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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#1
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893345/quo-vadis-the-future-of-psychoanalysis
#2
Mauricio Cortina
Although contemporary psychoanalysis is split into different schools and traditions, there is growing support for some of the main tenets of contemporary psychodynamic thinking from attachment theory, infant research, developmental psychopathology, new models of motivation, the neuroscience of emotions and emotional regulation, and the discovery of different implicit and explicit memory systems. These tenets, which psychodynamic clinicians of all stripes encounter in their daily work with clients, are the following: (1) that large footprints are left over from infancy and childhood which involved insensitive, intrusive, frightening, or shaming care; (2) the carryover of these relational experiences into adulthood are expressed as unconscious expectations and attributions we make of others (transference and countertransference; (3) defensive processes and emotional regulation and deregulatory patterns develop to cope with these unhealthy relations...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889625/cortical-interneuron-specification-the-juncture-of-genes-time-and-geometry
#3
REVIEW
Rachel C Bandler, Christian Mayer, Gord Fishell
A fundamental question in developmental neuroscience is how hundreds of diverse cell types are generated to form specialized brain regions. The ganglionic eminences (GEs) are embryonic brain structures located in the ventral telencephalon that produce many inhibitory GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid)-ergic cell types, including long-range projection neurons and local interneurons (INs), which disperse widely throughout the brain. While much has been discovered about the origin and wiring of these cells, a major question remains: how do neurons originating in the GEs become specified during development as one differentiated subtype versus another? This review will cover recent work that has advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms governing cortical interneuron subtype specification, particularly progenitors' spatial origin, birthdates, lineage, and mode of division...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872372/do-infants-retain-the-statistics-of-a-statistical-learning-experience-insights-from-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca L Gómez
Statistical structure abounds in language. Human infants show a striking capacity for using statistical learning (SL) to extract regularities in their linguistic environments, a process thought to bootstrap their knowledge of language. Critically, studies of SL test infants in the minutes immediately following familiarization, but long-term retention unfolds over hours and days, with almost no work investigating retention of SL. This creates a critical gap in the literature given that we know little about how single or multiple SL experiences translate into permanent knowledge...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822488/the-neuroscience-of-emotion-regulation-development-implications-for-education
#5
Rebecca E Martin, Kevin N Ochsner
Emotion regulation is a critical life skill that can facilitate learning and improve educational outcomes. Developmental studies find that the ability to regulate emotion improves with age. In neuroimaging studies, emotion regulation abilities are associated with recruitment of a set of prefrontal brain regions involved in cognitive control and executive functioning that mature late in development. In this review we discuss the regulation of both negative and positive emotions, the role of other people in guiding our emotional responses, and the potential applications of this work to education...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820680/a-developmental-social-neuroscience-model-for-understanding-loneliness-in-adolescence
#6
Nichol M L Wong, Patcy Yeung, Tatia M C Lee
Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world...
November 7, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807271/top-down-models-in-biology-explanation-and-control-of-complex-living-systems-above-the-molecular-level
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Michael Levin
It is widely assumed in developmental biology and bioengineering that optimal understanding and control of complex living systems follows from models of molecular events. The success of reductionism has overshadowed attempts at top-down models and control policies in biological systems. However, other fields, including physics, engineering and neuroscience, have successfully used the explanations and models at higher levels of organization, including least-action principles in physics and control-theoretic models in computational neuroscience...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795619/conceptualizing-social-attention-in-developmental-research
#8
Brenda Salley, John Colombo
The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents...
