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Brain tumors

Rahimsan K Ramachandran, Mia D Sørensen, Charlotte Aaberg-Jessen, Simon K Hermansen, Bjarne W Kristensen
Astrocytomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors in adults, and despite aggressive treatment patients often experience recurrence. Survival decreases with increasing tumor grade, and especially patients with grade IV glioblastoma have poor prognosis due to the aggressive character of this tumor. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular matrix degrading enzyme which has been shown to play important roles in different cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic potential of MMP-2 in astrocytomas...
2017: PloS One
Menachem Z Yondorf, Theodore H Schwartz, John A Boockvar, Susan Pannullo, Philip Stieg, Albert Sabbas, Albert Pavese, Samuel Trichter, Lucy Nedialkova, Bhupesh Parashar, Dattatreyudu Nori, K S Clifford Chao, A Gabriella Wernicke
Cesium-131 (Cs) brachytherapy is a safe and convenient treatment option for patients with resected brain tumors. This study prospectively analyzes radiation exposure in the patient population who were treated with a maximally safe neurosurgical resection and Cs brachytherapy. Following implantation, radiation dose rate measurements were taken at the surface, 35 cm, and 100 cm distances. Using the half-life of Cs (9.69 d), the dose rates were extrapolated at these distances over a period of time (t = 30 d). Data from dosimetry badges and rings worn by surgeons and radiation oncologists were collected and analyzed...
April 2017: Health Physics
Xiaorui Li, Ling Yang, Yue Yang, Ming Shao, Yu Liu
Human transferrin receptor (hTfR1), a type II homodimeric transmembrane protein, is extensively expressed at low levels in most normal human tissues. However, the expression level of hTfR1 in some tumor tissues and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is comparatively higher. Therefore, we developed an hTfR1 monoclonal antibody 2C9, which may be utilized to deliver drugs across the BBB through receptor-mediated endocytosis in the future. 2C9 was obtained by hybridoma cells fused by the SP2/0-Ag14 cell line and splenic B cells from hTfR1-immunized BALB/c mice...
February 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Carlos Leiva-Salinas, David Schiff, Lucia Flors, James T Patrie, Patrice K Rehm
Purpose To determine the correlation between metabolic activity at fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and survival in patients with glioblastoma and suspected progression at posttherapy magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively examined the relationship between metabolic activity at FDG PET in the residual lesion identified at brain MR imaging and survival time in 56 patients with glioblastoma who were treated with postoperative concurrent radiation and temozolomide therapy and who underwent FDG PET/computed tomography because of radiologic deterioration at follow-up MR imaging between 2006 and 2015...
October 19, 2016: Radiology
Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Michael Andreeff, Frederick F Lang
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that has been exploited for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer. In particular, MSCs have been studied extensively for their ability to treat glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadly form of brain cancer in adults. MSCs are attractive therapeutics because they can be obtained relatively easily from patients, are capable of being expanded numerically in vitro, can be easily engineered and are inherently capable of homing to tumors, making them ideal vehicles for delivering biological antitumoral agents...
February 20, 2017: Cytotherapy
Silvia Francisci, Stefano Guzzinati, Luigino Dal Maso, Carlotta Sacerdote, Carlotta Buzzoni, Anna Gigli
Cancers diagnosed in children below the age of 15 years represent 1.2% of all cancer cases, and survival after a childhood cancer has greatly improved over the past 40 years in all high income countries. This study aims to estimate the number of people living in Italy after a childhood cancer for all cancers combined and for a selection of cancer types. We computed 15-year prevalence using data from 15 Italian population-based cancer registries (covering 19% of Italian population) and estimated complete prevalence for Italy by using the CHILDPREV method, implemented in the COMPREV software...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Savvas Psarelis, Andreas P D Hajineocli, Eleni Hadjicosta, Hugh St A Elliott, Paul Johnson
In this report, we aim to add to the existing body of evidence regarding a link between anti- tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) treatment and demyelination leading to neurological disorders, specifically Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), and treatment with an interleukin-17A (IL17A) antagonist as a safe alternative for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A literature review was carried out of current research concerning anti-TNF-α and induced GBS. Only papers published in English were reviewed and only peer-reviewed journals searched...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Kirsten Ludwig, Harley I Kornblum
Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Hank F Kung, Karl Ploessl, David Mankoff, Lin Zhu, Rong Zhou
Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant nutrients for producing energy and building blocks in normal and tumor cells. Increased glycolysis in tumors, "Warburg Effect", is the basis for (18)F-FDG/PET imaging. Cancer cells can also be genetically reprogrammed to use glutamine. 5-(11)C-(2S)-glutamine and (18)F- (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine may be useful complementary tools to measure changes in tumor metabolism. In glioma patients the tracer, (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine, showed tumor-background contrast different from that of (18)F-FDG and differences in uptake in glioma patients with clinical progression of disease versus stable disease (tumor/brain ratio > 3...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Zhen-Nan Ye, Jing-Peng Liu, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Zong Zhuang, Qiang Chen, Yue Lu, Ce-Gang Liu, Zi-Huan Zhang, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Wen-Zhong Hou, Chun-Hua Hang
Glioma is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system, with high incidence and mortality rate. MicroRNAs, as a class of small non-coding RNAs, play an important role in carcinogenesis and correlate with glioma diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we investigated the microRNA-204 (miR-204) concentration in glioma tissues and its relation to the expression of ezrin and bcl-2 mRNA, as well as its potential predictive and prognostic values in glioma. The concentrations of miR-204 were significantly lower in glioma tissues than in non-tumor brain tissues and also were lower in high-grade than in low-grade gliomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grades III and IV vs grades I and II)...
