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Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Liu Xiaodan, Wang Zhensheng, Han Ying, Liu Hongwei, Jin Jianqiu, Zhou Peiru, Su Sha, Yan Zhimin
Gongylonema infection is a zoonotic disease occurring throughout the world and is mainly caused by consumption of contaminated water and raw food. Adult Gongylonema worms can exist as parasites in the human body for up to 10 years and cause symptoms of local irritation in the oral cavity, esophagus, and pharynx. Herein, we report a rare case in which live Gongylonema pulchrum was detected and extracted from the oral cavity of a woman. The pathogen was confirmed as G. pulchrum on the basis of microscopic examination and morphologic analysis...
December 8, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Pai Pang, Weiyi Duan, Shuchun Liu, Shuang Bai, Yanan Ma, Ruiwu Li, Fayu Liu, Changfu Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Thessa R Friebel, Paul Morris, Guy Thorburn
The Hynes pharyngoplasty is the second most often performed procedure for velopharyngeal insufficiency in the United Kingdom and Ireland. A crucial step of the procedure is reliable fixation of the flaps onto the posterior pharynx wall. We prefer to fix the flaps to the prevertebral fascia. By using a manually straightened needle and a skin hook, in our hands, placement of this stitch can be made easier and faster.
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Constanze Gahleitner, Benedikt Hofauer, Katharina Storck, Andreas Knopf
BACKGROUND: Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is one of the most feared emergencies in the head and neck surgery and tends to occur in patients with head and neck cancer, wound complications, pharyngocutaneous fistulas, or after radio(chemo)therapy. CBS is always life threatening and associated with a 50% mortality/morbidity rate. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, a total of 51 patients who developed CBS caused by the tumour masses or after radio(chemo)therapy were included...
January 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Sadhana Adhikary, Magne Bisgaard, Werner Nicklas, Henrik Christensen
A total of 29 strains mainly from guinea pigs were investigated by a polyphasic approach that included previously published data. The strains were classified as Bisgaard taxa 5 and 7 by comparison of phenotypic characteristics and the strains showed typical cultural characteristics for members of family Pasteurellaceae and the strains formed two monophyletic groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. Partial rpoB sequence analysis as well as published data on DNA-DNA hybridization showed high genotypic relationships within both groups...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Emilio Guillén-Mancina, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Miguel López-Lázaro
Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Yoon Suk Jung, Minkyung Han, Do Young Kim, Jae Hee Cheon, Sohee Park
BACKGROUND: Various immune-mediated diseases are associated with increased malignancy risks. However, the relationship between Behçet's disease (BD) and cancer remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study to determine the risk of cancer in patients with BD. METHODS: Using National Health Insurance claims records, we collected data from 2402 patients diagnosed with BD between 2013 and 2014. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of overall and site-specific cancers in patients with BD in comparison with the general population were calculated...
2017: PloS One
Megumi Takahashi, Shin Takagi
Feeding, a vital behavior in animals, is modulated depending on internal and external factors. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the feeding organ called the pharynx ingests food by pumping driven by the pharyngeal muscles. Here we report that optical silencing of the body wall muscles, which drive the locomotory movement of worms, affects pumping. In worms expressing the Arch proton pump or the ACR2 anion channel in the body wall muscle cells, the pumping rate decreases after activation of Arch or ACR2 with light illumination, and recovers gradually after terminating illumination...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Yen-Ting Lu, Hung-Wen Chen, Yao-Ying Tseng, Chia-Hsi Chen, Ying-Chou Lu
OBJECTIVES: Fishbone ingestion is a common problem worldwide, and the first step for managing this condition is to locate the fishbone precisely. However, until now, no study has analysed the true location of fishbone and its associated factors. Thus, this study identified the factors predicting the true location of fishbone and subsequently attempted to provide a management algorithm for fishbone ingestion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out at St Martin De Porres Hospital, Taiwan, between January 2015 and January 2016...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Soumya Chatterjee, Brian J Hedman, Donald F Kirby
Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is a rare scleroderma mimic characterized by woody induration of the skin involving the back of the neck, interscapular region, upper and mid back, and sometimes the face, upper chest, and upper arms. Dysphagia is rare and not well characterized. We describe a case of scleredema that developed significant dysphagia affecting both the oropharyngeal phase and the esophageal phase of deglutition. Diagnostic evaluation revealed mild-moderate oropharyngeal and severe esophageal dysmotility...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Yoko Inamoto, Eiichi Saitoh, Yuriko Ito, Hitoshi Kagaya, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Seiko Shibata, Kikuo Ota, Naoko Fujii, Jeffrey B Palmer
This study investigated the effects of Mendelsohn maneuver with three-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine female speech-language pathologists (nine females, mean ± SD 27.1 ± 3.5 years old) underwent 320-row area detector scan during swallows of 4-ml nectar-thick liquid using with no maneuvers (control) and with Mendelsohn maneuver (MM). Critical event timing (hyoid, soft palate, epiglottis, laryngeal vestibule, true vocal cords (TVC), UES), hyoid and laryngeal excursion, cross-sectional area of UES, and volume of pharyngeal cavity and bolus were measured and compared between two swallows...
