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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#1
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161340/prefrontal-executive-control-rescues-risk-for-anxiety-associated-with-high-threat-and-low-reward-brain-function
#2
Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Compared with neural biomarkers of risk for mental illness, little is known about biomarkers of resilience. We explore if greater executive control-related prefrontal activity may function as a resilience biomarker by "rescuing" risk associated with higher threat-related amygdala and lower reward-related ventral striatum activity. Functional MRI was used to assay baseline threat-related amygdala, reward-related ventral striatum, and executive control-related prefrontal activity in 120 young adult volunteers...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161195/successful-aging-the-role-of-cognitive-gerontology
#3
Alan Hartley, Lucie Angel, Alan Castel, André Didierjean, Lisa Geraci, Joellen Hartley, Eliot Hazeltine, Patrick Lemaire, François Maquestiaux, Eric Ruthruff, Laurence Taconnat, Catherine Thevenot, Dayna Touron
This commentary explores the relationships between the construct of successful aging and the experimental psychology of human aging-cognitive gerontology. What can or should cognitive gerontology contribute to understanding, defining, and assessing successful aging? Standards for successful aging reflect value judgments that are culturally and historically situated. Fundamentally, they address social policy; they are prescriptive. If individuals or groups are deemed to be aging successfully, then their characteristics or situations can be emulated...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161178/association-between-gross-motor-and-executive-function-depends-on-age-and-motor-task-complexity
#4
Meaghan E Spedden, Anne Sofie B Malling, Ken K Andersen, Bente R Jensen
The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0...
November 21, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160739/neural-correlates-of-effort-dependent-and-effort-independent-cognitive-fatigue-components-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Stefan Spiteri, Thomas Hassa, Dolores Claros-Salinas, Christian Dettmers, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), fatigue is the most commonly reported symptom. It can be subdivided into an effort-dependent (fatigability) and an effort-independent component (trait-fatigue). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to disentangle activity changes associated with effort-independent "trait-fatigue" from those associated with effort-dependent fatigability in MS patients. METHODS: This study employed behavioral measures and functional magnetic imaging to investigate neural changes in MS patients associated with fatigue...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160603/relationship-between-self-reported-cognitive-difficulties-objective-neuropsychological-test-performance-and-psychological-distress-in-chronic-pain
#6
K S Baker, S J Gibson, N Georgiou-Karistianis, M J Giummarra
BACKGROUND: Persons with chronic pain often report problems with cognitive abilities, such as memory or attention. There is limited understanding of whether objective performance is consistent with subjective reports, and how psychological factors contribute. We aimed to investigate these relationships in a group of patients expressing cognitive concerns, and evaluate the utility of self-report tools for pain management settings. METHOD: Participants with chronic pain (n = 41) completed standardized neuropsychological tests, and self-report measures of cognitive functioning, pain, mood and sleep, as part of a broader study investigating cognitive performance in pain...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#7
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159914/gaba-concentration-in-sensorimotor-cortex-following-high-intensity-exercise-and-relationship-to-lactate-levels
#8
James P Coxon, Robin F H Cash, Joshua J Hendrikse, Nigel C Rogasch, Ellen Stavrinos, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel
High-intensity exercise increases the concentration of circulating lactate. Cortical uptake of blood borne lactate increases during and following exercise, however the potential relationship with changes in the concentration of neurometabolites remains unclear. While changes in neurometabolite concentration have previously been demonstrated in primary visual cortex following exercise, it remains unknown whether these changes extend to regions such as sensorimotor cortex (SM) or executive regions such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159664/dual-roles-of-the-hippocampus-and-intraparietal-sulcus-in-network-integration-and-segregation-support-scene-recognition
#9
Xin Hao, Xu Wang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
Effectively recognizing surroundings is a critical ability in human navigation. Previous neuroimaging studies have depicted distributed brain regions underpinning spatial navigation, but little is known about how these regions are formed into the navigation network (NN) supporting scene recognition. In this study, we addressed this issue by using a voxel-based global functional connectivity method to characterize the integration (i.e., within-network connectivity, WNC) of the NN and its segregation (i.e., between-network connectivity, BNC) from non-NN networks...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159061/eeg-coherence-related-to-fmri-resting-state-synchrony-in-long-term-abstinent-alcoholics
#10
Valerie A Cardenas, Mathew Price, George Fein
Recent work suggests that faulty co-activation or synchrony of multiple brain regions comprising "networks," or an imbalance between opposing brain networks, is important in alcoholism. Previous studies showed higher fMRI resting state synchrony (RSS) within the executive control (inhibitory control and emotion regulation) networks and lower RSS within the appetitive drive network in long-term (multi-year) abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) vs. non substance abusing controls (NSAC). Our goal was to identify EEG networks that are correlated with the appetitive drive and executive function networks identified with fMRI in our previous alcohol studies...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159044/a-key-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-maintenance-of-chronic-tinnitus-an-fmri-study-using-a-stroop-task
#12
Rodrigo Araneda, Laurent Renier, Laurence Dricot, Monique Decat, Daniela Ebner-Karestinos, Naïma Deggouj, Anne G De Volder
Introduction: Since we recently showed in behavioural tasks that the top-down cognitive control was specifically altered in tinnitus sufferers, here we wanted to establish the link between this impaired executive function and brain alterations in the frontal cortex in tinnitus patients. Method: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we monitored the brain activity changes in sixteen tinnitus patients (TP) and their control subjects (CS) while they were performing a spatial Stroop task, both in audition and vision...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158668/reversal-of-cognitive-impairment-in-a-hypotensive-elderly-population-using-a-passive-exercise-intervention
#13
Kenneth J McLeod, Astrid Stromhaug
Background: Cognitive decline in the elderly is strongly associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, a condition that can be reversed with exercise. Adhering to a traditional exercise regimen, however, is challenging for this population. Objective: In a pilot clinical study, we evaluated the ability of a "passive" exercise regimen (noninvasive calf muscle pump stimulation) to normalize blood pressure in a chronically hypotensive elderly population and enhance cognitive function...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158448/executive-function-declines-in-the-first-6-months-after-a-transient-ischemic-attack-or-transient-neurological-attack
#14
Frank G van Rooij, Nicole O Plaizier, Sarah E Vermeer, Bozena M Góraj, Peter J Koudstaal, Edo Richard, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Roy P C Kessels, Ewoud J van Dijk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although by definition transient, both transient ischemic attack (TIA) and transient neurological attack (TNA) are associated with cognitive impairment. Determinants and course of cognitive function afterward are, however, unclear. We prospectively determined cognitive performance after TIA and TNA in relation to clinical diagnosis and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) results. METHODS: TIA and TNA patients aged ≥45 years without prior stroke or dementia underwent comprehensive cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging within 7 days after the qualifying event...
