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Yu Onodera, Ryo Akimoto, Hiroto Suzuki, Masayuki Okada, Masaki Nakane, Kaneyuki Kawamae
BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies of the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its effect on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been done, the washout effect has not been well evaluated. Therefore, we made an experimental respiratory model to evaluate the respiratory physiological effect of HFNC. METHODS: An airway model was made by a 3D printer using the craniocervical 3D-CT data of a healthy 32-year-old male. CO2 was infused into four respiratory lung models (normal-lung, open- and closed-mouth models; restrictive- and obstructive-lung, open-mouth models) to maintain the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) at 40 mmHg...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Seda Ekizoglu, Turgut Ulutin, Jalal Guliyev, Nur Buyru
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a diverse group of tumor types, including neoplasia of the paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, trachea, pharynx and larynx. Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of HNSCC. The proline-rich 4 (PRR4) protein is synthesized in the acinar cells of human lacrimal glands. Previous studies have demonstrated that PRR4 may function as an antimicrobial protein protecting the ocular surface and the oral cavity. In order to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in laryngeal tumors, a GeneFishing Assay was performed; 27 DEGs were identified...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Cheng-Chieh Hsu, Wing-Yin Li, Pen-Yuan Chu
RATIONALE: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare and aggressive subtype of salivary gland carcinoma that histologically resembles in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We present the first case of advanced SDC of the minor salivary gland arising from the supraglottis and review the literature on the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of SDC. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male patient with progressive difficulty in swallowing and a muffled voice for 2 months...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Markus Wirth, Daniel Jira, Armin Ott, Guido Piontek, Anja Pickhard
The clinical impact of the expression of NOTCH1 signaling components in squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and larynx has only been evaluated in subgroups. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate NOTCH1 expression in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patient tissue and cell lines. We analyzed tissue from 195 HNSCCs and tissue from 30 normal patients for mRNA expression of NOTCH1, NOTCH3, HES1, HEY1, and JAG1 using quantitative real-time PCR. Association of expression results and clinical orpathological factors was examined with multivariate Cox regression...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yongping Chai, Zhiwen Zhu, Guangshuo Ou
During C. elegans larval development, the Q neuroblasts produce their lineage by three rounds of divisions along with continuous cell migrations. Their neuronal progeny is dispersed from the pharynx to the anus. This in vivo system to study cell migration is appealing for several reasons. The lineage development is stereotyped; functional analysis and genomic screens are rendered easy and powerful thanks to powerful tools; transgenic manipulations and genome engineering are efficient and can be conveniently combined with live-cell imaging...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matúš Kubák, Róbert Štefko, Miroslav Barták, Jaroslav Majerník, Tatiana Vagašová, Michaela Fedelešová
AIM: Cancer mortality distribution was investigated by detailed neoplasms groups, age, sex, marital status of deceased, and regions in the Slovak Republic, and examined how these determinants influence the odds of dying due to cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of cancer mortality statistics registered in the Slovak Republic during the years 1996-2014. For this time period, data was available only on the underlying subgroups of cancer deaths, place of death, age, year, sex, and marital status...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Jitsuro Yano, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Takahiro Ono, Kazuhiro Hori, Wakami Yamaguchi, Shigehiro Fujiwara, Isami Kumakura
The effects of bolus volume and flow time on the sequential coordination of tongue pressure (TP) and pharyngeal pressure (PP), which are important in the biomechanics of swallowing, are unclear. In this study, we measured TP and PP simultaneously in 10 healthy adults at multiple points during dry swallowing and the swallowing of 5 ml and 15 ml of liquids with different viscosities, and investigated changes in the timing of the onset, peak, and offset of these pressures. TP was measured using a sensor sheet system with five measuring points on the hard palate, and PP was measured using a manometry catheter with four measuring points...
March 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Manabu Zama, Yaeko Hara, Satoshi Fujita, Tadayoshi Kaneko, Masayuki Kobayashi
Nasal mucosa has roles in warming and humidifying inspired air and is highly sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, the upper part of the nasal mucosa expresses olfactory receptors processing olfactory information. Although the somatosensory map of the face in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices is clearly documented, the map of the nasal mucosa and the effect of odors on their activities are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the cortical regions in S1 and their temporal features in response to somatosensory stimulation of the nasal mucosa using an optical imaging technique in urethane-anesthetized rats...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience
A R Watkins, E J Parente
BACKGROUND: Guttural pouch mycosis (GPM) is a cause of nasal discharge, dysphagia, and fatal haemorrhage in the horse. OBJECTIVES: To report the complications and success of salpingopharyngeal fistulation in horses with GPM. We hypothesised that creating a direct static opening into the guttural pouch from the pharynx would cause a regression of fungal plaques due to a change in the guttural pouch environment and that this treatment would result in resolution of infection prior to secondary complications...
March 7, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Constantin Ciuce, Răzvan Scurtu, Cătălin Ciuce, Raluca Apostu, Horea Bocşe, George Dindelegan
Introduction: Neoplastic invasion of the structures of the cervical region originating from a malignant tumour developed in one of the viscera of the throat may benefit from cervical exenteration. Defined as resection of the hypopharynx, cervical oesophagus, larynx and cervical trachea, exenteration has limited indications and is mandatorily accompanied by digestive tube reconstruction. The aim of this article is to highlight the indication, surgical strategy and important surgical stages illustrated by images from personal professional experience...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Denise Riedel Lewis, Huann-Sheng Chen, Myles G Cockburn, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Antoinette M Stroup, Douglas N Midthune, Zhaohui Zou, Martin F Krapcho, Daniel G Miller, Eric J Feuer
BACKGROUND: The National Cancer Institute's cancer incidence estimates through 2015 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries' November 2017 submission are released in April 2018. METHODS: Early estimates (February 2017) of cancer incidence rates and trends from the SEER 18 registries for diagnoses in 2000 through 2015 were evaluated with a revised delay-adjustment model, which was used to adjust for the undercount of cases in the early release...
