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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945054/intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#1
Andrew A Fanous, Dheerendra Prasad, David Mathieu, Andrew J Fabiano
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944929/oncogenic-mir%C3%A2-132-sustains-proliferation-and-self%C3%A2-renewal-potential-by-inhibition-of-polypyrimidine-tract%C3%A2-binding-protein-2-in-glioblastoma-cells
#2
Silong Lou, Jia Ji, Xin Cheng, Jian Ruan, Rong Li, Zhengjun Guo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the leading type of brain tumor, exhibiting unlimited proliferation and invasion potential. The present study indicated that a high expression level of miR‑132 was detected in the neural subtype of GBM and predicted an unfavorable prognosis for patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (n=526). Cox hazard regression analysis demonstrated miR‑132 as an independent prognostic indicator for GBM patients. Further in vitro experiments indicated that miR‑132 promoted the proliferation and sphere formation of U87 cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944915/neuroprotective-effect-of-total-flavonoids-from-ilex-pubescens-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#3
Xiaoyan Fang, Yujie Li, Jingyi Qiao, Ying Guo, Mingsan Miao
Ilex pubescens is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ilex pubescens total flavonoids (IPTF) on neuroprotection and the potential mechanisms in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were pretreated with intragastric administration of IPTF at doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg for 5 days; middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery was then performed to induce cerebral I/R injury...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944896/microrna%C3%A2-186-targets-igf%C3%A2-1r-and-exerts-tumor%C3%A2-suppressing-functions-in-glioma
#4
Jian Jiang, Weijie Wang, Dazhao Fang, Xiaodong Jin, Lianshu Ding, Xiaoyang Sun
Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and represents one of the most aggressive and life‑threatening types of cancer in humans. Increasing studies have revealed that microRNAs are abnormally expressed in various types of human cancer, and have oncogenic or tumor suppressive roles, which depend primarily on the type of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the expression level and effects of microRNA‑186 (miR‑186) on glioma, and its underlying molecular mechanism. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of miR‑186 in glioma tissues and cell lines...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944855/integrated-mrnaseq-and-micrornaseq-data-analysis-for-grade%C3%A2-iii-gliomas
#5
Junqiang Dai, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Qiao Li, Liang Niu, Wentao Liang, Guoqiang Yuan, Lei Duan, Hang Yin, Yawen Pan
The World Health Organization classification distinguishes four grades for gliomas. Grade III gliomas, which are brain malignant brain tumors with variable biological behavior and propensity, have been not widely investigated. The objective of the present study was to identify specific gene modules and valuable hubs associated with gliomagenesis and molecular signatures to assist in determining grade III glioma prognosis. mRNAseq and micro (mi)RNAseq data were used to construct a co‑expression network of gliomas using weight gene co‑expression network analysis, and revealed the prognostic molecular signature of grade III gliomas...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944066/immune-mediated-cerebellar-ataxias-from-bench-to-bedside
#6
REVIEW
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
The cerebellum is a vulnerable target of autoimmunity in the CNS. The category of immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs) was recently established, and includes in particular paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations (PCDs), gluten ataxia (GA) and anti-GAD65 antibody (Ab) associated-CA, all characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. The significance of onconeuronal autoantibodies remains uncertain in some cases. The pathogenic role of anti-GAD65Ab has been established both in vitro and in vivo, but a consensus has not been reached yet...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943957/microrna-141-is-a-tumor-regulator-and-prognostic-biomarker-in-human-glioblastoma
#7
Xuehua Xiong, Jianping Deng, Chun Zeng, Yongming Jiang, Shuang Tang, Xiaochuan Sun
