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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680311/midtarsal-locking-the-windlass-mechanism-and-running-strike-pattern-a-kinematic-and-kinetic-assessment
#1
Dustin A Bruening, Michael B Pohl, Kota Z Takahashi, Joaquin A Barrios
Changes in running strike pattern affect ankle and knee mechanics, but little is known about the influence of strike pattern on the joints distal to the ankle. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) running patterns on foot kinematics and kinetics, from the perspectives of the midtarsal locking theory and the windlass mechanism. Per the midtarsal locking theory, we hypothesized that the ankle would be more inverted in early stance when using a FFS, resulting in decreased midtarsal joint excursions and increased dynamic stiffness...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343184/foot-strike-pattern-in-preschool-children-during-running-sex-and-shod-unshod-differences
#2
Pedro Á Latorre-Román, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Ignacio Guardia-Monteagudo, Felipe García-Pinillos
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. METHODS: A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230404/experimental-gait-analysis-to-study-stress-distribution-of-the-human-foot
#3
Vidya K Nandikolla, Robin Bochen, Steven Meza, Allan Garcia
Researchers and clinicians are increasingly using plantar pressure and force measurement system to evaluate foot functions. This research evaluates the quality and reliability of a Tekscan HR mat to study the plantar pressures and forces acting during walking, running, jumping, and standing of healthy subjects. The following regions of the foot were investigated: heel, mid foot, metatarsophalangeal joint, hallux, and the toes. The arches of both feet of the three healthy subjects in the gait analysis were presented which addresses the balancing issues of the body during locomotion...
2017: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213246/the-influence-of-footwear-on-the-modular-organization-of-running
#4
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141022/trabecular-bone-in-the-calcaneus-of-runners
#5
Andrew Best, Brigitte Holt, Karen Troy, Joseph Hamill
Trabecular bone of the human calcaneus is subjected to extreme repetitive forces during endurance running and should adapt in response to this strain. To assess possible bone functional adaptation in the posterior region of the calcaneus, we recruited forefoot-striking runners (n = 6), rearfoot-striking runners (n = 6), and non-runners (n = 6), all males aged 20-41 for this institutionally approved study. Foot strike pattern was confirmed for each runner using a motion capture system. We obtained high resolution peripheral computed tomography scans of the posterior calcaneus for both runners and non-runners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100250/gait-retraining-from-rearfoot-strike-to-forefoot-strike-does-not-change-running-economy
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jenevieve Lynn Roper, Deborah Doerfler, Len Kravitz, Janet S Dufek, Christine Mermier
Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031665/stress-distribution-of-metatarsals-during-forefoot-strike-versus-rearfoot-strike-a-finite-element-study
#7
Shudong Li, Yan Zhang, Yaodong Gu, James Ren
Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed...
September 25, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985488/plantar-pressure-differences-between-cases-with-symptoms-of-clinically-diagnosed-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-and-asymptomatic-controls
#8
Andrew Roberts, David Hulse, Alexander N Bennett, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Anterior chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg has been hypothesised to develop due to excessive muscle activity and foot pronation. Plantar pressure variables related to lower limb muscle activity and foot type may therefore provide insight into this condition. METHODS: 70 male cases and 70 asymptomatic controls participated. A clinical diagnosis was established from typical symptoms, with clinical examination excluding other pathologies...
December 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902682/the-influence-of-foot-strike-technique-on-the-neuromechanical-function-of-the-foot
#9
Luke A Kelly, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark, Andrew G Cresswell
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. METHODS: Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals)...
January 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853317/shoe-drop-reduction-influences-the-lower-limb-biomechanics-of-children-tennis-players-during-an-open-stance-forehand-a-longitudinal-study
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alexis Herbaut, Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger, Franck Barbier, Christophe Gillet, Maxime Roux, Nils Guéguen, Pascale Chavet
Compared to traditional tennis shoes, using 0-drop shoes was shown to induce an immediate switch from rear- to forefoot strike pattern to perform an open stance tennis forehand for 30% of children tennis players. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a gradual reduction in the shoe drop on the biomechanics of children tennis players performing open stance forehands. Thirty children tennis players participated in 2 laboratory biomechanical test sessions (intermediate: +4 months and final: +8 months) after an inclusion visit where they were randomly assigned to control (CON) or experimental (EXP) group...
November 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822329/changes-in-gluteal-muscle-forces-with-alteration-of-footstrike-pattern-during-running
#11
Charles Nathan Vannatta, Thomas W Kernozek, Naghmeh Gheidi
Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812039/three-dimensional-biomechanical-analysis-of-rearfoot-and-forefoot-running
#12
Sebastian Knorz, Felix Kluge, Kolja Gelse, Stefan Schulz-Drost, Thilo Hotfiel, Matthias Lochmann, Björn Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: In the running community, a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern is increasingly preferred compared with a rearfoot strike (RFS) pattern. However, it has not been fully understood which strike pattern may better reduce adverse joint forces within the different joints of the lower extremity. PURPOSE: To analyze the 3-dimensional (3D) stress pattern in the ankle, knee, and hip joint in runners with either a FFS or RFS pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806710/foot-strike-pattern-in-children-during-shod-unshod-running
#13
Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Fernando Redondo Balboa, Felipe García Pinillos
The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m(2), 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610875/identification-and-risk-estimation-of-movement-strategies-during-cutting-maneuvers
#14
Sina David, Igor Komnik, Markus Peters, Johannes Funken, Wolfgang Potthast
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 70% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in non-contact situations during cutting and landing maneuvers. Parameters such as footstrike patterns and trunk orientation were found to influence ACL relevant knee loading, however, the relationship between the whole body movement and injury risk is debated. This study identifies whole body movement strategies that increase injury risk, and provides training recommendations to reduce this risk or enable a save return to sports after injury...
December 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599003/measurement-agreement-between-a-newly-developed-sensing-insole-and-traditional-laboratory-based-method-for-footstrike-pattern-detection-in-runners
#15
Roy T H Cheung, Winko W An, Ivan P H Au, Janet H Zhang, Zoe Y S Chan, Alfred Man, Fannie O Y Lau, Melody K Y Lam, K K Lau, C Y Leung, N W Tsang, Louis K Y Sze, Gilbert W K Lam
This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females) were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481686/lower-extremity-joint-loads-in-habitual-rearfoot-and-mid-forefoot-strike-runners-with-normal-and-shortened-stride-lengths
#16
Elizabeth R Boyer, Timothy R Derrick
Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460179/manipulation-of-foot-strike-and-footwear-increases-achilles-tendon-loading-during-running
#17
Hannah Rice, Mubarak Patel
BACKGROUND: The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
August 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325673/lower-limb-dynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-for-habitually-shod-runners-who-transition-to-barefoot-running
#18
Rami Hashish, Sachithra D Samarawickrame, Susan Sigward, Stanley P Azen, George J Salem
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations have revealed lower vertical loading rates and knee energy absorption amongst experienced barefoot runners relative to those who rear-foot strike (RFS). Although this has led to an adoption of barefoot running amongst many recreational shoe runners, recent investigations indicate that the experienced barefoot pattern is not immediately realized. Therefore, the purpose this investigation was to quantify changes in lower-extremity dynamics and clinical outcomes measures for habitually shod runners who perform a transition to barefoot running...
January 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935426/joint-stiffness-and-running-economy-during-imposed-forefoot-strike-before-and-after-a-long-run-in-rearfoot-strike-runners
#19
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#20
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT: Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE: To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
October 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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