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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#1
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806018/perceived-discrimination-racial-identity-and-multisystem-stress-response-to-social-evaluative-threat-among-african-american-men-and-women
#2
Todd Lucas, Rhiana Wegner, Jennifer Pierce, Mark A Lumley, Heidemarie K Laurent, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVES: Understanding individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response is critical to grasping how psychosocial factors contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. However, the ways in which environmentally sensitive biological systems coordinate in response to acute stress is not well understood. We used a social-evaluative stress task to investigate coordination among the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune/inflammatory system in a community sample of 85 healthy African American men and women...
November 1, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799420/public-health-implications-and-risks-for-children-and-families-resettled-after-exposure-to-armed-conflict-and-displacement
#3
Rachel Calam
Early adverse experiences can precede long-term negative effects on physical health. Children experiencing armed conflict, flight and displacement, and refugee life may be at enhanced risk. Recent psychobiological models integrating knowledge about perinatal and childhood stress with susceptibility to chronic illnesses in later life make clear the pressing need for protective provision for war-affected children, who experience multiple traumas and continuing stressors. There is increasing recognition of the mechanisms linking physical and mental health with adult diseases seen as developmental disorders with origins early in life...
October 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794482/the-role-of-testosterone-in-coordinating-male-life-history-strategies-the-moderating-effects-of-the-androgen-receptor-cag-repeat-polymorphism
#4
Lee T Gettler, Calen P Ryan, Dan T A Eisenberg, Margarita Rzhetskaya, M Geoffrey Hayes, Alan B Feranil, Sonny Agustin Bechayda, Christopher W Kuzawa
Partnered fathers often have lower testosterone than single non-parents, which is theorized to relate to elevated testosterone (T) facilitating competitive behaviors and lower T contributing to nurturing. Cultural- and individual-factors moderate the expression of such psychobiological profiles. Less is known about genetic variation's role in individual psychobiological responses to partnering and fathering, particularly as related to T. We examined the exon 1 CAG (polyglutamine) repeat (CAGn) within the androgen receptor (AR) gene...
October 26, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774919/w-horsley-gantt-nick-and-the-pavlovian-science-at-phipps-clinic
#5
Gabriel Ruiz, Natividad Sánchez
William Horsley Gantt is well known as one to the principal proponents of Pavlovian methodology in the U.S. After a long stay at Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's laboratory in Leningrad from 1925 to 1929, Gantt was invited by Adolf Meyer to join the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, where he founded and directed the Pavlovian Laboratory from 1930 to 1964. Soon after his arrival at Phipps Clinic in 1931, Gantt began a Pavlovian research program that included the investigation of nervous disturbances in dogs and clinical researches with psychiatric patients...
October 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771272/stress-anxiety-and-depression-in-heart-disease-patients-a-major-challenge-for-cardiac-rehabilitation
#6
Jean-Christophe Chauvet-Gelinier, Bernard Bonin
Cardiovascular events and emotional disorders share a common epidemiology, thus suggesting fundamental pathways linking these different diseases. Growing evidence in the literature highlights the influence of psychological determinants in somatic diseases. A patient's socio-economic aspects, personality traits, health behavior and even biological pathways may contribute to the course of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac events often occur suddenly and the episode can be traumatic for people not prepared for such an event...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764017/the-insomnia-with-short-sleep-duration-phenotype-an-update-on-it-s-importance-for-health-and-prevention
#7
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751842/fat-and-lean-tissue-accretion-in-relation-to-reward-motivation-in-children
#8
Annelies De Decker, Bart De Clercq, Sandra Verbeken, Jonathan C K Wells, Caroline Braet, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Isabelle Sioen
'Reward sensitivity' explains inter-individual differences in the motivation to obtain rewards when reward cues are perceived. This psychobiological trait has been linked to higher consumption of palatable food when exposed to palatable food cues. The current study aims to examine if reward sensitivity explains differences in patterns of fat and lean tissue accretion over time in children. A longitudinal observational study with measurement waves in 2011 (baseline), 2012, 2013, and 2015 was conducted. The sample was a population-based Flemish cohort of children (n = 446, 50% boys and 5...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732016/dispositional-negativity-an-integrative-psychological-and-neurobiological-perspective
#9
Alexander J Shackman, Do P M Tromp, Melissa D Stockbridge, Claire M Kaplan, Rachael M Tillman, Andrew S Fox
Dispositional negativity-the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, or enduring negative affect-is a fundamental dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality. Elevated levels of dispositional negativity can have profound consequences for health, wealth, and happiness, drawing the attention of clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the psychological and neurobiological processes linking stable individual differences in dispositional negativity to momentary emotional states...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719666/cannabis-a-treasure-trove-or-pandora-s-box
#10
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706441/assessing-nursing-diagnoses-and-interventions-in-labour-and-high-risk-pregnancies
#11
Ana Lúcia de Medeiros, Sérgio Ribeiro Dos Santos, Rômulo Wanderley de Lima Cabral, Juliana Paiva Góes Silva, Neyce de Matos Nascimento
Objective: To evaluate the use of nursing diagnoses and interventions proposed for women in labour and high-risk pregnancies. Method: This is a descriptive, retrospective study with documentary analysis of 1000 medical records and a checklist conducted from July to September 2014, at a maternity hospital in Paraiba, Brazil. It consisted of analysing descriptive measures and comparing the relationship between nursing diagnoses and interventions using NANDA - International and the Nursing Interventions Classification...