March 6, 2018: Cancer
Victoria Zherdeva, Natalia I Kazachkina, Vladislav Shcheslavskiy, Alexander P Savitsky
Caspase-3 is known for its role in apoptosis and programmed cell death regulation. We detected caspase-3 activation in vivo in tumor xenografts via shift of mean fluorescence lifetimes of a caspase-3 sensor. We used the genetically encoded sensor TR23K based on the red fluorescent protein TagRFP and chromoprotein KFP linked by 23 amino acid residues (TagRFP-23-KFP) containing a specific caspase cleavage DEVD motif to monitor the activity of caspase-3 in tumor xenografts by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging-Forster resonance energy transfer...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Gargi Banerjee, Divya Jain, Indu Bala, Komal Gandhi, Ram Samujh
Background and Aims: Head and neck movements alter the shape of the pharynx, resulting in changes in the oropharyngeal leaking pressures and ventilation with supragottic airway devices. We compared the effect of the different head-and-neck positions on the oropharyngeal leak pressures and ventilation with the I-Gel™ and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) in anaesthetised paralysed children. Methods: A total of 70 children were randomly assigned to receive PLMA ( n = 35) or I-Gel™ ( n = 35) for airway management...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Marcel F Glaas, Constanze Wiek, Linda-Maria Wolter, Katharina Roellecke, Vera Balz, Vera Okpanyi, Martin Wagenmann, Thomas Karl Hoffmann, Rene Grässlin, Christian Plettenberg, Jörg Schipper, Helmut Hanenberg, Kathrin Scheckenbach
BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) form a heterogeneous tumor entity located throughout the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx that is caused predominantly by chemically or virally induced carcinogenesis. Heterozygous germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes might also lead to increased incidence of HNSCCs. As DNA stability is typically impaired in HNSCC cells and genes of the Fanconi anemia/BRCA DNA repair pathway can be mutated or down-regulated in HNSCCs, we investigated here whether germline mutations occur in the X-chromosomal FANCB as candidate gene...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Vincent J Cornelisse, Lei Zhang, Matthew Law, Marcus Y Chen, Catriona S Bradshaw, Clare Bellhouse, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe anatomic site-specific concordance of gonococcal infections in partnerships of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from MSM partnerships attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and February 2015. Logistic regression models (random effect) were used to examine the association between gonococcal infections of the urethra, rectum and pharynx. Gonococci were detected by culture at all anatomic sites...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mª Jesús Rodríguez-Palero, Ana López-Díaz, Roxane Marsac, José-Eduardo Gomes, María Olmedo, Marta Artal-Sanz
The study of mechanisms that govern feeding behaviour and its related disorders is a matter of global health interest. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is becoming a model organism of choice to study these conserved pathways. C. elegans feeding depends on the contraction of the pharynx (pumping). Thanks to the worm transparency, pumping can be directly observed under a stereoscope. Therefore, C. elegans feeding has been historically investigated by counting pharyngeal pumping or by other indirect approaches...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Seo, T Amano, R Seki, T Sagai, J Kim, S W Cho, T Shiroishi
Sonic hedgehog ( Shh) is important in pattern formation during development. Shh transcription is modulated by a long-range regulatory mechanism containing a number of enhancers, which are spread over nearly 850 kb in the mouse genome. Shh enhancers in the nervous system have been found between intron and 430 kb upstream of Shh. Enhancers in the oral cavity, pharynx, lung, gut, and limbs have been discovered between 610 kb and 850 kb upstream of Shh. However, the intergenic region ranging from 430 to 610 kb upstream of Shh remains to be elucidated...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Lizhi Zhang, Nenggui Xu, Ruliang Li, Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) with different frequencies based on the western conventional treatment and rehabilita tion training for stroke dysphagia. METHODS: Sixty patients with dysphagia after stroke were randomized assigned into a low frequency (2 Hz) group and a high frequency (100 Hz) group, 30 cases in each one. Basic treatment was applied in the two groups. The acupoints were Fengfu (GV 16) and Lianquan (CV 23). EA with continuous wave and tolerant intensity were connected for 30 min, once a day for 14 days...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Moneeb Akhtar, Paul G Van Heukelom, Azeemuddin Ahmed, Rachel D Tranter, Erinn White, Nathaniel Shekem, David Walz, Catherine Fairfield, J Priyanka Vakkalanka, Nicholas M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine allows patients to connect with healthcare providers remotely. It has recently expanded to evaluate low-acuity illnesses such as pharyngitis by using patients' personal communication devices. The purpose of our study was to compare the telemedicine-facilitated physical examination with an in-person examination in emergency department (ED) patients with sore throat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, blinded diagnostic concordance study of patients being seen for sore throat in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic ED...
February 22, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shigeru Kuratani
Background: The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostomes is the neck, which occupies the interfacial domain between the head and trunk, including the occipital part of the cranium, the shoulder girdle, and the cucullaris and hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Of these, HBMs originate from occipital somites to form the ventral pharyngeal and neck musculature in gnathostomes...
2018: Zoological Letters
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