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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220580/the-influence-of-adiposity-and-acute-exercise-on-circulating-hepatokines-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-men
#1
Jack A Sargeant, Guruprasad P Aithal, Toshinari Takamura, Hirofumi Misu, Hiroaki Takayama, Jessica A Douglas, Mark C Turner, David J Stensel, Myra A Nimmo, David R Webb, Thomas Yates, James A King
Hepatokines are liver-secreted proteins with potential to influence glucose regulation and other metabolic parameters. This study investigated differences in adiposity status on five novel hepatokines and characterised their response to acute moderate-intensity exercise in groups of normal weight and overweight/obese men. Twenty-two men were recruited into normal weight and overweight/obese groups (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 and 25.0 to 34.9 kg∙m<sup>-2</sup>). Each completed two experimental trials, exercise and control...
December 8, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215172/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-hepatic-oxidative-capacity-but-not-physical-activity-or-energy-expenditure-in-hepatic-pgc-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice
#2
Justin A Fletcher, Melissa A Linden, Ryan D Sheldon, Grace M Meers, E Matthew Morris, Anthony Butterfield, James W Perfield, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) treatment drives metabolic improvements, including increased metabolic flux and reduced hepatic steatosis, but mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. We tested if a targeted reduction in hepatic PGC-1α, which has been shown to occur with obesity, negatively impacted the metabolic effects of FGF21. We infused FGF21 (1 mg kg-1  day-1 ) or saline in chow-fed wild-type (WT) and liver-specific PGC-1α +/- (LPGC-1α) mice for 4 weeks. FGF21 administration lowered serum insulin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209367/functional-characterization-of-preadipocytes-derived-from-human-periaortic-adipose-tissue
#3
Diana Vargas, Jaime Camacho, Juan Duque, Marisol Carreño, Edward Acero, Máximo Pérez, Sergio Ramirez, Juan Umaña, Carlos Obando, Albert Guerrero, Néstor Sandoval, Gina Rodríguez, Fernando Lizcano
Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198028/adverse-bioeffect-of-perfluorooctanoic-acid-on-liver-metabolic-function-in-mice
#4
Xinmou Wu, Guojie Xie, Xiaoxiao Xu, Wei Wu, Bin Yang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a kind of manufactured material, is widely accumulated around environmental system and into wildlife, including human beings. Toxicologically, PFOA induces hepatomegaly (liver enlargement) in the dose- and time-dependent manners. However, biological mechanism of hepatotoxicity warrants to be further investigated. In the present study, mature male mice were exposed to dosed PFOA for 21 days before conducting biochemical tests and immunoassays. As results, decreased fast blood glucose and elevated insulin contents were observed in PFOA-dosed mice...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197590/identification-and-expression-patterns-of-adipokine-genes-during-adipocyte-differentiation-in-the-tibetan-goat-capra-hircus
#5
Xueying Li, Yan Wang, Jiazhong Guo, Tao Zhong, Li Li, Hongping Zhang, Linjie Wang
Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats...
November 29, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192248/hepatic-crtc2-controls-whole-body-energy-metabolism-via-a-mir-34a-fgf21-axis
#6
Hye-Sook Han, Byeong Hun Choi, Jun Seok Kim, Geon Kang, Seung-Hoi Koo
Liver plays a crucial role in controlling energy homeostasis in mammals, although the exact mechanism by which it influences other peripheral tissues has yet to be addressed. Here we show that Creb regulates transcriptional co-activator (Crtc) 2 is a major regulator of whole-body energy metabolism. Crtc2 liver-specific knockout lowers blood glucose levels with improved glucose and insulin tolerance. Liver-specific knockout mice display increased energy expenditure with smaller lipid droplets in adipose depots...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184085/diverse-changes-of-circulating-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-levels-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-diseases
#7
Liang Wu, Qingchun Pan, Guangyu Wu, Lingling Qian, Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Qichen Fang, Guoqing Zang, Yudong Wang, George Lau, Huating Li, Weiping Jia
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress-induced hormone in the liver, has been shown the protective functions in pathological conditions. The study investigated the association of circulating FGF21 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its related diseases. Serum FGF21 levels were measured in 33 acute hepatitis B (AHB), 75 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 66 CHB patients with advanced liver diseases including liver cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ALCF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) together with 200 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158739/human-admc-derived-adipocyte-thermogenic-capacity-is-regulated-by-il-4-receptor