Human glioblastoma is one of the most malignant types of brain tumor in the world. In the present study, the functional mechanisms of microRNA-141 (miR-141) were assessed, and the potential role of miR-141 as a prognostic biomarker in glioblastoma was examined. The gene expression of miR-141 in glioblastoma cell lines and glioblastoma tumors was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Glioblastoma LN229 and U89 cell lines were transfected with synthetic miR-141 mimics to upregulate endogenous miR-141...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943909/downregulation-of-lrig2-expression-inhibits-angiogenesis-of-glioma-via-egfr-vegf-a-pathway
#8
Hong-Kuan Yang, Hao Chen, Feng Mao, Qun-Gen Xiao, Rui-Fan Xie, Ting Lei
Active angiogenesis is the basic pathological feature of glioma. Tumor angiogenesis is involved in vascular endothelial cell migration to the tumor tissue and in the formation of tube-like structures. The present study aimed to investigate the role of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2 (LRIG2) in glioma angiogenesis. Glioma (n=50) and normal brain (n=20) tissue samples were collected from patients to detect the expression of LRIG2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) using immunohistochemistry...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943130/estimation-and-reduction-of-the-radiation-dose-to-the-fetus-from-external-beam-radiotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Michalis Mazonakis, John Damilakis
The appearance of a malignant disease during pregnancy is relatively rare. The use of external-beam radiation therapy is limited to non-pelvic tumors which are usually located above the diaphragm. However, supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy unavoidably exposes the fetus to secondary radiation due to head leakage, scatter from the machine and scatter produced inside the patient. This fetal exposure may be associated with an elevated risk for the development of deterministic harmful effects and/or carcinogenesis...
September 21, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943046/radical-radiation-therapy-for-oligometastatic-breast-cancer-results-of-a-prospective-phase-ii-trial
#10
Marco Trovo, Carlo Furlan, Jerry Polesel, Francesco Fiorica, Stefano Arcangeli, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Filippo Alongi, Alessandro Del Conte, Loredana Militello, Elena Muraro, Debora Martorelli, Simon Spazzapan, Massimiliano Berretta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted a prospective phase II multicentric trial to determine if radical radiation therapy to all metastatic sites might improve the progression-free survival (PFS) in oligometastatic breast cancer patients. Secondary endpoints were local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Inclusion criteria were the following: oligometastatic breast cancer with ≤5 metastatic sites, FDG-PET/CT staging, no brain metastases, primary tumor controlled...
September 21, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942513/loco-regional-extensions-of-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumors-a-retrospective-radiological-analysis-of-100-patients
#11
Loïc Duron, Flavie Sadones, Philippe Thiesse, Cécile Cellier, Claire Alapetite, François Doz, Didier Frappaz, Hervé J Brisse
PURPOSE: The current staging system of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) includes a binary classification in "localized" or "metastatic" disease based on the absence or presence of leptomeningeal dissemination. Loco-regional tumor dissemination has been barely described whereas its accurate definition might be useful in terms of prognosis and treatment, especially for radiation therapy planning. Our purpose was therefore to describe MR patterns and prevalence of loco-regional extensions of these tumors...
September 23, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942245/regulatory-role-of-nadph-oxidase-2-in-the-polarization-dynamics-and-neurotoxicity-of-microglia-macrophages-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Secondary injuries that develop after the initial trauma contribute to long-lasting neurophysiological deficits. Polarization of microglia/macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype may increase the progression of secondary injury following TBI; however, the regulatory and functional mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly defined. In the present study, we showed elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) predominantly in microglia/macrophages at 4- and 7-days after controlled cortical impact in mice...
