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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#1
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016175/missing-developmental-and-sociocultural-perspectives-comment-on-the-psychology-of-terrorism-special-issue-2017
#2
Cynthia García Coll, Amy K Marks
Two critical perspectives were missing from the special issue entitled "Psychology of Terrorism": developmental and sociocultural. From a developmental point of view, the fact that most individuals who engage in terrorist groups or terroristic acts are young men is critically important. Perspectives from adolescent development, neuroscience, and social psychology can shed light on why this is the case. In addition, sociocultural perspectives are needed to answer important community-level questions, such as why some communities are more prone to having youth recruited for terrorism than others...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994010/parsing-the-neural-correlates-of-anxious-apprehension-and-anxious-arousal-in-the-grey-matter-of-healthy-youth
#3
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia, Joshua Owens-French, Thompson E Davis, Steven G Greening
Neuroscientific and psychological research posits that there are two transdiagnostic facets of anxiety: anxious arousal and anxious apprehension. Though these two facets of anxiety are distinct, they are often subsumed into one domain (e.g., trait anxiety). The primary goal of the current study was to delineate the relationship between anxious arousal and cortical thickness versus the relationship between anxious apprehension and cortical thickness in a sample of typically functioning youth. The secondary aim was to determine where in the brain cortical thickness significantly correlated with both components of anxiety...
October 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975039/creative-music-therapy-to-promote-brain-structure-function-and-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial-protocol
#4
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Hans-Ulrich Bucher, Dirk Bassler, Cornelia Hagmann
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951400/suitability-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-measure-empathy-and-its-relationship-with-social-and-normative-adjustment-in-spanish-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Mauricio Herrera-López, Olga Gómez-Ortiz, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Darrick Jolliffe, Eva M Romera
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) with Spanish adolescents, comparing a two and a three-dimensional structure;(2) To analyse the relationship between the three-dimensional empathy and social and normative adjustment in school. DESIGN: Transversal and ex post facto retrospective study. Confirmatory factorial analysis, multifactorial invariance analysis and structural equations models were used. PARTICIPANTS: 747 students (51...
September 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950970/cultural-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-social-emotional-feelings-an-interdisciplinary-developmental-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Xiao-Fei Yang
Social neuroscience has documented cultural differences in emotional brain functioning. Most recently, these differences have been extended to include cultural effects on the real-time neural correlates of social-emotional feelings. Here we review these findings and use them to illustrate a biopsychosocial framework for studying acculturated social-affective functioning and development. We argue that understanding cultural differences in emotion neurobiology requires probing their social origins and connection with individuals' subjective, lived experiences...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#7
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899546/exploring-the-nap-paradox-are-mid-day-sleep-bouts-a-friend-or-foe
#8
REVIEW
Janna Mantua, Rebecca M C Spencer
The mid-day nap, sometimes called a siesta, is a ubiquitous occurrence across the lifespan. It is well established that in addition to reducing sleepiness, mid-day naps offer a variety of benefits: memory consolidation, preparation for subsequent learning, executive functioning enhancement, and a boost in emotional stability. These benefits are present even if a sufficient amount of sleep is obtained during the night prior. However, we present a paradox: in spite of these reported benefits of naps, frequent napping has also been associated with numerous negative outcomes (eg, cognitive decline, hypertension, diabetes), particularly in older populations...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863354/domain-general-neural-computations-underlying-prosociality-during-infancy-and-early-childhood
#9
REVIEW
Jason M Cowell, Destany Calma-Birling, Jean Decety
A mounting body of neuroscience research in the social and moral evaluative abilities of infants and young children suggests the coopting of three domain-general processes involved in attention allocation, approach/avoidance, and intention and action understanding. Electrophysiological investigations demonstrate children's preference for prosocial others, that children's individual differences in moral evaluation predict prosocial behaviors, and that parental values may already influence neural sociomoral computations at quite young ages...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#10
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834383/visual-motion-and-rapid-auditory-processing-are-solid-endophenotypes-of-developmental-dyslexia
#11
Sara Mascheretti, Simone Gori, Vittoria Trezzi, Milena Ruffino, Andrea Facoetti, Cecilia Marino
Although a genetic component is known to have an important role in the etiology of developmental dyslexia, we are far from understanding the molecular etiopathogenetic pathways. Reduced measures of neurobiological functioning related to reading (dis)ability, i.e., endophenotypes, are promising targets for gene finding and the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. In a sample of 100 nuclear families with developmental dyslexia (229 offspring) and 83 unrelated typical readers, we tested whether a set of well-established, cognitive phenotypes related to developmental dyslexia (i...
August 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831545/how-the-humble-insect-brain-became-a-powerful-experimental-model-system
#12
REVIEW
Heinrich Reichert
In the 21st century, neurobiological studies focused on the insect brain are revealing unprecedented insight into the molecular, cellular, developmental, and circuit aspects of brain organization and function, notably in the genetic model system of Drosophila melanogaster. Underlying this accelerating progress in understanding the insect brain is a century-long history of ground breaking experimental investigation, methodological advance, and conceptual insight catalyzed by the integration of two emerging research fields, neuroscience and genetics...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826604/the-neuroscience-of-body-memory-from-the-self-through-the-space-to-the-others
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
Our experience of the body is not direct; rather, it is mediated by perceptual information, influenced by internal information, and recalibrated through stored implicit and explicit body representation (body memory). This paper presents an overview of the current investigations related to body memory by bringing together recent studies from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary and cognitive psychology. To do so, in the paper, I explore the origin of representations of human body to elucidate their developmental process and, in particular, their relationship with more explicit concepts of self...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811307/an-interview-with-jenny-nichols
#14
Aidan Maartens
Jennifer Nichols is a Principal Investigator at the Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. Her lab works on lineage segregation and the establishment of pluripotency in the mammalian embryo. In 2017 she was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Cheryll Tickle Medal, given to mid-career female scientists with outstanding achievements in developmental biology. We met Jenny in her Cambridge office to talk about pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, the importance of collaboration in her career path, and what playing a musical instrument has in common with research...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
October 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739892/evolutionary-neuroscience-of-cumulative-culture
#16
Dietrich Stout, Erin E Hecht
Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735708/brain-and-social-networks-fundamental-building-blocks-of-human-experience
#17
REVIEW
Emily B Falk, Danielle S Bassett
How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730936/an-industry-update-what-is-the-latest-news-in-therapeutic-delivery
#18
Iain Simpson
This Industry Update covers the period from 1 through 30 April 2017, and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. Biogen expanded its portfolio of developmental drugs targeting neurological diseases by licensing a drug from Bristol-Myers Squibb which is currently under investigation for the treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy. Takeda announced a deal with NuBiyota focused on developing treatments for gastrointestinal disorders, based on the manipulation of microbes living in the gut...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#19
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709987/the-neural-correlates-of-dealing-with-social-exclusion-in-childhood
#20
Mara van der Meulen, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Michelle Achterberg, Elisabeth Bilo, Bianca G van den Bulk, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Eveline A Crone
Observing social exclusion can be a distressing experience for children that can be followed by concerns for self-inclusion (self-concerns), as well as prosocial behavior to help others in distress (other-concerns). Indeed, behavioral studies have shown that observed social exclusion elicits prosocial compensating behavior in children, but motivations for the compensation of social exclusion are not well understood. To distinguish between self-concerns and other-concerns when observing social exclusion in childhood, participants (aged 7-10) played a four-player Prosocial Cyberball Game in which they could toss a ball to three other players...
July 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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