#8
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157602/induction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-does-not-require-activation-of-the-hepatic-x-box-binding-protein-1-in-mice
#9
Shantel Olivares, Anne S Henkel
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a key regulator of the metabolic response to fasting, is highly induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) is one of several ER stress proteins that has been shown to directly activate the FGF21 promoter. We aimed to determine whether hepatic Xbp1 is required for induction of hepatic FGF21 in vivo. METHODS: Mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Xbp1 (Xbp1(LKO)) were subjected to fasting, pharmacologic ER stress, or a ketogenic diet, all potent stimuli of Fgf21 expression...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136581/honokiol-exerts-dual-effects-on-browning-and-apoptosis-of-adipocytes
#10
Jameel Lone, Jong Won Yun
BACKGROUND: Induction of brown adipocyte-like phenotype (browning) in white adipocytes and promotion of apoptosis by dietary and pharmacological compounds is considered a novel strategy against obesity. Here, we show that honokiol exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and apoptosis as well as activation of HIB1B brown adipocytes combined with inhibition of apoptosis. METHODS: Honokiol-induced browning and apoptosis were investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126873/dual-role-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-in-the-progression-and-reversion-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Águeda González-Rodríguez, M Pilar Valdecantos, Patricia Rada, Annalisa Addante, Inés Barahona, Esther Rey, Virginia Pardo, Laura Ruiz, Laura M Laiglesia, María J Moreno-Aliaga, Carmelo García-Monzón, Aránzazu Sánchez, Ángela M Valverde
OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative modulator of insulin and cytokine signaling, is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. We investigated the impact of PTP1B deficiency during NAFLD, particularly in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: NASH features were evaluated in livers from wild-type (PTP1BWT) and PTP1B-deficient (PTP1BKO) mice fed methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 8 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118911/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-delayed-endothelial-replicative-senescence-and-protected-cells-from-h2o2-induced-premature-senescence-through-sirt1
#12
Jinhua Yan, Jinli Wang, Huijin Huang, Yi Huang, Tao Mi, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Vascular aging is an independent risk factor for age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been widely recognized as a metabolic regulator that is elevated in response to caloric and nutritional restrictions. Recent studies have demonstrated its emerging role as a pro-longevity hormone, but its effects on the senescence of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) remain unclear. In the present study, we explored the anti-senescence effects and underlying mechanism of FGF21 on HUVECs...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109955/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-promotes-c2c12-cells-myogenic-differentiation-by-enhancing-cell-cycle-exit
#13
Xinyi Liu, Yongliang Wang, Shuhong Zhao, Xinyun Li
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a secretion protein, functions as a pivotal regulator of energy metabolism and is being considered as a therapeutic candidate in metabolic syndromes. However, the roles of FGF21 in myogenic differentiation and cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the function of FGF21 in myogenesis and cell cycle exit using C2C12 cell line. Our data showed that the expression of myogenic genes as well as cell cycle exit genes was increased after FGF21 overexpression, and FGF21 overexpression induces cell cycle arrest...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108880/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
REVIEW
Sahapab Anuwatmatee, Shudi Tang, Ben J Wu, Kerry-Anne Rye, Kwok Leung Ong
The association between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and kidney function has been extensively studied in recent years in both animal and human studies. However, the exact functional role of FGF21 in the kidney remains unclear. Previous animal studies have shown that administration of FGF21 ameliorates kidney function, morphological glomerular abnormalities, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and obesity. In human studies, FGF21 levels negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate...