November 2016: Social Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778344/research-review-neural-response-to-threat-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-after-child-maltreatment-a-quantitative-meta-analysis
#9
Tyler C Hein, Christopher S Monk
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is common and has long-term consequences for affective function. Investigations of neural consequences of maltreatment have focused on the amygdala. However, developmental neuroscience indicates that other brain regions are also likely to be affected by child maltreatment, particularly in the social information processing network (SIPN). We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to: confirm that maltreatment is related to greater bilateral amygdala activation in a large sample that was pooled across studies; investigate other SIPN structures that are likely candidates for altered function; and conduct a data-driven examination to identify additional regions that show altered activation in maltreated children, teens, and adults...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745722/-the-severe-chronic-irritability-concept-a-clinical-dimension-to-consider-in-child-and-adolescent
#10
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739195/marmoset-vocal-communication-behavior-and-neurobiology
#11
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713691/characterizing-and-modulating-brain-circuitry-through-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-combined-with-electroencephalography
#12
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713683/specific-medical-conditions-are-associated-with-unique-behavioral-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Ditza A Zachor, Esther Ben-Itzchak
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710788/lineage-is-a-poor-predictor-of-interneuron-positioning-within-the-forebrain
#14
Christian Mayer, Rachel C Bandler, Gord Fishell
This Matters Arising Response paper addresses the Sultan et al. (2016) Matters Arising paper, published concurrently in Neuron. Clonally related excitatory neurons maintain a coherent relationship following their specification and migration. Whether cortical interneurons behave similarly is a fundamental question in developmental neuroscience. In Mayer et al. (2015), we reported that sibling interneurons disperse over several millimeters, across functional and anatomical boundaries. This finding demonstrated that clonality is not predictive of an interneuron's ultimate circuit specificity...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709989/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-emerging-field-of-developmental-neuroscience
#15
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659413/difficulties-in-auditory-organization-as-a-cause-of-reading-backwardness-an-auditory-neuroscience-perspective
#16
Victoria Leong, Usha Goswami
Over 30 years ago, it was suggested that difficulties in the 'auditory organization' of word forms in the mental lexicon might cause reading difficulties. It was proposed that children used parameters such as rhyme and alliteration to organize word forms in the mental lexicon by acoustic similarity, and that such organization was impaired in developmental dyslexia. This literature was based on an 'oddity' measure of children's sensitivity to rhyme (e.g. wood, book, good) and alliteration (e.g. sun, sock, rag)...
September 22, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638692/fast-fluorescence-microscopy-with-light-sheets
#17
Stephan Daetwyler, Jan Huisken
In light sheet microscopy, optical sectioning by selective fluorescence excitation with a sheet of light is combined with fast full-frame acquisition. This illumination scheme provides minimal photobleaching and phototoxicity. Complemented with remote focusing and multi-view acquisition, light sheet microscopy is the method of choice for acquisition of very fast biological processes, large samples, and high-throughput applications in areas such as neuroscience, plant biology, and developmental biology. This review explains why light sheet microscopes are much faster and gentler than other established fluorescence microscopy techniques...
August 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606972/a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective-on-affect-biased-attention
#18
REVIEW
Santiago Morales, Xiaoxue Fu, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
There is growing interest regarding the impact of affect-biased attention on psychopathology. However, most of the research to date lacks a developmental approach. In the present review, we examine the role affect-biased attention plays in shaping socioemotional trajectories within a developmental neuroscience framework. We propose that affect-biased attention, particularly if stable and entrenched, acts as a developmental tether that helps sustain early socioemotional and behavioral profiles over time, placing some individuals on maladaptive developmental trajectories...
October 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589501/translational-neuroscience-as-a-tool-for-intervention-development-in-the-context-of-high-adversity-families
#19
REVIEW
Philip A Fisher
The use of theory-driven models to develop and evaluate family-based intervention programs has a long history in psychology. Some of the first evidence-based parenting programs to address child problem behavior, developed in the 1970s, were grounded in causal models derived from longitudinal developmental research. The same translational strategies can also be applied to designing programs that leverage emerging scientific knowledge about the effects of early adverse experiences on neurobiological systems to reduce risk and promote well-being...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582346/anticipatory-scene-representation-in-preschool-children-s-recall-and-recognition-memory
#20
Erica Kreindel, Helene Intraub
Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an analysis of spatial errors in drawings which are open to alternative explanations (e.g. drawing ability). Experiment 1 replicated and extended prior drawing results with 4-5-year-olds and adults...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Science
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