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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641010/alpha-mangostin-reverses-multidrug-resistance-by-attenuating-the-function-of-the-multidrug-resistance-linked-abcg2-transporter
#1
Chung-Pu Wu, Sung-Han Hsiao, Megumi Murakami, Yu-Jen Lu, Yan-Qing Li, Yang-Hui Huang, Tai-Ho Hung, Suresh V Ambudkar, Yu-Shan Wu
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter ABCG2 can actively efflux a wide variety of chemotherapeutic agents out of cancer cells and subsequently reduce the intracellular accumulation of these drugs. Therefore, the overexpression of ABCG2 often contributes to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells, which is one of the major obstacles to successful cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, ABCG2 is highly expressed in various tissues including the intestine and blood-brain barrier (BBB), limiting the absorption and bioavailability of many therapeutic agents...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640710/brain-tumor-stem-cells-remain-in-play
#2
Luis F Parada, Peter B Dirks, Robert J Wechsler-Reya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640709/brain-tumors-challenges-and-opportunities-to-cure
#3
Ingo K Mellinghoff, Richard J Gilbertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640707/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-clinical-trials
#4
Patrick Y Wen, Susan M Chang, Martin J Van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, David R Macdonald, Eudocia Q Lee
Development of novel therapies for CNS tumors requires reliable assessment of response and progression. This requirement has been particularly challenging in neuro-oncology for which contrast enhancement serves as an imperfect surrogate for tumor volume and is influenced by agents that affect vascular permeability, such as antiangiogenic therapies. In addition, most tumors have a nonenhancing component that can be difficult to accurately quantify. To improve the response assessment in neuro-oncology and to standardize the criteria that are used for different CNS tumors, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group was established...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#5
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640704/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors
#6
John H Sampson, Marcela V Maus, Carl H June
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor and remains a large, unmet medical need. This review focuses on recent advances in the neurosciences that converge with the broader field of immuno-oncology. Recent findings in neuroanatomy provide a basis for new approaches of cellular therapies for tumors that involve the CNS. The ultimate success of immunotherapy in the CNS will require improved imaging technologies and methods for analysis of the tumor microenvironment in patients with GBM. It is likely that combinatorial approaches with targeted immunotherapies will be required to exploit the vulnerabilities of GBM and other brain tumors...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640702/diffuse-infiltrating-oligodendroglioma-and-astrocytoma
#7
Martin J van den Bent, Marion Smits, Johan M Kros, Susan M Chang
The new 2016 WHO brain tumor classification defines different diffuse gliomas primarily according to the presence or absence of IDH mutations ( IDH-mt) and combined 1p/19q loss. Today, the diagnosis of anaplastic oligodendroglioma requires the presence of both IDH-mt and 1p/19q co-deletion, whereas anaplastic astrocytoma is divided into IDH wild-type ( IDH-wt) and IDH-mt tumors. IDH-mt tumors have a more favorable prognosis, and tumors with low-grade histology especially tend evolve slowly. IDH-wt tumors are not a homogeneous entity and warrant further molecular testing because some have glioblastoma-like molecular features with poor clinical outcome...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640701/primary-cns-lymphoma
#8
Christian Grommes, Lisa M DeAngelis
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is typically confined to the brain, eyes, and cerebrospinal fluid without evidence of systemic spread. The prognosis of patients with PCNSL has improved during the last decades with the introduction of high-dose methotrexate. However, despite recent progress, results after treatment are durable in half of patients, and therapy can be associated with late neurotoxicity. PCNSL is an uncommon tumor, and only four randomized trials and one phase III trial have been completed so far, all in the first-line setting...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640699/brain-tumor-imaging
#9
Kevin M Brindle, José L Izquierdo-García, David Y Lewis, Richard J Mair, Alan J Wright
Modern imaging techniques, particularly functional imaging techniques that interrogate some specific aspect of underlying tumor biology, have enormous potential in neuro-oncology for disease detection, grading, and tumor delineation to guide biopsy and resection; monitoring treatment response; and targeting radiotherapy. This brief review considers the role of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography in these areas and discusses the factors that limit translation of new techniques to the clinic, in particular, the cost and difficulties associated with validation in multicenter clinical trials...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640697/current-clinical-challenges-in-childhood-ependymoma-a-focused-review
#10
Thomas E Merchant
Ependymoma is a locally aggressive tumor with metastatic potential that arises in diverse locations throughout the brain and spine in children. Tumor and treatment may result in significant morbidity. Cure remains elusive for many patients owing to diverse biology and resistance to conventional therapy. The implementation of systematic postoperative irradiation in clinical trials during the past 20 years has increased the proportion of patients achieving durable disease control with excellent results, as measured by objective functional outcome measures...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640696/insights-from-molecular-profiling-of-adult-glioma
#11
Phedias Diamandis, Kenneth D Aldape
The comprehensive molecular profiling of cancer has resulted in new insights into the biology and classification of numerous tumor types. In the case of primary brain tumors that commonly affect adults, an emerging set of disease-defining biomarker sets is reshaping existing diagnostic entities that had previously been defined on the basis of their microscopic appearance. Substantial progress has been made in this regard for common primary brain tumors in adults, especially diffuse gliomas, where large-scale profiling efforts have led to the incorporation of highly prevalent molecular alterations that promote a biologically based classification as an adjunct to the traditional histopathologic approach...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640695/gadolinium-brain-deposition-after-macrocyclic-gadolinium-administration-a-pediatric-case-control-study
#12
Daniel Tibussek, Christin Rademacher, Julian Caspers, Bernd Turowski, Jörg Schaper, Gerald Antoch, Dirk Klee
Purpose To determine whether signal intensity (SI) in T1 sequences as a potential indicator of gadolinium deposition increases after repeated administration of the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) gadoteridol and gadoterate meglumine in a pediatric cohort. Materials and Methods This retrospective case-control study of children with brain tumors who underwent nine or more contrast material-enhanced brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies from 2008 to 2015 was approved by the local ethics board...
