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Footstrike pattern

Janet H Zhang, Aislinn J C McPhail, Winko W An, Waqar M Naqvi, Daniel L H Chan, Ivan P H Au, Alvin T W Luk, Tony L Chen, Roy T H Cheung
This study sought to compare the kinetics and kinematics data in a group of habitual shod runners when running in traditional running shoes and newly designed minimalist shoes with lug platform. This novel footwear design claims to simulate barefoot running and reduce energy loss during impact. We compared footstrike angle (FSA), vertical average (VALR) and instantaneous (VILR) loading rates, energy loss and initial vertical stiffness between two shoe conditions. Runners demonstrated a decreased FSA while running in minimalist shoes with lug platform than traditional shoes (P = 0...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Hannah M Rice, Steve T Jamison, Irene S Davis
INTRODUCTION: Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical loadrate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant loadrate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant loadrate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loadrate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions...
July 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joseph M Molloy
Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk...
June 2016: Military Medicine
Jenevieve L Roper, Elizabeth M Harding, Deborah Doerfler, James G Dexter, Len Kravitz, Janet S Dufek, Christine M Mermier
BACKGROUND: Running popularity has increased resulting in a concomitant increase in running-related injuries with patellofemoral pain most commonly reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait retraining by modifying footstrike patterns from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike reduces patellofemoral pain and improves associated biomechanical measures, and whether the modification influences risk of ankle injuries. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group...
June 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
C Damsted, L H Larsen, R O Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Two-dimensional video recordings are used in clinical practice to identify footstrike pattern. However, knowledge about the reliability of this method of identification is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and inter-rater reliability of visual identification of footstrike pattern and video time frame at initial contact during treadmill running using two-dimensional (2D) video recordings. METHODS: Thirty-one recreational runners were recorded twice, 1 week apart, with a high-speed video camera...
June 2015: Gait & Posture
R Mann, L Malisoux, C Nührenbörger, A Urhausen, K Meijer, D Theisen
Running-related injuries remain problematic among recreational runners. We evaluated the association between having sustained a recent running-related injury and speed, and the strike index (a measure of footstrike pattern, SI) and spatiotemporal parameters of running. Forty-four previously injured and 46 previously uninjured runners underwent treadmill running at 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, and 120% of their preferred running speed. Participants wore a pressure insole device to measure SI, temporal parameters, and stride length (S(length)) and stride frequency (S(frequency)) over 2-min intervals...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
S E Forrester, J Townend
Despite a large number of studies that have considered footstrike pattern, relatively little is known about how runners alter their footstrike pattern with running velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine how footstrike pattern, defined by footstrike angle (FSA), is affected by running velocity in recreational athletes. One hundred and two recreational athletes ran on a treadmill at up to ten set velocities ranging from 2.2-6.1 ms(-1). Footstrike angle (positive rearfoot strike, negative forefoot strike), as well as stride frequency, normalised stride length, ground contact time and duty factor, were obtained from sagittal plane high speed video captured at 240 Hz...
January 2015: Gait & Posture
Laura Smith, Stephen Preece, Duncan Mason, Christopher Bramah
The gait cycle is frequently divided into two distinct phases, stance and swing, which can be accurately determined from ground reaction force data. In the absence of such data, kinematic algorithms can be used to estimate footstrike and toe-off. The performance of previously published algorithms is not consistent between studies. Furthermore, previous algorithms have not been tested at higher running speeds nor used to estimate ground contact times. Therefore the purpose of this study was to both develop a new, custom-designed, event detection algorithm and compare its performance with four previously tested algorithms at higher running speeds...
January 2015: Gait & Posture
Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
Barefoot running has increased in popularity over recent years, with suggested injury risk and performance benefits. However, despite many anecdotal descriptions of barefoot running styles, there is insufficient evidence regarding the specific characteristics of barefoot running. The present study provided reference data for four footstrike modalities adopted across a large cohort of habitually shod male runners while running barefoot: heel strikers (HS), midfoot strikers (MS), forefoot strikers (FS) and a newly defined group, toe runners (TR - contact made only with the forefoot), compared with the three modalities previously reported...
October 18, 2013: Journal of Biomechanics
Allison H Gruber, Brian R Umberger, Barry Braun, Joseph Hamill
It continues to be argued that a forefoot (FF) strike pattern during running is more economical than a rearfoot (RF) pattern; however, previous studies using one habitual footstrike group have found no difference in running economy between footstrike patterns. We aimed to conduct a more extensive study by including both habitual RF and FF runners. The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were differences in running economy between these groups and whether running economy would change when they ran with the alternative footstrike pattern...
July 15, 2013: Journal of Applied Physiology
Michael L Bertelsen, Jens F Jensen, Morten H Nielsen, Rasmus O Nielsen, Sten Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that striking on the midfoot or forefoot, rather than the rearfoot, may lessen injury risk in the feet and lower limb. In previous studies, a disparity in distribution in footstrike patterns was found among elite-, sub-elite, and recreational runners. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the footstrike patterns among novice runners. METHODS: All runners were equipped with the same conventional running shoe...
