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Brain tumors

Nancy Wang, Matthias Osswald
The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. If necessary, standard therapy consists of surgery with or without adjuvant radiation, depending on the tumor grade and the degree of resection...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Maria Martinez-Lage, Felix Sahm
The updated 2016 WHO classification of Central Nervous System tumors introduced a novel concept of neuropathology diagnostics. Molecular parameters are now included into the definition of several entities. This evolution from a previously purely histology-based classification to an integrated approach of histology and genetic characteristics has implications in daily diagnostic and clinical practice. Both the spectrum of diagnostic workup demanded from the neuropathologist and the range of relevant markers to be considered by clinicians and clinical investigators have increased...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Daniel Cahill, Sevin Turcan
Malignant glioma is a common type of brain tumor that remains largely incurable. Although a definitive cell of origin of gliomas remains elusive, numerous population studies, sequencing efforts, and genetically engineered mouse models have contributed to our understanding of the early events that may lead to gliomagenesis. Herein we summarize our current knowledge on the population epidemiology of gliomas, heritable genetic risk factors, the somatic events that contribute to tumor evolution, and mouse models that have shed light on the glioma cell of origin...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Peter Joseph Massa, Richard L Smith, Tarek Hazem Moharram, John Corrigan, Ian Lee, Lonni Schultz, Jianhui Hu, Suresh Patel, Brent Griffith
Preoperative identification of the eloquent brain is important for neurosurgical planning. One common method of finding the motor cortex is by localizing "the Omega sign." No studies have tested the reliability of imaging to identify the Omega sign. We identified 40 recent and consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for identification of the hand motor area prior to tumor resection. We recruited 11 neurosurgical residents of various levels of training and one board-certified neurosurgeon to identify the hand motor cortex Omega...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Brent D Weinberg, Lauren Boreta, Steve Braunstein, Soonmee Cha
Glioblastomas are aggressive brain tumors that frequently recur in the subventricular zone (SVZ) despite maximal treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging patterns of subventricular progression and impact of recurrent subventricular tumor involvement and radiation dose to patient outcome. Retrospective review of 50 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and treated with surgery, radiation, and concurrent temozolomide from January 2012 to June 2013 was performed. Tumors were classified based on location, size, and cortical and subventricular zone involvement...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Xin Deng, Wen Zhao, Laijun Song, Wei Ying, Xinbin Guo
Glioma is one of the most common aggressive neuroepithelial malignant tumors in the central nervous system. It has a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, primarily due to the fact that novel therapeutic agents cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to move across the BBB and access the tumor site. However, whether EPCs expressing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induce glioma cell apoptosis requires further investigation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ann Mansur, Megan A Hird, Alexa Desimone, Iryna Pshonyak, Tom A Schweizer, Sunit Das
The purpose of the study is to determine driving habits and behaviors of patients with brain tumors in order to better inform discussions around driving safety in this population. Eight-four patients with brain tumors participated in a survey on their driving behaviors since their diagnosis. Thirteen of these patients and thirteen sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in cognitive testing and several driving simulation scenarios in order to objectively assess driving performance. Survey responses demonstrated that patients with brain tumors engage in a variety of driving scenarios with little subjectve difficulty...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
IlKyoo Koh, Junghwa Cha, Junseong Park, Junjeong Choi, Seok-Gu Kang, Pilnam Kim
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor with very aggressive and infiltrative. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in the infiltrative characteristics of GBM. To understand the invasive characteristic of GBM, it is necessary to study cell-ECM interaction in the physiologically relevant biomimetic model that recapitulates the GBM-specific ECM microenvironment. Here, we propose biomimetic GBM-specific ECM microenvironment for studying mode and dynamics of glioblastoma cell invasion...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yukari Yoshida, Yukihiko Sejimo, Masashi Kurachi, Yasuki Ishizaki, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa Takahashi
X-ray irradiation (X-irradiation) induces disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms underlying the permeability changes are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the cellular and molecular changes produced by X-irradiation of the brain. Male ICR mice were irradiated locally on their head, posterior to the bregma, except for the eyes, with a single dose of 60 Gy. BBB permeability was assessed using Evans blue dye. We also examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microglial morphology, and the expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 from 0...
March 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Bárbara da Silva, Ryan K Mathew, Euan S Polson, Jennifer Williams, Heiko Wurdak
Organoid methodology provides a platform for the ex vivo investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain development and disease. The high-grade brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a cancer of unmet clinical need, in part due to GBM cell infiltration into healthy brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection improbable. Modeling the process of GBM invasion in real time is challenging as it requires both tumor and neural tissue compartments. Here, we demonstrate that human GBM spheroids possess the ability to spontaneously infiltrate early-stage cerebral organoids (eCOs)...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Juan Li, Yang Du, Zhenqi Jiang, Yuchen Tian, Nianxiang Qiu, Yinjie Wang, Muhammad Zubair Lqbal, Menying Hu, Ruifen Zou, Lijia Luo, Shiyu Du, Jie Tian, Aiguo Wu
Due to the molecular and cellular heterogeneity of glioma, discovery of novel targeted sites and ligands for glioma imaging and therapy remains challenging. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptors (Y1 Rs) are highly over expressed in various brain tumors including glioma, and can serve as potential targeting sites for glioma imaging and therapy. Here, we show by in vivo fluorescent imaging that a highly selective Y1 R ligand, [Asn6 , Pro34 ] NPY (AP-NPY), facilitated circumvention of the blood brain barrier (BBB) by nanomicelles specifically targeting glioma...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Yingying Liu, Yudiao Huang, Yueyue Xu, Peng Qu, Minghua Wang
Increased transendothelial permeability and subsequent blood-brain barrier damage play a key role in the pathological progression of human brain ischemia and secondary reperfusion. Memantine is a licensed drug providing clinically relevant efficacy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is known regarding its effects on brain endothelial permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine on endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
March 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
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