September 29, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700538/cross-sex-hormone-treatment-and-psychobiological-changes-in-transsexual-persons-two-year-follow-up-data
#12
Alessandra D Fisher, Giovanni Castellini, Jiska Ristori, Helen Casale, Emanuele Cassioli, Carolina Sensi, Egidia Fanni, Anna Maria Letizia Amato, Eva Bettini, Maddalena Mosconi, Davide Dèttore, Valdo Ricca, Mario Maggi
CONTEXT: To date, there are few studies investigating the impact of body changes induced by cross-sex hormonal treatment (CHT) on psychobiological well-being in gender-dysphoric persons (GDs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess whether CHT-related body changes affect psychobiological well-being in GDs. METHODS: A consecutive series of 359 GDs was considered for a cross-sectional section of the study. In addition, 54 GDs were studied in a 2-year follow-up...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699942/psychobiology-of-the-intersection-and-divergence-of-depression-and-anxiety
#13
Diego A Pizzagalli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693575/stress-reactivity-and-personality-in-extreme-sport-athletes-the-psychobiology-of-base-jumpers
#14
Erik Monasterio, Omer Mei-Dan, Anthony C Hackney, Amy R Lane, Igor Zwir, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing...
September 29, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681889/cognitive-control-exertion-leads-to-reductions-in-peak-power-output-and-formula-see-text-as-well-as-increased-perceived-exertion-on-a-graded-exercise-test-to-exhaustion
#15
Jennifer C Zering, Denver M Y Brown, Jeffrey D Graham, Steven R Bray
We investigated effects of a brief (10.5 min) cognitively demanding task on graded exercise test performance. Untrained, university students (N = 15) completed two graded exercise tests in counterbalanced, randomised order. One test was preceded by restful viewing of a documentary video (control); the other by a stop-signal task. Cardiorespiratory functions and perceived exertion were monitored during exercise. Peak power output (W) was lower following the stop-signal task (M = 240.03, SD = 53.37) compared to control (M = 246...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681116/oxytocin-cortisol-and-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-neurohormonal-aspects-of-recreational-ecstasy
#16
Andrew C Parrott
Most research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has debated its psychobiological effects in relation to neurotransmission. This article debates the contributory roles of the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol for their psychobiological effects in humans. The empirical literature on these neurohormones is reviewed and suggestions for future research outlined. Acute MDMA or 'ecstasy' can generate increased levels of oxytocin and cortisol, and these neurohormonal changes may be important for its mood-enhancing and energy-activation effects in humans...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642327/the-aqueous-extract-of-portulaca-oleracea-ameliorates-neurobehavioral-dysfunction-and-hyperglycemia-related-to-streptozotocin-diabetes-induced-in-ovariectomized-rats
#17
Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei, Masome Rashno, Shahab Ghaderi, Majid Askaripour
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640131/the-psychobiology-of-social-pain-evidence-for-a-neurocognitive-overlap-with-physical-pain-and-welfare-implications-for-social-animals-with-special-attention-to-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619362/migraine-in-childhood-biobehavioural-or-psychosomatic-disorder
#19
EDITORIAL
Vincenzo Guidetti, Noemi Faedda, Michael Siniatchkin
It is well documented that headache is a multifactorial disorder which includes not only genetic, biological, medical and neuropsychological factor but also psychological and personality traits. The close relationship between stress and migraine attacks and the significant psychiatric comorbidities in migraine provide evidence of a "paradigm" of tight interaction between somatic and psychological aspects in paediatric migraine. In particular in younger children, an uncomfortable situation, a psychological problem or an emotional distress is rarely expressed directly but usually through physical symptoms...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554605/investigating-the-nature-of-co-occurring-depression-and-anxiety-comparing-diagnostic-and-dimensional-research-approaches
#20
Katharina Kircanski, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah Ordaz, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Although approximately half of adults diagnosed with a depressive or anxiety disorder exhibit their simultaneous co-occurrence, traditional research has centered on single-target diagnoses, overlooking comorbidities within samples. In this article, we review and extend the literature that directly investigates co-occurring depression and anxiety, with the goal of shifting the focus from co-occurring diagnoses to symptom dimensions. METHODS: First, we review studies that have directly compared psychobiological features (neural, neuroendocrine, autonomic) across depression, anxiety, and their co-occurrence, defined either categorically or dimensionally...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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