February 20, 2017: Human Pathology
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
INTRODUCTION: Subependymoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumors. Due to its scarcity, knowledge relating to survival remains lacking. Consequently, we explore the SEER database to evaluate prognostic / treatment factors associated with intracranial subependymoma. METHODS: With the SEER-18 registry database, information from all patients diagnosed with intracranial subependymoma from 2004 to 2013 were extracted, including age, gender, race, occurrence of surgery, extent of primary surgery, receipt of radiation, tumor size, and follow-up data...
February 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Mitsuto Hanihara, Sumito Sato, Ichiyo Shibahara, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Teiji Tominaga, Toshihiro Kumabe
OBJECTIVE: We previously disclosed that damage to the subependymal arteries (SEAs) caused by coagulation of the choroid plexus at the atrium, can result in infarction within the lateral posterior choroidal artery territory, followed by hemiparesis. The present study describes the intraoperative anatomical findings of the SEAs and choroid plexus at the atrium, those were verified only by a few cadaveric studies. METHODS: Locations of the SEA and descending motor pathway were determined with the neuronavigation system and subcortical electrical stimulation in 8 cases of periatrial brain tumor...
February 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Dan Zhou, Shuai Guo, Mo Zhang, Yujie Liu, Tianjing Chen, Zhili Li
With the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), molecular interrogation of tissue sections over a wide mass range has become feasible, but small molecule analysis is still far from being fully reached due to the limited sensitivity and matrix interference. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) is used as a MALDI matrix to image small molecules in tissues in negative ion mode. Finally, 212 of molecules including 190 of lipids and 22 of low molecular weight metabolites were detected and spatially visualized in mouse brain tissue sections without the interference of matrix ions/clusters, and the structures of 69 of the lipids were confirmed by using in situ tandem mass spectrometry...
April 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Osama H Elshenawy, Sherif M Shoieb, Anwar Mohamed, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport...
February 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
Nicolin Hainc, Christoph Stippich, Bram Stieltjes, Severina Leu, Andrea Bink
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of a single slice of a tumor to extract biomarkers for texture analysis may result in loss of information. We investigated correlation of fractional volumes to entire tumor volumes and introduced expanded regions of interest (ROIs) outside the visual tumor borders in glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective slice-by-slice volumetric texture analysis on 46 brain magnetic resonance imaging subjects with histologically confirmed glioblastoma was performed...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
Xin-Gang Sun, Qian Ma, Gang Jing, Li Wang, Xu-Dong Hao, Gai-Qing Wang
Early brain injury (EBI) contributes to poor prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study aimed to clarify whether triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) was implicated in the inflammatory mechanisms of EBI. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as plasma levels of white blood cells (WBC) count and C-reactive protein in 17 SAH patients at early stage (within the EBI period) and 9 volunteers were observed...
February 22, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Huixing Dong, Shaohua Cui, Feng Pan, Lili Dong, Yanjie Niu, Yizhuo Zhao, Aiqin Gu, Xiaoyan Jin, Liyan Jiang
BACKGROUND: A survival analysis and the influencing factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases accepting first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) treatment have not yet been elucidated to date. In this study, we collected and analyzed the survival data of NSCLC patients with brain metastasis to obtain evidence and to provide guidance in clinical practice. METHODS: NSCLC patients with brain metastases who were treated with first-generation EGFR-TKIs were retrospectively collected in 2012-2013 from Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Daichi Takizawa, Masashi Mizumoto, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiko Oshiro, Hiroko Fukushima, Takashi Fukushima, Toshiyuki Terunuma, Toshiyuki Okumura, Koji Tsuboi, Hideyuki Sakurai
INTRODUCTION: It was reported that proton beam therapy (PBT) reduced the normal brain dose compared with X-ray therapy for pediatric brain tumors. We considered whether there was not the condition that PBT was more disadvantageous than intensity modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for treatment of pediatric brain tumors about the dose reduction for the normal brain when the tumor location or tumor size were different. METHODS: The subjects were 12 patients treated with PBT at our institute, including 6 cases of ependymoma treated by local irradiation and 6 cases of germinoma treated by irradiation of all four cerebral ventricles...
February 22, 2017: Radiation Oncology
M Kadkhodaei, S Samavi, N Karimi, H Mohaghegh, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, A All, K Najarian, M Kadkhodaei, S Samavi, N Karimi, H Mohaghegh, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, A All, K Najarian, K Ward, S M R Soroushmehr, A All, S Samavi, M Kadkhodaei, H Mohaghegh, K Najarian, N Karimi
Despite the rapid growth in brain tumor segmentation approaches, there are still many challenges in this field. Automatic segmentation of brain images has a critical role in decreasing the burden of manual labeling and increasing robustness of brain tumor diagnosis. We consider segmentation of glioma tumors, which have a wide variation in size, shape and appearance properties. In this paper images are enhanced and normalized to same scale in a preprocessing step. The enhanced images are then segmented based on their intensities using 3D super-voxels...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Cornelia Wenger, Ze'ev Bomzon, Ricardo Salvador, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ze'ev Bomzon, Ricardo Salvador, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Ze'ev Bomzon
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are alternating electric fields in the intermediate frequency range (100-300 kHz) of low-intensity (1-3 V/cm). TTFields are an anti-mitotic treatment against solid tumors, which are approved for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. These electric fields are induced non-invasively by transducer arrays placed directly on the patient's scalp. Cell culture experiments showed that treatment efficacy is dependent on the induced field intensity. In clinical practice, a software called NovoTal(TM) uses head measurements to estimate the optimal array placement to maximize the electric field delivery to the tumor...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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