December 26, 2017: Dysphagia
Francesca Rigon, Fabio Gasparini, Sebastian M Shimeld, Simona Candiani, Lucia Manni
In tunicates, the coronal organ represents a sentinel checking particle entrance into the pharynx. The organ differentiates from an anterior embryonic area considered a proto-placode. For their embryonic origin, morphological features and function, coronal sensory cells have been hypothesized to be homologues to vertebrate hair cells. However, vertebrate hair cells derive from a posterior placode. This contradicts one of the principle historical criteria for homology, similarity of position, which could be taken as evidence against coronal cells/hair cells homology...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ji Young Lee, Zhiwei Feng, Xiang-Qun Xie, Ivet Bahar
As a protease complex involved in the cleavage of amyloid precursor proteins that lead to the formation of amyloid β fibrils implicated in Alzheimer's disease, γ-secretase is an important target for developing therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease. γ-secretase is composed of four subunits: nicastrin (NCT) in the extracellular (EC) domain, presenilin-1 (PS1), anterior pharynx defective 1, and presenilin enhancer 2 in the transmembrane (TM) domain. NCT and PS1 play important roles in binding amyloid β precursor proteins and modulating PS1 catalytic activity...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Shun-Mu Wang, Jung-Chen Chang, Shu-Chuan Weng, Ming-Kung Yeh, Chau-Shoun Lee
The association of the risk of suicide with cancer at different time points after a new cancer diagnosis is unclear. This study explored the suicide hazard at different time points after a first cancer diagnosis during the 1-year period before suicide. This case-crossover study included 2,907 suicide cases from 2002 to 2012 in Taiwan and compared the odds of suicide risk at different time points during one year after any cancer diagnosis with self-matched periods. The 13th month preceding the suicide date was used as the control period, and the hazard period was the duration from the 1st to 12th month in the conditional logistic regression for case-crossover comparisons...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ruta Zukauskaite, Christian R Hansen, Cai Grau, Eva Samsøe, Jørgen Johansen, Jørgen B B Petersen, Elo Andersen, Carsten Brink, Jens Overgaard, Jesper G Eriksen
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to analyze position of CT-verified local recurrences (LR) and local control (LC) among three centers that used different GTV to CTV1 margins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 1576 patients completing radical primary IMRT for larynx, pharynx, oral cavity HNSCC in three centers in Denmark between 2006 and 2012 were included. CT-verified LRs were analyzed as possible points of recurrence origin and compared between groups of small (0-2.5 mm), larger (>2...
December 13, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Yunxia Wan, Dimitrios Vagenas, Carolina Salazar, Liz Kenny, Chris Perry, Diego Calvopiña, Chamindie Punyadeera
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumours that originate predominantly from the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Our aim was to determine whether salivary miRNA expression levels can diagnose these cancer subtypes. Saliva samples were collected from healthy controls (n=113, smoker and non-smokers), HPV-positive (n=54) and HPV-negative (n=47) HNSCC patients. The miRNA expression levels in saliva was quantified using qPCR. The potential of salivary miRNAs to discriminate these groups of patients was evaluated using multiple logistic regression with ROC analysis and a 10-fold cross-validation analysis...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
Joaquín Abolafia, Ebrahim Shokoohi
A new species belonging to the genus Stegelletina, S. lingulata sp. n., is described from xeric natural areas from Iran. It is characterized by having small body (0.51-0.69 mm in females and 0.45-0.64 mm in males), cuticle slightly tessellated especially at anterior end, lateral field with three longitudinal incisures, lips with long acute process at primary axils and three more dentate processes at secondary axils, primary axils with one triangular axillar guard process and secondary axils lacking axillar processes, labial probolae long (9-11 µm) with slender peduncle lacking adaxial expansion and with convergent smooth prongs, stoma, pharynx and reproductive systems cephaloboid, excretory pore at isthmus level, spermatheca 1...
November 30, 2017: Zootaxa
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
Here, we describe two new species of land planarians of the genera Pasipha and Imbira from the Atlantic Forest of Argentina: Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. and Imbira negrita sp. nov. Their external features and internal anatomy distinguish them from their congeners. Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. is about 40mm long, characterized by brown beige dorsal pigmentation with a golden yellow median band and thin graphite black para-median stripes, cylindrical pharynx, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with paired proximal portion, male atrium with small folds in its proximal part, and female canal opening into the dorso-caudal wall of the female atrium...
December 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Anisbeth Daza, Martín Caicedo, Oscar Lisi, Sigmer Quiroga
By examining material collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Department of Magdalena, Colombia), the authors report a new record for the entire South America, Doryphoribius gibber Beasley & Pilato, 1987, and two species new to science, Paramacrobiotus sagani sp. nov., and Doryphoribius rosane sp. nov., are described. Paramacrobiotus sagani sp. nov. belongs to the richtersi group, vanescens subgroup (by having sculptured egg areolae) and is characterized by a peculiar cuticular granulation, trunco-conical egg processes with cylindrical indented apices, and other more detailed cha-racters both qualitative and metric; by the unique combination of characters, it differs from all the other known species of the genus...
December 4, 2017: Zootaxa
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