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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141022/trabecular-bone-in-the-calcaneus-of-runners
#1
Andrew Best, Brigitte Holt, Karen Troy, Joseph Hamill
Trabecular bone of the human calcaneus is subjected to extreme repetitive forces during endurance running and should adapt in response to this strain. To assess possible bone functional adaptation in the posterior region of the calcaneus, we recruited forefoot-striking runners (n = 6), rearfoot-striking runners (n = 6), and non-runners (n = 6), all males aged 20-41 for this institutionally approved study. Foot strike pattern was confirmed for each runner using a motion capture system. We obtained high resolution peripheral computed tomography scans of the posterior calcaneus for both runners and non-runners...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822329/changes-in-gluteal-muscle-forces-with-alteration-of-footstrike-pattern-during-running
#2
Charles Nathan Vannatta, Thomas W Kernozek, Naghmeh Gheidi
Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610875/identification-and-risk-estimation-of-movement-strategies-during-cutting-maneuvers
#3
Sina David, Igor Komnik, Markus Peters, Johannes Funken, Wolfgang Potthast
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 70% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in non-contact situations during cutting and landing maneuvers. Parameters such as footstrike patterns and trunk orientation were found to influence ACL relevant knee loading, however, the relationship between the whole body movement and injury risk is debated. This study identifies whole body movement strategies that increase injury risk, and provides training recommendations to reduce this risk or enable a save return to sports after injury...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599003/measurement-agreement-between-a-newly-developed-sensing-insole-and-traditional-laboratory-based-method-for-footstrike-pattern-detection-in-runners
#4
Roy T H Cheung, Winko W An, Ivan P H Au, Janet H Zhang, Zoe Y S Chan, Alfred Man, Fannie O Y Lau, Melody K Y Lam, K K Lau, C Y Leung, N W Tsang, Louis K Y Sze, Gilbert W K Lam
This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females) were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488928/do-subjective-assessments-of-running-patterns-reflect-objective-parameters
#5
Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Laurent Mourot, Kim Hébert-Losier
Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607302/a-new-footwear-technology-to-promote-non-heelstrike-landing-and-enhance-running-performance-fact-or-fad
#6
Janet H Zhang, Aislinn J C McPhail, Winko W An, Waqar M Naqvi, Daniel L H Chan, Ivan P H Au, Alvin T W Luk, Tony L Chen, Roy T H Cheung
This study sought to compare the kinetics and kinematics data in a group of habitual shod runners when running in traditional running shoes and newly designed minimalist shoes with lug platform. This novel footwear design claims to simulate barefoot running and reduce energy loss during impact. We compared footstrike angle (FSA), vertical average (VALR) and instantaneous (VILR) loading rates, energy loss and initial vertical stiffness between two shoe conditions. Runners demonstrated a decreased FSA while running in minimalist shoes with lug platform than traditional shoes (P = 0...
August 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387292/footwear-matters-influence-of-footwear-and-foot-strike-on-load-rates-during-running
#7
Hannah M Rice, Steve T Jamison, Irene S Davis
INTRODUCTION: Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical load rate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant load rate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant load rate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loading rate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions...
December 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244060/factors-influencing-running-related-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-among-u-s-military-recruits
#8
Joseph M Molloy
Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk...
June 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111879/the-effects-of-gait-retraining-in-runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-a-randomized-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jenevieve L Roper, Elizabeth M Harding, Deborah Doerfler, James G Dexter, Len Kravitz, Janet S Dufek, Christine M Mermier
BACKGROUND: Running popularity has increased resulting in a concomitant increase in running-related injuries with patellofemoral pain most commonly reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait retraining by modifying footstrike patterns from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike reduces patellofemoral pain and improves associated biomechanical measures, and whether the modification influences risk of ankle injuries. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group...
June 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25920964/reliability-of-video-based-identification-of-footstrike-pattern-and-video-time-frame-at-initial-contact-in-recreational-runners
#10
C Damsted, L H Larsen, R O Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Two-dimensional video recordings are used in clinical practice to identify footstrike pattern. However, knowledge about the reliability of this method of identification is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and inter-rater reliability of visual identification of footstrike pattern and video time frame at initial contact during treadmill running using two-dimensional (2D) video recordings. METHODS: Thirty-one recreational runners were recorded twice, 1 week apart, with a high-speed video camera...
June 2015: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25557130/association-of-previous-injury-and-speed-with-running-style-and-stride-to-stride-fluctuations
#11
R Mann, L Malisoux, C Nührenbörger, A Urhausen, K Meijer, D Theisen
Running-related injuries remain problematic among recreational runners. We evaluated the association between having sustained a recent running-related injury and speed, and the strike index (a measure of footstrike pattern, SI) and spatiotemporal parameters of running. Forty-four previously injured and 46 previously uninjured runners underwent treadmill running at 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, and 120% of their preferred running speed. Participants wore a pressure insole device to measure SI, temporal parameters, and stride length (S(length)) and stride frequency (S(frequency)) over 2-min intervals...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25224388/the-effect-of-running-velocity-on-footstrike-angle-a-curve-clustering-approach
#12
S E Forrester, J Townend
Despite a large number of studies that have considered footstrike pattern, relatively little is known about how runners alter their footstrike pattern with running velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine how footstrike pattern, defined by footstrike angle (FSA), is affected by running velocity in recreational athletes. One hundred and two recreational athletes ran on a treadmill at up to ten set velocities ranging from 2.2-6.1 ms(-1). Footstrike angle (positive rearfoot strike, negative forefoot strike), as well as stride frequency, normalised stride length, ground contact time and duty factor, were obtained from sagittal plane high speed video captured at 240 Hz...
