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Li Wang, Yakui Mou, Deping Meng, Yan Sun, Xiumei Chen, Xin Yang, Chuanliang Jia, Xicheng Song, Xuezhong Li
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating hypopharyngeal cancer development. miR-203 has been previously shown to possess anti-tumor capabilities in many cancers, but not in hypopharyngeal cancer. DESIGN: Using human normal and hypopharyngeal cancer specimens, we explored the expression levels of miR-203 in the two groups, and further correlated them with different stages of cancer and lymph node metastasis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Applying human pharynx FaDu cancer cells and lentiviral transduction technique, we investigated the effects of miR-203 on cancer cell viability, migration and invasion...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Ann Goding Sauer, Rebecca L Siegel, Kimberly D Miller, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
Importance: State-specific information about the health burden of smoking is valuable because state-level initiatives are at the forefront of tobacco control. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality estimates are currently available nationally and by cancer, but not by state. Objective: To calculate the proportion of cancer deaths among adults 35 years and older that were attributable to cigarette smoking in 2014 in each state and the District of Columbia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer deaths due to cigarette smoking was computed using relative risks for 12 smoking-related cancers (acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colorectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; trachea, lung, and bronchus; cervix uteri; kidney and renal pelvis; and urinary bladder) from large US prospective studies and state-specific smoking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Qing Yu, Weimin Ye, Tom Powers
Gracilacus wuae n. sp. from soil associated with cow parsnip in Ontario, Canada is described and illustrated. Morphologically, females have a long stylet ranging from 80 to 93 µm long, the lip region not offset from the body contour, without lateral lips but with large and flat submedian lobes, the mouth opening slit-like elongated laterally and surrounded by lateral flaps, the excretory pore is anterior to the knobs of the stylet; males without stylet and the pharynx degenerated. The fourth-stage juveniles lack a stylet, the pharynx degenerated, and can be differentiated into preadult females and males based on the position of the genital primordia...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Harun Cimen, Vladimír Půža, JiŘí NermuŤ, Justin Hatting, Tshima Ramakuwela, Selcuk Hazir
A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 μm (606-778 μm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid-pharynx (D% = 46)...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Marina Vakaki, Fotini-Eleni Karachaliou, Irene Kaloumenou, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Christina Gali, Stefanos Michalacos
BACKGROUND: During gestation, the primordial thymus migrates from the pharynx to the anterior mediastinum, thus thymic tissue can remain at any point along this path. Intrathyroidal thymic remnants are rare, and their sonographic patterns have only recently been described. This retrospective study presents the sonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus and emphasizes the role of sonography in order to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: The population consisted of 42 children, 3...
October 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
W Pérez, N Vazquez, R Ungerfeld
The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0...
October 17, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Gyeong Bo Kim, Sung Yeon Hwang, Tae Gun Shin, Tae Rim Lee, Won Chul Cha, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Keun Jeong Song, Joong Eui Rhee, Yeon Kwon Jeong
A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of sore throat after swallowing sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate powder for bowel preparation, without first dissolving it in water. The initial evaluation showed significant mucosal injury involving the oral cavity, pharynx, and epiglottis. Endotracheal intubation was performed for airway protection in the emergency department, because the mucosal swelling resulted in upper airway compromise. After conservative treatment in the intensive care unit, he underwent tracheostomy because stenosis of the supraglottic and subglottic areas was not relieved...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Olena Kudlai, Thomas H Cribb, Scott C Cutmore
A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas)...
