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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821258/contribution-of-serum-fgf21-level-to-the-identification-of-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiac-death
#1
Yun Shen, Xueli Zhang, Xiaoping Pan, Yiting Xu, Qin Xiong, Zhigang Lu, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
AIM: The relationship between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and cardiovascular disease has been well established in recent studies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF21 and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. METHODS: Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to estimate left ventricular systolic function. The optimal cutoff of FGF21 for identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction at baseline was analyzed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves...
August 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820393/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-omentin-1-hepatic-mrna-expression-and-serum-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
M Waluga, M Kukla, M Zorniak, M Kajor, L Liszka, M Dyaczynski, G Kowalski, D Zadlo, E Waluga, P Olczyk, R J Buldak, A Berdowska, M Hartleb
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#3
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811495/low-protein-induced-increases-in-fgf21-drive-ucp1-dependent-metabolic-but-not-thermoregulatory-endpoints
#4
Cristal M Hill, Thomas Laeger, Diana C Albarado, David H McDougal, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#5
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800407/human-brown-adipose-tissue-function-and-therapeutic-potential-in-metabolic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Padmanabh Shrikant Bhatt, Waljit S Dhillo, Victoria Salem
There has been a resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) over the last decade. Key to this has been our ability to accurately image it, which has improved significantly. The role of BAT in regulating energy expenditure is important, and its pharmacological manipulation may hold therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. There is ample evidence of BAT activation by cold exposure, and pharmacological utilisation of similar pathways, using B3 receptor agonists holds promise since the development of selective agonists with limited cross-reactivity has rekindled interest...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795382/liver-adipose-tissue-crosstalk-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glucolipid-metabolic-disease
#7
De-Wei Ye, Xiang-Lu Rong, Ai-Min Xu, Jiao Guo
Glucolipid metabolic disease (GLMD), a complex of interrelated disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism, has become one of the leading chronic diseases causing public and clinical problem worldwide. As the metabolism of lipid and glucose is a highly coordinated process under both physiological and diseased conditions, the impairment in the signals corresponding to the metabolism of either lipid or glucose represents the common mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of GLMD. The liver and adipose tissue are the major metabolic organs responsible for energy utilization and storage, respectively...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794103/effect-of-circulating-glucagon-and-free-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-fgf21-production-in-dairy-cows
#8
Luciano S Caixeta, Sarah L Giesy, Christopher S Krumm, James W Perfield, Anthony Butterfield, Katie M Schoenberg, Donald Clarence Beitz, Yves R Boisclair
Modern dairy cows meet the energy demand of early lactation by calling on hormonally-driven mechanisms to increase the use of lipid reserves. In this context, we recently reported that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), a hormone required for efficient use of lipid reserves in rodents, is upregulated in periparturient dairy cows. Increased plasma FGF21 in early lactation coincides with elevated circulating concentrations of glucagon (GCG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). To assess the relative contribution of these factors in regulating FGF21, two experiments were performed in energy sufficient, non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782836/histone-deacetylase-3-deletion-in-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-hinders-long-bone-development
#9
Marina Feigenson, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Earnest L Taylor, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Reister, Andre J van Wijnen, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Long bone formation is a complex process that requires precise transcriptional control of gene expression programs in mesenchymal progenitor cells. Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) coordinate chromatin structure and gene expression by enzymatically removing acetyl groups from histones and other proteins. Hdac inhibitors are used clinically to manage mood disorders, cancers and other conditions, but are teratogenic to the developing skeleton and increase fracture risk in adults. In this study, the functions of Hdac3, one of the enzymes blocked by current Hdac inhibitor therapies, in skeletal mesenchymal progenitor cells were determined...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781774/level-of-dietary-energy-and-2-4-thiazolidinedione-alter-molecular-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-liver-function-in-holstein-cows
#10
Afshin Hosseini, Mustafa Salman, Zheng Zhou, James K Drackley, Erminio Trevisi, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding a moderate energy diet and a 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on blood and hepatic tissue biomarkers of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation as it relates to insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Fourteen dry non-pregnant cows were fed a control (CON) diet to meet 100% of NRC requirements for 3 wk, after which half of the cows were assigned to a moderate-energy diet (OVE) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 wk...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774557/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-plays-an-inhibitory-role-in-vascular-calcification-in-vitro-through-opg-rankl-system
#11
Fangying Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Xiangrong Cao, Shaoping Wang, Kun Fu, Yejing Zhao, Fang Shen, Jinghua Liu
Vascular calcification is prevalent and associated with adverse outcome without available therapy. The benefits of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 on metabolism and atherosclerosis make it a promising therapeutic agent for vascular calcification. We investigated the effects of FGF21 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification by culturing rat VSMCs in a calcifying medium for 9days. FGF21 markedly attenuated mineral deposition and apoptosis at the indicated time points. In the presence of FGF21, the expression levels of osteoblastic protein including bone morphogenic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase(ALP), runt-related transcription factor(RUNX)-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) were down-regulated, whereas the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) increased...