January 2015: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25212739/a-comparison-of-kinematic-algorithms-to-estimate-gait-events-during-overground-running
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Laura Smith, Stephen Preece, Duncan Mason, Christopher Bramah
The gait cycle is frequently divided into two distinct phases, stance and swing, which can be accurately determined from ground reaction force data. In the absence of such data, kinematic algorithms can be used to estimate footstrike and toe-off. The performance of previously published algorithms is not consistent between studies. Furthermore, previous algorithms have not been tested at higher running speeds nor used to estimate ground contact times. Therefore the purpose of this study was to both develop a new, custom-designed, event detection algorithm and compare its performance with four previously tested algorithms at higher running speeds...
January 2015: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24054331/biomechanical-characteristics-of-barefoot-footstrike-modalities
#14
Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
Barefoot running has increased in popularity over recent years, with suggested injury risk and performance benefits. However, despite many anecdotal descriptions of barefoot running styles, there is insufficient evidence regarding the specific characteristics of barefoot running. The present study provided reference data for four footstrike modalities adopted across a large cohort of habitually shod male runners while running barefoot: heel strikers (HS), midfoot strikers (MS), forefoot strikers (FS) and a newly defined group, toe runners (TR - contact made only with the forefoot), compared with the three modalities previously reported...
October 18, 2013: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23681915/economy-and-rate-of-carbohydrate-oxidation-during-running-with-rearfoot-and-forefoot-strike-patterns
#15
Allison H Gruber, Brian R Umberger, Barry Braun, Joseph Hamill
It continues to be argued that a forefoot (FF) strike pattern during running is more economical than a rearfoot (RF) pattern; however, previous studies using one habitual footstrike group have found no difference in running economy between footstrike patterns. We aimed to conduct a more extensive study by including both habitual RF and FF runners. The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were differences in running economy between these groups and whether running economy would change when they ran with the alternative footstrike pattern...
July 15, 2013: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23280125/footstrike-patterns-among-novice-runners-wearing-a-conventional-neutral-running-shoe
#16
Michael L Bertelsen, Jens F Jensen, Morten H Nielsen, Rasmus O Nielsen, Sten Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that striking on the midfoot or forefoot, rather than the rearfoot, may lessen injury risk in the feet and lower limb. In previous studies, a disparity in distribution in footstrike patterns was found among elite-, sub-elite, and recreational runners. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the footstrike patterns among novice runners. METHODS: All runners were equipped with the same conventional running shoe...
June 2013: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23007933/relationships-among-self-reported-shoe-type-footstrike-pattern-and-injury-incidence
#17
Donald L Goss, Michael T Gross
CONTEXT: Some runners are experimenting with barefoot or minimalist shoe running to reduce lower extremity overuse injuries. However, there has been little research to examine injury trends associated with barefoot or minimalist shoe running. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of self-reported shoe selection with reported foot strike patterns, compare overall injury incidence associated with different shoe conditions, and identify differences in injury location between different shoe conditions...
October 2012: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22075193/a-kinematic-method-for-footstrike-pattern-detection-in-barefoot-and-shod-runners
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Allison R Altman, Irene S Davis
Footstrike patterns during running can be classified discretely into a rearfoot strike, midfoot strike and forefoot strike by visual observation. However, the footstrike pattern can also be classified on a continuum, ranging from 0% to 100% (extreme rearfoot to extreme forefoot) using the strike index, a measure requiring force plate data. When force data are not available, an alternative method to quantify the strike pattern must be used. The purpose of this paper was to quantify the continuum of foot strike patterns using an easily attainable kinematic measure, and compare it to the strike index measure...
February 2012: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21245500/comparison-of-lower-extremity-kinematic-curves-during-overground-and-treadmill-running
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rebecca E Fellin, Kurt Manal, Irene S Davis
Researchers conduct gait analyses utilizing both overground and treadmill modes of running. Previous studies comparing these modes analyzed discrete variables. Recently, techniques involving quantitative pattern analysis have assessed kinematic curve similarity in gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hip, knee and rearfoot 3-D kinematics between overground and treadmill running using quantitative kinematic curve analysis. Twenty runners ran at 3.35 m/s ± 5% during treadmill and overground conditions while right lower extremity kinematics were recorded...
November 2010: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17692321/non-consecutive-versus-consecutive-footstrikes-as-an-equivalent-method-of-assessing-gait-asymmetry
#20
Rebecca Avrin Zifchock, Irene Davis
Asymmetry of gait is often studied to characterize populations and assess the efficacy of treatment protocols. However, despite the continuous nature of gait, many studies have made comparisons between data from non-consecutive footstrikes. This is typically considered a limitation of these studies. However, if gait characteristics are sufficiently repeatable within a side, consecutive footstrikes may not be necessary to properly describe the asymmetry between sides. Therefore, one purpose of this study was to compare asymmetry values calculated from consecutive and non-consecutive footstrikes...
2008: Journal of Biomechanics
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