June 21, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637207/the-use-of-semitranslucent-rubber-pledgets-during-microsurgical-dissection-of-cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-technical-note
#13
Marcus D Mazur, Richard Gurgel, Joel D MacDonald
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Dissection of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors that abut or adhere to the brainstem or cranial nerves can be a challenging surgical endeavor. We describe the use of semitranslucent latex rubber pledgets in the tumor-brain interface as a method to improve visualization and protection of vital tissue during microsurgical dissection of CPA masses. The rubber pledgets are fashioned by cutting circular discs out of the cuff portion of talc-free, partially opaque latex gloves...
June 20, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637008/cytotoxic-profiling-of-artesunic-and-betulinic-acids-and-their-synthetic-hybrid-compound-on-neurons-and-gliomas
#14
Annemarie Ackermann, Aysun Çapcı Karagöz, Ali Ghoochani, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Eyüpoglu, Svetlana B Tsogoeva, Nicolai Savaskan
Gliomas are brain-born tumors with devastating impact on their brain microenvironment. Novel approaches employ multiple combinations of chemical compounds in synthetic hybrid molecules to target malignant tumors. Here, we report on the chemical hybridization approach exemplified by artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene betulinic acid (BETA). Artemisinin derived semisynthetic compound artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene BETA were used to synthetically couple to the hybrid compound termed 212A...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636991/non-invasive-detection-of-somatic-mutations-using-next-generation-sequencing-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#15
Maxime Fontanilles, Florent Marguet, Élodie Bohers, Pierre-Julien Viailly, Sydney Dubois, Philippe Bertrand, Vincent Camus, Sylvain Mareschal, Philippe Ruminy, Catherine Maingonnat, Stéphane Lepretre, Elena-Liana Veresezan, Stéphane Derrey, Hervé Tilly, Jean-Michel Picquenot, Annie Laquerrière, Fabrice Jardin
PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have recurrent genomic alterations. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate that targeted sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by PCNSL at the time of diagnosis could identify somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: PlasmacfDNA and matched tumor DNA (tDNA) from 25 PCNSL patients were sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies®)...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636290/sulforaphane-protection-against-the-development-of-doxorubicin-induced-chronic-heart-failure-is-associated-with-nrf2-upregulation
#16
Yang Bai, Qiang Chen, Yun-Peng Sun, Xuan Wang, Li Lv, Li-Ping Zhang, Jin-Sha Liu, Song Zhao, Xiao-Lu Wang
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline anti-tumor drug. However, its clinical use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, and even progresses to chronic heart failure (CHF). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN), can prevent DOX-induced CHF. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats who received treatment for six weeks were divided into four groups (n=30 per group): control, SFN, DOX, and DOX plus SFN group. RESULTS: Results revealed that DOX induced progressive cardiac damage as indicated by increased cardiac injury markers, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress...
June 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635984/anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-burden-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-brain-metastases
#17
Marlon G Saria, Natasia S Courchesne, Lorraine Evangelista, Joshua L Carter, Daniel A MacManus, Mary Kay Gorman, Adeline M Nyamathi, Linda R Phillips, David E Piccioni, Santosh Kesari, Sally L Maliski
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To describe and examine the relationship between caregiver burden and the affective disorders anxiety and depression in caregivers of patients with brain metastases.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational.
. SETTING: Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego. 
. SAMPLE: 56 family caregivers of patients with brain metastases from solid tumors at other primary sites...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#18
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635335/a-novel-synergetic-targeting-strategy-for-glioma-therapy-employing-borneol-combination-with-angiopep-2-modified-dox-loaded-pamam-dendrimer
#19
Shunping Han, Hongyue Zheng, Yanping Lu, Yue Sun, Anhao Huang, Weidong Fei, Xiaowei Shi, Xiuling Xu, Jingjing Li, Fanzhu Li
Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and the effect of chemotherapy is hampered by low permeability across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Borneol is a time-honored 'Guide' drug in traditional Chinese medicine and has been proved to be capable of promoting free drugs into the brain efficiently, but there are still risks that free drugs, especially anti-glioma drugs, may be disassembled and metabolized before penetrating the BBB and caused the whole brain distribution. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether borneol intervention could facilitate the BBB penetration and assist glioma treatment by combining with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded PAMAM dendrimers drug delivery system modified with Angiopep-2 (a ligand of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, which overexpress both in the BBB and gliomas)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635142/protective-effects-induced-by-microwave-assisted-aqueous-harpagophytum-extract-on-rat-cortex-synaptosomes-challenged-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#20
Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Marcello Locatelli, Paolo Guglielmi, Daniela Secci, Lidia Leporini, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Sara Martinotti, Luigi Brunetti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Menghini, Giustino Orlando
Harpagophytum procumbens is a plant species that displays anti-inflammatory properties in multiple tissues. The iridoid glycosides arpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide appear to be the most therapeutically important constituents. In addition, harpagoside treatment exerted neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Considering these findings, the aim of the present work is to explore the possible protective role of the previously described microwave-assisted aqueous extract of H. procumbens on rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells, and in rat cortex challenged with amyloid β-peptide (1-40)...
June 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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