June 2013: Gait & Posture
Donald L Goss, Michael T Gross
CONTEXT: Some runners are experimenting with barefoot or minimalist shoe running to reduce lower extremity overuse injuries. However, there has been little research to examine injury trends associated with barefoot or minimalist shoe running. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of self-reported shoe selection with reported foot strike patterns, compare overall injury incidence associated with different shoe conditions, and identify differences in injury location between different shoe conditions...
October 2012: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Allison R Altman, Irene S Davis
Footstrike patterns during running can be classified discretely into a rearfoot strike, midfoot strike and forefoot strike by visual observation. However, the footstrike pattern can also be classified on a continuum, ranging from 0% to 100% (extreme rearfoot to extreme forefoot) using the strike index, a measure requiring force plate data. When force data are not available, an alternative method to quantify the strike pattern must be used. The purpose of this paper was to quantify the continuum of foot strike patterns using an easily attainable kinematic measure, and compare it to the strike index measure...
February 2012: Gait & Posture
Rebecca E Fellin, Kurt Manal, Irene S Davis
Researchers conduct gait analyses utilizing both overground and treadmill modes of running. Previous studies comparing these modes analyzed discrete variables. Recently, techniques involving quantitative pattern analysis have assessed kinematic curve similarity in gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hip, knee and rearfoot 3-D kinematics between overground and treadmill running using quantitative kinematic curve analysis. Twenty runners ran at 3.35 m/s ± 5% during treadmill and overground conditions while right lower extremity kinematics were recorded...
November 2010: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Rebecca Avrin Zifchock, Irene Davis
Asymmetry of gait is often studied to characterize populations and assess the efficacy of treatment protocols. However, despite the continuous nature of gait, many studies have made comparisons between data from non-consecutive footstrikes. This is typically considered a limitation of these studies. However, if gait characteristics are sufficiently repeatable within a side, consecutive footstrikes may not be necessary to properly describe the asymmetry between sides. Therefore, one purpose of this study was to compare asymmetry values calculated from consecutive and non-consecutive footstrikes...
2008: Journal of Biomechanics
N Smith, R Dyson, T Hale, L Janaway
Little is understood of the mechanisms of locomotion if human subjects are not moving in a straight path. The identification of contributory variables to curved motion would also underpin other non-linear actions such as cutting and turning. The performance of such tasks has relevance to both success in sports and exercise, and accident avoidance in an occupational setting. Comparison of ground reaction force values in successive footstrikes would allow an understanding of the contribution of each limb's movement to motion in a curved path...
December 2006: Gait & Posture
Dan K Ramsey, Per F Wretenberg, Mario Lamontagne, Gunnar Németh
OBJECTIVE: Examine the neuromuscular response to functional knee bracing relative to anterior tibial translations in vivo. DESIGN: During randomised brace conditions, electromyographic data with simultaneous skeletal tibiofemoral kinematics were recorded from four anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects to investigate the effect of the DonJoy Legend functional brace during activity. BACKGROUND: Knee braces do not increase knee stability but may influence afferent inputs from proprioception and therefore one might expect changes in muscle firing patterns, amplitude and timing...
January 2003: Clinical Biomechanics
Irene McClay, Kurt Manal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to compare the three-dimensional kinematics of runners exhibiting excessive rearfoot pronation with those having normal rearfoot pronation. DESIGN: The study design was a comparative investigation of two types of running patterns. BACKGROUND: Excessive rearfoot pronation is often linked with overuse injuries of the lower extremity. However, the literature is void of papers describing the rearfoot motion of runners presenting with excessive rearfoot pronation. Many knee-related injuries in runners are associated with increased rearfoot pronation; however, knee mechanics in this population of runners have yet to be studied...
April 1998: Clinical Biomechanics
N Takano
Differential effects of uphill and downhill running on phase relation between locomotor and respiratory cycles were studies in nine experienced runners who were instructed to run uphill and downhill on a sloped surface at comfortable and constant speeds (actually 1.7-4.4 m s-1). Timings of footstrike and onsets of inspiration and expiration were measured to compute respiratory cycle duration (Ttot), inspiratory time (Ti), duty cycle (Ti/Ttot), and stride time (Ts). Incidence of locomotor/respiratory coupling (LRC) was determined based on steadiness of Ttot and Ts (within +/- 0...
1995: Japanese Journal of Physiology
T S Gross, R P Bunch
The purpose of this investigation was to design and validate a system suitable for non-invasive measurement of discrete in-shoe vertical plantar stress during dynamic activities. Eight transducers were constructed, with small piezoelectric ceramic squares (4.83 x 4.83 x 1.3 mm) used to generate a charge output proportional to vertical plantar stress. The mechanical properties of the transducers included 2.3% linearity and 3.7% hysteresis for stresses up to 2000 kPa and loading times up to 200 ms. System design efficacy was analysed by means of a multiple day, multiple trial data collection...
May 1988: Journal of Biomedical Engineering
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