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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709987/the-neural-correlates-of-dealing-with-social-exclusion-in-childhood
#1
Mara van der Meulen, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Michelle Achterberg, Elisabeth Bilo, Bianca G van den Bulk, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Eveline A Crone
Observing social exclusion can be a distressing experience for children that can be followed by concerns for self-inclusion (self-concerns), as well as prosocial behavior to help others in distress (other-concerns). Indeed, behavioral studies have shown that observed social exclusion elicits prosocial compensating behavior in children, but motivations for the compensation of social exclusion are not well understood. To distinguish between self-concerns and other-concerns when observing social exclusion in childhood, participants (aged 7-10) played a four-player Prosocial Cyberball Game in which they could toss a ball to three other players...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#2
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679796/the-ol1mpiad-concordance-of-behavioural-faculties-of-stage-1-and-stage-3-drosophila-larvae
#3
Maria J Almeida-Carvalho, Dimitri Berh, Andreas Braun, Yi-Chun Chen, Katharina Eichler, Claire Eschbach, Pauline M J Fritsch, Bertram Gerber, Nina Hoyer, Xiaoyi Jiang, Jörg Kleber, Christian Klämbt, Christian König, Matthieu Louis, Birgit Michels, Anton Miroschnikow, Christen Mirth, Daisuke Miura, Thomas Niewalda, Nils Otto, Emmanouil Paisios, Michael J Pankratz, Meike Petersen, Noel Ramsperger, Nadine Randel, Benjamin Risse, Timo Saumweber, Philipp Schlegel, Michael Schleyer, Peter Soba, Simon G Sprecher, Teiichi Tanimura, Andreas S Thum, Naoko Toshima, Jim W Truman, Ayse Yarali, Marta Zlatic
Mapping brain function to brain structure is a fundamental task for neuroscience. For such an endeavour, the Drosophila larva is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to be interesting. It features about 10,000 neurons and is capable of various taxes, kineses and Pavlovian conditioning. All its neurons are currently being mapped into a light-microscopical atlas, and Gal4 strains are being generated to experimentally access neurons one at a time. In addition, an electron microscopic reconstruction of its nervous system seems within reach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676565/an-interview-with-bill-harris
#4
Aidan Maartens
William 'Bill' Harris is Head of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK, and a Fellow of both the Royal Society and Academy of Medical Sciences. His lab works on the development of the vertebrate nervous system, with a particular focus on cell lineage in the retina. In 2017 he was awarded the British Society for Developmental Biology's Waddington Medal for outstanding research performance and services to the community. We met Bill in his Cambridge lab to talk science, art and ice hockey...
July 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662154/how-minimal-executive-feedback-influences-creative-idea-generation
#5
Hicham Ezzat, Anaëlle Camarda, Mathieu Cassotti, Marine Agogué, Olivier Houdé, Benoît Weil, Pascal Le Masson
The fixation effect is known as one of the most dominant of the cognitive biases against creativity and limits individuals' creative capacities in contexts of idea generation. Numerous techniques and tools have been established to help overcome these cognitive biases in various disciplines ranging from neuroscience to design sciences. Several works in the developmental cognitive sciences have discussed the importance of inhibitory control and have argued that individuals must first inhibit the spontaneous ideas that come to their mind so that they can generate creative solutions to problems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654656/developmental-trajectory-of-the-corpus-callosum-from-infancy-to-the-juvenile-stage-comparative-mri-between-chimpanzees-and-humans
#6
Tomoko Sakai, Akichika Mikami, Juri Suzuki, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Mie Matsui, Masaki Tomonaga, Yuzuru Hamada, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Hideyuki Okano, Kenichi Oishi
How brains develop during early life is one of the most important topics in neuroscience because it underpins the neuronal functions that mature during this period. A comparison of the neurodevelopmental patterns among humans and nonhuman primates is essential to infer evolutional changes in neuroanatomy that account for higher-order brain functions, especially those specific to humans. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major white matter bundle that connects the cerebral hemispheres, and therefore, relates to a wide variety of neuronal functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#7
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#8
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615001/-she-was-a-little-social-butterfly-a-qualitative-analysis-of-parent-perception-of-social-functioning-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-brain-tumor-survivors
#9
Justin Wilford, David Buchbinder, Michelle A Fortier, Kathryn Osann, Violet Shen, Lilibeth Torno, Leonard S Sender, Susan K Parsons, Lari Wenzel