July 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770320/fgf21-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-an-obese-diabetes-prone-mouse-model-independent-of-body-fat-changes
#12
Thomas Laeger, Christian Baumeier, Ilka Wilhelmi, Josefine Würfel, Anne Kamitz, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered to be a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, as FGF21 levels are elevated in obese and diabetic conditions we aimed to test if exogenous FGF21 is sufficient to prevent diabetes and beta cell loss in New Zealand obese (NZO) mice, a model for polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male NZO mice were treated with a specific dietary regimen that leads to the onset of diabetes within 1 week...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768896/the-effects-of-graded-levels-of-calorie-restriction-xi-evaluation-of-the-main-hypotheses-underpinning-the-life-extension-effects-of-cr-using-the-hepatic-transcriptome
#13
Davina Derous, Sharon E Mitchell, Lu Wang, Cara L Green, Yingchun Wang, Luonan Chen, Jing-Dong J Han, Daniel E L Promislow, David Lusseau, Alex Douglas, John R Speakman
Calorie restriction (CR) may extend longevity by modulating the mechanisms involved in aging. Different hypotheses have been proposed for its main mode of action. We quantified hepatic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (0% to 40% CR) for three months, and evaluated the responses relative to these various hypotheses. Of the four main signaling pathways implied to be linked to the impact of CR on lifespan (insulin/insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-ĸB), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sirtuins (SIRTs)), all the pathways except SIRT were altered in a manner consistent with increased lifespan...
July 31, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768181/long-term-cold-adaptation-does-not-require-fgf21-or-ucp1
#14
Susanne Keipert, Maria Kutschke, Mario Ost, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Evert M van Schothorst, Daniel Lamp, Laura Brachthäuser, Isabel Hamp, Sithandiwe E Mazibuko, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Elisabeth Graf, Oliver Plettenburg, Frauke Neff, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-dependent thermogenesis and its suggested augmenting hormone, FGF21, are potential therapeutic targets in current obesity and diabetes research. Here, we studied the role of UCP1 and FGF21 for metabolic homeostasis in the cold and dissected underlying molecular mechanisms using UCP1-FGF21 double-knockout mice. We report that neither UCP1 nor FGF21, nor even compensatory increases of FGF21 serum levels in UCP1 knockout mice, are required for defense of body temperature or for maintenance of energy metabolism and body weight...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768179/mtorc1-regulates-mitochondrial-integrated-stress-response-and-mitochondrial-myopathy-progression
#15
Nahid A Khan, Joni Nikkanen, Shuichi Yatsuga, Christopher Jackson, Liya Wang, Swagat Pradhan, Riikka Kivelä, Alberto Pessia, Vidya Velagapudi, Anu Suomalainen
Mitochondrial dysfunction elicits various stress responses in different model systems, but how these responses relate to each other and contribute to mitochondrial disease has remained unclear. Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) is the most common manifestation of adult-onset mitochondrial disease and shows a multifaceted tissue-specific stress response: (1) transcriptional response, including metabolic cytokines FGF21 and GDF15; (2) remodeling of one-carbon metabolism; and (3) mitochondrial unfolded protein response...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768168/what-s-so-special-about-fgf19-unique-effects-reported-on-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function
#16
David J Glass
In a recent study published in Nature Medicine, Benoit et al. (2017) reported unique effects of FGF19 on mouse skeletal muscle: FGF19 induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and blocked muscle atrophy, acting via FGF receptors and ßKlotho, while a related FGF21 hormone was ineffective.
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765264/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-training-in-adipose-tissue-do-not-require-fgf21
#17
Jay Wayne Porter, Joe Lee Rowles, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Victoria Vieira-Potter
Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity; it also improves adipocyte metabolism and reduces adipose tissue inflammation through poorly-defined mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein whose insulin-sensitizing properties are predominantly mediated via receptor signaling in adipose tissue (AT). Recently, FGF21 has also been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, an association between exercise and increased circulating FGF21 levels has been reported in some, but not all studies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759185/serum-fgf21-in-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-comparison-to-normal-weight-and-obese-female-adolescents
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine, myokine and adipokine of a potent influence to energy homeostasis. Data according its serum concentrations in AN are contradictory. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of serum FGF21 in girls with acute anorexia nervosa and comparison the results with normal weight and obese female adolescents considering their nutritional status, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Serum FGF21 concentrations were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kit in 32 Polish girls with restrictive AN (AN), 29 girls with obesity (O) and 21 healthy controls (C)...
July 31, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754744/klb-encoding-%C3%AE-klotho-is-mutated-in-patients-with-congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#19
Cheng Xu, Andrea Messina, Emmanuel Somm, Hichem Miraoui, Tarja Kinnunen, James Acierno, Nicolas J Niederländer, Justine Bouilly, Andrew A Dwyer, Yisrael Sidis, Daniele Cassatella, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Richard Quinton, Christian De Geyter, Mirjam Dirlewanger, Valérie Schwitzgebel, Trevor R Cole, Andrew A Toogood, Jeremy Mw Kirk, Lacey Plummer, Urs Albrecht, William F Crowley, Moosa Mohammadi, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Vincent Prevot, Nelly Pitteloud
Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic form of isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency caused by mutations in > 30 genes. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is the most frequently mutated gene in CHH and is implicated in GnRH neuron development and maintenance. We note that a CHH FGFR1 mutation (p.L342S) decreases signaling of the metabolic regulator FGF21 by impairing the association of FGFR1 with β-Klotho (KLB), the obligate co-receptor for FGF21. We thus hypothesized that the metabolic FGF21/KLB/FGFR1 pathway is involved in CHH Genetic screening of 334 CHH patients identified seven heterozygous loss-of-function KLB mutations in 13 patients (4%)...
July 28, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752051/repletion-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-reverses-mtorc1-signaling-but-not-improved-metabolism-during-dietary-protein-dilution
#20
Adriano Maida, Jessica S K Chan, Kim A Sjøberg, Annika Zota, Dieter Schmoll, Bente Kiens, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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