November 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157336/dissociated-components-of-executive-control-in-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia
#15
Endre Takács, István Czigler, Lívia Gabriella Pató, László Balázs
INTRODUCTION: The neurocognitive effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia are still largely unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that executive control, an important component of cognition, is especially vulnerable to hypoxia. METHODS: Subjects participated in a simulated hypobaric chamber flight to 5500 m. Four auditory tasks were presented before, during, and after hypoxia: 1) Voice, and 2) Name variant of the Stroop task (both measuring conflict resolution); 3) go/no-go task (GNG; measuring inhibition); and 4) two-choice reaction time task (CRT; which is a noninhibitory control task)...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157066/association-between-small-for-gestational-age-and-low-birth-weight-with-attention-deficit-and-impaired-executive-functions-in-3-6-years-old-children
#16
M Shariat, J Gharaee, H Dalili, Y Mohammadzadeh, Sh Ansari, Z Farahani
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and /or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. METHODS: A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156426/theory-of-mind-and-schizophrenia-in-young-and-middle-aged-patients-influence-of-executive-functions
#17
Marta Croca, Aurèlie Lagodka, Remi Gadel, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphael Gaillard, Jean Pierre Olié, M Champagne-Lavau, Marie Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Theory of Mind (ToM) is compromised in schizophrenia, and responsible for social disability. We aim to study the correlation between ToM deficits and Executive Functions (EF), using the Faux Pas Test (FPT) for ToM evaluation, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for EF assessment. Two groups of patients with schizophrenia were included: 22 young (18-35 years-old) and 18 middle-aged (>50 years-old) Patients, compared to age-matched Controls. We found worst FPT performances in both groups of patients, but with a more generalized pattern of dysfunction in the middle-aged patient group...
November 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155793/metabolic-support-of-excised-living-brain-tissues-during-magnetic-resonance-microscopy-acquisition
#18
Jeremy J Flint, Kannan Menon, Brian Hansen, John Forder, Stephen J Blackband
This protocol describes the procedures necessary to support normal metabolic functions of acute brain slice preparations during the collection of magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy data. While it is possible to perform MR collections on living, excised mammalian tissue, such experiments have traditionally been constrained by resolution limits and are thus incapable of visualizing tissue microstructure. Conversely, MR protocols that did achieve microscopic image resolution required the use of fixed samples to accommodate the need for static, unchanging conditions over lengthy scan times...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155505/phistc-protein-family-members-localize-to-different-sub-cellular-organelles-and-bind-plasmodium-falciparum-major-virulence-factor-pfemp-1
#19
Vikash Kumar, Jasweer Kaur, Amrit Pal Singh, Vineeta Singh, Anjali Bisht, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Prakash Chandra Mishra, Rachna Hora
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a novel repertoire of exported protein family called as Plasmodium helical interspersed sub-telomeric (PHIST) that plays diverse roles in infected red blood cells (iRBCs), contributing to malaria pathogenesis. PHIST proteins are central to parasite biology, and modify human erythrocytes by executing interactions with parasite and host proteins. Here, we have attempted to understand the localization and function of two unexplored proteins of PHISTc sub-family 'PFD1140w and PF11_0503', and compared our findings with a well characterized member 'PFI1780w'...
November 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155209/altered-primary-motor-cortex-structure-organisation-and-function-in-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Wei-Ju Chang, Neil E O'Connell, Paula R Beckenkamp, Ghufran Alhassani, Matthew B Liston, Siobhan M Schabrun
Chronic pain can be associated with movement abnormalities. The primary motor cortex (M1) has an essential role in the formulation and execution of movement. A number of changes in M1 function have been reported in studies of people with chronic pain. This review systematically evaluated the evidence for altered M1 structure, organisation and function in people with chronic pain of neuropathic and non-neuropathic origin. Database searches were conducted and a modified STROBE checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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