-of-running-with-rocker-shoes
#15
Sobhan Sobhani, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Rienk Dekker, Klaas Postema, Bas Kluitenberg, Steef W Bredeweg, Juha M Hijmans
OBJECTIVES: Load reduction is an important consideration in conservative management of tendon overuse injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy. Previous research has shown that the use of rocker shoes can reduce the positive ankle power and plantar flexion moment which might help in unloading the Achilles tendon. Despite this promising implication of rocker shoes, the effects on hip and knee biomechanics remain unclear. Moreover, the effect of wearing rocker shoes on different running strike types is unexplored...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111879/the-effects-of-gait-retraining-in-runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-a-randomized-trial
#16
Jenevieve L Roper, Elizabeth M Harding, Deborah Doerfler, James G Dexter, Len Kravitz, Janet S Dufek, Christine M Mermier
BACKGROUND: Running popularity has increased resulting in a concomitant increase in running-related injuries with patellofemoral pain most commonly reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait retraining by modifying footstrike patterns from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike reduces patellofemoral pain and improves associated biomechanical measures, and whether the modification influences risk of ankle injuries. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group...
June 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087676/foot-strike-pattern-differently-affects-the-axial-and-transverse-components-of-shock-acceleration-and-attenuation-in-downhill-trail-running
#17
Marlene Giandolini, Nicolas Horvais, Jérémy Rossi, Guillaume Y Millet, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoît Morin
Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054319/the-role-of-arch-compression-and-metatarsophalangeal-joint-dynamics-in-modulating-plantar-fascia-strain-in-running
#18
Kirsty A McDonald, Sarah M Stearne, Jacqueline A Alderson, Ian North, Neville J Pires, Jonas Rubenson
Elastic energy returned from passive-elastic structures of the lower limb is fundamental in lowering the mechanical demand on muscles during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the two length-modulating mechanisms of the plantar fascia, namely medial longitudinal arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) excursion, and to determine how these mechanisms modulate strain, and thus elastic energy storage/return of the plantar fascia during running. Eighteen runners (9 forefoot and 9 rearfoot strike) performed three treadmill running trials; unrestricted shod, shod with restricted arch compression (via an orthotic-style insert), and barefoot...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045504/injuries-and-footwear-part-2-minimalist-running-shoes
#19
REVIEW
Joseph J Knapik, Robin Orr, Rodney Pope, Tyson Grier
This article defines minimalist running shoes and examines physiological, biomechanical, and injury rate differences when running in conventional versus minimalist running shoes. A minimalist shoe is one that provides "minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot, because of its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices." Most studies indicate that running in minimalist shoes results in a lower physiological energy cost than running in conventional shoes, likely because of the lower weight of the minimalist shoe...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031830/effect-of-the-fatigue-induced-by-a-110-km-ultramarathon-on-tibial-impact-acceleration-and-lower-leg-kinematics
#20
Marlene Giandolini, Philippe Gimenez, John Temesi, Pierrick J Arnal, Vincent Martin, Thomas Rupp, Jean-Benoit Morin, Pierre Samozino, Guillaume Y Millet
Ultramarathon runners are exposed to a high number of impact shocks and to severe neuromuscular fatigue. Runners may manage mechanical stress and muscle fatigue by changing their running kinematics. Our purposes were to study (i) the effects of a 110-km mountain ultramarathon (MUM) on tibial shock acceleration and lower limb kinematics, and (ii) whether kinematic changes are modulated according to the severity of neuromuscular fatigue. Twenty-three runners participated in the study. Pre- and post-MUM, neuromuscular tests were performed to assess knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) central and peripheral fatigue, and a treadmill running bouts was completed during which step frequency, peak acceleration, median frequency and impact frequency content were measured from tibial acceleration, as well as foot-to-treadmill, tibia-to-treadmill, and ankle flexion angles at initial contact, and ankle range of motion using video analysis...
2016: PloS One
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