Psychosocial sequelae of diagnosis and treatment for childhood brain tumor survivors are significant, yet little is known about their impact on adolescent and young adult (AYA) brain tumor survivors. Interviews were conducted with parents of AYA brain tumor survivors with a focus on social functioning. Semistructured interviews were conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of AYA brain tumor survivors ≥10 years of age who were >2 years postdiagnosis, and analyzed using emergent themes theoretically integrated with a social neuroscience model of social competence...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#10
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#11
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#12
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532435/early-growth-response-protein-1-regulates-promoter-activity-of-%C3%AE-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-2-a-major-calcium-pump-in-the-brain-and-auditory-system
#13
Rebecca R Minich, Jin Li, Bruce L Tempel
BACKGROUND: Along with sodium/calcium (Ca(2+)) exchangers, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (ATP2Bs) are main regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. There are four ATP2B paralogs encoded by four different genes. Atp2b2 encodes the protein pump with the fastest activation, ATP2B2. In mice, the Atp2b2 transcript has several alternate transcriptional start site variants: α, β, µ and δ. These variants are expressed in developmental and tissue specific manners. The α and β Atp2b2 transcripts are equally expressed in the brain...
May 22, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#14
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523673/the-function-of-language-in-parent-infant-psychotherapy
#15
Björn Salomonsson
Parent-infant psychotherapy, a rather new field in psychoanalysis, raises questions of how to conceptualize the clinical process. Previous publications have used semiotic concepts to account for the therapist's non-verbal communication and investigated the countertransference, including what the baby might grasp of its variations. The present paper focuses on another argument for using verbal interventions to a baby in therapy; they present him with a symbolic order that differs from that of the parent. The qualitative difference between the parent's and the analyst's address is conceptualized by Dolto's term parler vrai...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523552/epigenetics-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
Silvia Bassi, Takshashila Tripathi, Alan Monziani, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder typically occurring in midlife with symptoms ranging from chorea, to dementia, to personality disturbances (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 354:957-961, 1999). HD is inherited in a dominant fashion, and the underlying mutation in all cases is a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion within exon 1 of the HD gene (Cell 72:971-983, 1993). The expanded CAG repeat, translated into a lengthened glutamine tract at the amino terminus of the huntingtin protein, affects its structural properties and functional activities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497126/vulnerability-to-depression-in-youth-advances-from-affective-neuroscience
#17
Autumn Kujawa, Katie L Burkhouse
Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486814/psychodynamic-formulation-in-the-era-of-the-brain-towards-integration
#18
Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to describe advances in neurosciences and their relationship to psychodynamic models of psychopathology and to present an integrative approach to psychodynamic formulation which incorporates the neurobiological underpinnings of self-functioning and a model of relational trauma. CONCLUSION: Developmental psychopathology is now better able to describe the significance of early developmental periods and the interpersonal context of self-development...
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482854/medical-decision-making-in-children-and-adolescents-developmental-and-neuroscientific-aspects
#19
REVIEW
Petronella Grootens-Wiegers, Irma M Hein, Jos M van den Broek, Martine C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent...
May 8, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460185/establishing-wiring-specificity-in-visual-system-circuits-from-the-retina-to-the-brain
#20
Chi Zhang, Alex L Kolodkin, Rachel O Wong, Rebecca E James
The retina is a tremendously complex image processor, containing numerous cell types that form microcircuits encoding different aspects of the visual scene. Each microcircuit exhibits a distinct pattern of synaptic connectivity. The developmental mechanisms responsible for this patterning are just beginning to be revealed. Furthermore, signals processed by different retinal circuits are relayed to specific, often distinct, brain regions. Thus, much work has focused on understanding the mechanisms that wire retinal axonal projections to their appropriate central targets...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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