November 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Kathrin Günther, Ronja Foraita, Juliane Friemel, Frauke Günther, Jörn Bullerdiek, Rolf Nimzyk, Dominique Nadine Markowski, Thomas Behrens, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor high-mobility AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is involved in stem cell renewal and is expressed in many tumor tissues. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) comprise tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and are characterized by high recurrence rates that represent a challenge to patient management. The study addresses the potential of HMGA2 as a molecular biomarker for HNSCC patient survival. METHODS: Patients with HNSCC of the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, or oral cavity were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study (n=202)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Luca Mogna, Francesca Deidda, Stefania Nicola, Angela Amoruso, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna
GOALS: To determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans against Klebsiella pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Klebsiella is ubiquitous in nature and may colonize the skin, the pharynx, or the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Despite the widespread use of antibiotic molecules with a broad spectrum in hospitalized patients, an increased overall load of klebsiellae as well as the subsequent development of multidrug-resistant strains able to synthesize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase have been registered...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Chun Woo Lim, Min Hwan Park, Hyun Jeong Do, Jung-Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji Hyun Seo, Jung Je Park, Jae Young Lim, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
PURPOSE: The management and clinical course in pediatric patients who had ingested foreign body were investigated retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and factor associated with successful removal of fishbone foreign body. METHODS: Based on the medical records of patients younger than 15 years old who visited emergency room because of foreign body ingestion from January 1999 to December 2012, the authors reviewed clinical characteristics including type of ingested foreign bodies, time to visits, managements and complications...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Catherine E Carr, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Hilary Bierman
Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve the processing of low-frequency directional signals, while higher frequency signals appear to be progressively uncoupled. In both lizards and crocodilians, the increased directionality of the coupled ears leads to an effectively larger head and larger physiological range of ITDs...
October 12, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Xingli Liu, Weiwei Yan, Yang Liu, Yat Sze Choy, Yikun Wei
The flow characteristics in the realistic human upper airway (HUA) with obstruction that resulted from pharyngeal collapse were numerically investigated. The 3D anatomically accurate HUA model was reconstructed from CT-scan images of a Chinese male patient (38 years, BMI 25.7). The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the large eddy simulation (LES) method was applied to simulate the airflow dynamics within the HUA model in both inspiration and expiration processes. The laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique was simultaneously adopted to measure the airflow fields in the HUA model for the purpose of testifying the reliability of LES approach...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Sunki Rhee, Masahito Yamamoto, Kei Kitamura, Kasahara Masaaki, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5-6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Miguel López-Lázaro
Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect may have been overlooked because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer...
October 5, 2016: Oral Oncology
Misty R Riddle, Erik A Spickard, Angela Jevince, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
The differentiated cell identities and structure of fully formed organs are generally stable after their development. In contrast, we report here that development of the C. elegans proximal somatic gonad (hermaphrodite uterus and spermathecae, and male vas deferens) can be redirected into intestine-like organs by brief expression of the ELT-7 GATA transcription factor. This process converts one developing organ into another and can hence be considered "transorganogenesis." We show that, following pulsed ELT-7 expression, cells of the uterus activate and maintain intestine-specific gene expression and are transformed at the ultrastructural level to form an epithelial tube resembling the normal intestine formed during embryogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Biology
Yaroslav O Kamenev, Igor Y Dolmatov
The regeneration of the anterior portion of the body after fission was studied in the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii using electron microscopy methods. Following fission, the posterior portion of the digestive tube, cloaca, and respiratory trees remain in the posterior fragment of the body. The regeneration comprises five stages. In the first stage, connective-tissue thickening (an anlage of the aquapharyngeal bulb) occurs on the anterior end between the torn-off ends of the ambulacra. Most of the lost anterior organs developed in the second and third stages...
October 7, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Tatsuya Norii, Adam Plate
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes have seen a drastic increase in use. A lithium-ion battery is often used as the rechargeable battery of the electronic cigarette device and has recently received much attention in terms of safety. There are several recent case reports in the scientific literature of injuries due to electronic cigarette explosions that involved soft-tissue injuries. CASE REPORT: We report a significant spinal fracture from an electronic-cigarette explosion in a 27-year-old male...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Limin Hao, Oshrit Ben-David, Suzann M Babb, Anthony H Futerman, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
Defining the mechanisms of action of the anti-psychotic drug (APD), clozapine is of great importance, as clozapine is more effective and has therapeutic benefits in a broader range of psychiatric disorders than other APDs. Its range of actions have not been fully characterized. Exposure to APDs early in development causes dose-dependent developmental delay and lethality in C. elegans. A previous genome-wide RNAi screen for suppressors of clozapine-induced developmental delay and lethality revealed 40 candidate genes, including sms-1, which encodes a sphingomyelin synthase...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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