September 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942049/purification-of-native-m-vogae-and-h-contortus-tubulin-by-tog-affinity-chromatography
#13
Beatriz Munguía, Ramiro Teixeira, Victoria Veroli, Elisa Melian, Jenny Saldaña, Mahia Minteguiaga, Mario Señorale, Mónica Marín, Laura Domínguez
Microtubules are non-covalent cylindrical polymers formed by alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer units, crucial for cell division, intracellular transport, motility and differentiation. This makes them very attractive pharmacological targets exploited to develop different drugs such as anthelmintics, antifungals, and antineoplastics. In this work, in order to establish an in vitro target-based screen to integrate to the search for new anthelmintics, we explored the extraction of native assembly-competent tubulin from two helminth parasites: Mesocestoides vogae tetrathyridia (syn...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942018/integration-of-fmri-and-meg-functional-maps-into-a-cyberknife-planning-system-feasibility-study-for-motor-activity-localization-and-dose-planning
#14
Elena De Martin, Dunja Duran, Francesco Ghielmetti, Elisa Visani, Domenico Aquino, Marcello Marchetti, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Davide Cusumano, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ferruccio Panzica, Laura Fariselli
OBJECTIVE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide non-invasive localization of eloquent brain areas for pre-surgical planning. The aim of this study is the integration of MEG and fMRI maps into a CyberKnife (CK) system to optimize dose planning. METHODS: Four patients with brain metastases in the motor area underwent functional imaging study of the hand motor cortex prior radiosurgery. MEG data were acquired during a visually cued hand motor-task...
September 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940498/twice-weekly-pulse-and-daily-continuous-dose-erlotinib-as-initial-treatment-for-patients-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutant-lung-cancers-and-brain-metastases
#15
Kathryn C Arbour, Mark G Kris, Gregory J Riely, Ai Ni, Kathryn Beal, Mariza Daras, Sara A Hayes, Robert J Young, Christopher R Rodriguez, Linda Ahn, William Pao, Helena A Yu
BACKGROUND: In a phase 1 study of pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib, no patient had disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). This expansion cohort of the phase 1 study tested the same regimen in a cohort of individuals with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers with untreated brain metastases. METHODS: Patients had not received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or radiation for brain metastases. All received 1200 mg of erlotinib on days 1 and 2 and 50 mg on days 3 to 7 weekly...
September 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939952/2d-and-3d-texture-analysis-to-differentiate-brain-metastases-on-mr-images-proceed-with-caution
#16
Monika Béresová, Andrés Larroza, Estanislao Arana, József Varga, László Balkay, David Moratal
OBJECTIVE: To find structural differences between brain metastases of lung and breast cancer, computing their heterogeneity parameters by means of both 2D and 3D texture analysis (TA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with 58 brain metastases from breast (26) and lung cancer (32) were examined by MR imaging. Brain lesions were manually delineated by 2D ROIs on the slices of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CET1) images, and local binary patterns (LBP) maps were created from each region...
September 22, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#17
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
September 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939654/wnt-and-shh-drive-the-tumorigenesis-of-a-rare-embryonal-brain-tumor
#18
(no author information available yet)
Coexpression of Wnt and Shh in Sox2(+)/Pax6(+) apical radial glia in the VZ drives ETMR formation in vivo.
September 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939541/ganglioglioma-progression-to-combined-anaplastic-ganglioglioma-and-anaplastic-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
A Rosselló, G Plans, N Vidal-Sarró, A Fernández-Coello, A Gabarrós
BACKGROUND: Composite ganglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features in both components is an extremely rare glioneuronal tumor. 5 cases of anaplastic progression in the glioma component have been reported. These tumors generally affect young patients who suffer brain tumor-related epilepsy, are usually located in the temporal lobe or in the cerebellum, and may associate leptomeningeal spreading. Its current optimal treatment consists of maximal safe surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy...
September 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938685/a-case-control-study-of-the-association-between-the-egfr-gene-and-glioma-risk-in-a-chinese-han-population
#20
Mengdan Yan, Jingjie Li, Na He, Xugang Shi, Shuli Du, Bin Li, Tianbo Jin
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor gene has been reported to be involved in the progression of gliomas which is one of the deadliest primary brain tumors in humans. To determine potential association between EGFR and glioma risk, we performed a case-control study with 394 glioma patients and 298 cancer-free controls in which captured a total of 8 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of EGFR gene from Xi'an, China. SPSS 19.0 statistical packages, χ(2) test, genetic model analysis and SHEsis software platform were analyzed s the variants in EGFR gene associations with glioma risk...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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