November 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107295/the-fgf21-response-to-fructose-predicts-metabolic-health-and-persists-after-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-humans
#15
Kasper W Ter Horst, Pim W Gilijamse, Ahmet Demirkiran, Bart A van Wagensveld, Mariette T Ackermans, Joanne Verheij, Johannes A Romijn, Max Nieuwdorp, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Mark A Herman, Mireille J Serlie
OBJECTIVE: Fructose consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Emerging evidence shows that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has beneficial effects on glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism and may also mediate an adaptive response to fructose ingestion. Fructose acutely stimulates circulating FGF21 consistent with a hormonal response. We aimed to evaluate whether fructose-induced FGF21 secretion is linked to metabolic outcomes in obese humans before and after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107292/fgf21-mimetic-antibody-stimulates-ucp1-independent-brown-fat-thermogenesis-via-fgfr1-%C3%AE-klotho-complex-in-non-adipocytes
#16
Mark Z Chen, Joshua C Chang, Jose Zavala-Solorio, Lance Kates, Minh Thai, Annie Ogasawara, Xiaobo Bai, Sean Flanagan, Victor Nunez, Khanhky Phamluong, James Ziai, Robert Newman, Søren Warming, Ganesh Kolumam, Junichiro Sonoda
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent stimulator of brown fat thermogenesis that improves insulin sensitivity, ameliorates hepatosteatosis, and induces weight loss by engaging the receptor complex comprised of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) and the requisite coreceptor βKlotho. Previously, recombinant antibody proteins that activate the FGFR1/βKlotho complex were proposed to act as an FGF21-mimetic; however, in vivo action of these engineered proteins has not been well studied...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107287/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-is-robustly-induced-by-ethanol-and-has-a-protective-role-in-ethanol-associated-liver-injury
#17
Bhavna N Desai, Garima Singhal, Mikiko Watanabe, Darko Stevanovic, Thomas Lundasen, Ffolliott M Fisher, Marie L Mather, Hilde G Vardeh, Nicholas Douris, Andrew C Adams, Imad A Nasser, Garret A FitzGerald, Jeffrey S Flier, Carsten Skarke, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
OBJECTIVE: Excess ethanol consumption has serious pathologic consequences. In humans, repeated episodes of binge drinking can lead to liver damage and have adverse effects on other organs such as pancreas and brain. Long term chronic consumption of ethanol can also result in progressive alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. FGF21 is a novel biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans and limits hepatotoxicity in mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098321/sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-associations-with-fasting-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations-are-not-modified-by-selected-genetic-variants-in-a-chrebp-fgf21-pathway-a-meta-analysis
#18
Nicola M McKeown, Hassan S Dashti, Jiantao Ma, Danielle E Haslam, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Caren E Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Mariaelisa Graff, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Denis Rybin, Emily Sonestedt, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Yanping Li, Carol A Wang, Elisabeth T M Leermakers, Vera Mikkilä, Kristin L Young, Kenneth J Mukamal, L Adrienne Cupples, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Tzu-An Chen, Ruifang Li-Gao, Tao Huang, Wendy H Oddy, Olli Raitakari, Kenneth Rice, James B Meigs, Ulrika Ericson, Lyn M Steffen, Frits R Rosendaal, Albert Hofman, Mika Kähönen, Bruce M Psaty, Louise Brunkwall, Andre G Uitterlinden, Jorma Viikari, David S Siscovick, Ilkka Seppälä, Kari E North, Dariush Mozaffarian, Josée Dupuis, Marju Orho-Melander, Stephen S Rich, Renée de Mutsert, Lu Qi, Craig E Pennell, Oscar H Franco, Terho Lehtimäki, Mark A Herman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits...
November 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095960/prenatal-ppar%C3%AE-activation-by-clofibrate-increases-subcutaneous-fat-browning-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-during-adulthood
#19
Szu-Han Chen, Pei-Min Chao
We tested the hypothesis that prenatal administration of PPARα agonist clofibrate may permanently increase browning capacity of developing white adipose tissue (WAT). Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a basal diet, without (C) or with 0.5% clofibrate (CF, a PPARα agonist) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, only male offspring were used; all suckled their mothers (who were eating the C diet) and after weaning, they ate a standard chow diet for 4 wk, followed by a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 wk. Administration of CF up-regulated serum concentrations and hepatic expression of FGF21 in fetuses, with a return to basal levels after CF withdrawal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091029/dnmt3a-is-an-epigenetic-mediator-of-adipose-insulin-resistance
#20
Dongjoo You, Emma Nilsson, Danielle E Tenen, Anna Lyubetskaya, James Lo, Rencong Jiang, Jasmine Deng, Brian A Dawes, Allan Vaag, Charlotte Ling, Evan D Rosen, Sona Kang
Insulin resistance results from an intricate interaction between genetic make-up and environment, and thus may be orchestrated by epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) is both necessary and sufficient to mediate insulin resistance in cultured mouse and human adipocytes. Furthermore, adipose-specific Dnmt3a knock-out mice are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance without accompanying changes in adiposity. Unbiased gene profiling studies revealed Fgf21 as a key negatively regulated Dnmt3a target gene in adipocytes with concordant changes in DNA methylation at the Fgf21 promoter region...
November 1, 2017: ELife
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