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Developmental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434869/worms-on-the-spectrum-c-elegans-models-in-autism-research
#1
REVIEW
Kathrin Schmeisser, J Alex Parker
The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434616/impaired-tuning-of-neural-ensembles-and-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-translational-and-computational-neuroscience-perspective
#2
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Alan Anticevic, Genevieve J Yang, George Dragoi, Naomi R Driesen, Xiao-Jing Wang, John D Murray
The functional optimization of neural ensembles is central to human higher cognitive functions. When the functions through which neural activity is tuned fail to develop or break down, symptoms and cognitive impairments arise. This review considers ways in which disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition might develop and be expressed in cortical networks in association with schizophrenia. This presentation is framed within a developmental perspective that begins with disturbances in glutamate synaptic development in utero...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434584/how-does-sex-matter-behavior-stress-and-animal-models-of-neurobehavioral-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Paola Palanza, Stefano Parmigiani
Many aspects of brain functioning exhibit important sex differences that affect behavior, mental health and mental disorders. However, most translational neuroscience research related to animal models of neurobehavioral disorders are carried out in male animals only. Based on published data from our laboratory on the House mouse, we discuss the following issues: (1) sex differences in social behavior of wild-derived mice; (2) artificial selection of laboratory strains and its consequences on social and reproductive competition; (3) sex-dependent effects of common experimental procedures; (4) differential effects of developmental events: the case of endocrine disruption; (5) implications for female models of stress and neurobehavioral disorders...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#4
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#5
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402972/eeg-a-valuable-biomarker-of-brain-injury-in-preterm-infants
#6
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Geraldine B Boylan
This review focuses on the role of electroencephalography (EEG) in monitoring abnormalities of preterm brain function. EEG features of the most common developmental brain injuries in preterm infants, including intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal asphyxia, are described. We outline the most common EEG biomarkers associated with these injuries, namely seizures, positive rolandic sharp waves, EEG suppression/increased interburst intervals, mechanical delta brush activity, and other deformed EEG waveforms, asymmetries, and asynchronies...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400206/elucidation-of-developmental-patterns-of-marmoset-corpus-callosum-through-a-comparative-mri-in-marmosets-chimpanzees-and-humans
#7
Tomoko Sakai, Yuji Komaki, Junichi Hata, Junko Okahara, Norio Okahara, Takashi Inoue, Akichika Mikami, Mie Matsui, Kenichi Oishi, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
The corpus callosum (CC) is present in all primate brains and is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres for integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has frequently been used as a sensitive biomarker of brain development. Although the marmoset has been considered as an alternative non-human primate model for neuroscience research, the developmental patterns of the CC have not been explored. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that marmosets show a rapid increase of CC during infancy, followed by a slow increase during the juvenile stage, as observed in chimpanzees and humans...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362435/a-guide-to-light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-for-multiscale-imaging
#8
Rory M Power, Jan Huisken
The impact of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) is visible in fields as diverse as developmental and cell biology, anatomical science, biophysics and neuroscience. Although adoption among biologists has been steady, LSFM has not displaced more traditional imaging methods despite its often-superior performance. One reason for this is that the field has largely conformed to a do-it-yourself ethic, although the challenges of big image data cannot be overstated. With the most powerful implementations of LSFM available to only a few groups worldwide, the scope of this technique is unnecessarily limited...
March 31, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360870/the-faculty-of-language-integrates-the-two-core-systems-of-number
#9
Ken Hiraiwa
Only humans possess the faculty of language that allows an infinite array of hierarchically structured expressions (Hauser et al., 2002; Berwick and Chomsky, 2015). Similarly, humans have a capacity for infinite natural numbers, while all other species seem to lack such a capacity (Gelman and Gallistel, 1978; Dehaene, 1997). Thus, the origin of this numerical capacity and its relation to language have been of much interdisciplinary interest in developmental and behavioral psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and linguistics (Dehaene, 1997; Hauser et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346761/commentary-information-processing-in-anxiety-and%C3%A2-depression-novel-targets-for-translational-research-a-reflection-on-lau-and-waters-2017
#10
Gal Arad, Yair Bar-Haim
Understanding psychopathology in the context of a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach entails the notion that specific individual differences in information processing can serve as both etiologic and maintaining factors in the development of specific disorders. It is posited that such mechanistic understanding of neurocognitive aberrations during development can then serve focused translational efforts in the form of cognitive bias modification treatments. In the review by Lau and Waters (this issue), an astute developmental model is suggested regarding the role of potential neurocognitive mechanisms in depression and anxiety in youth...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336492/looking-into-the-brain-through-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-evidences
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Emanuel Bubl, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Psychiatry and neuroscience research need novel approaches to indirectly investigate brain function. As the retina is an anatomical and developmental extension of the central nervous system (CNS), changes in retinal function may reflect neurological dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders. The last and most integrated retinal relay before visual information transfer to the brain is the ganglion cell layer. Here, based on collected arguments, we argue that these cells offer a crucial site for indirectly investigating brain function...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#12
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324600/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-chemical-clearing-and-labeling-protocols-for-ultramicroscopy
#13
Nina Jährling, Klaus Becker, Saiedeh Saghafi, Hans-Ulrich Dodt
Light-sheet microscopy is an effective technique in neuroscience, developmental biology, and cancer research for visualizing and analyzing cellular networks and whole organs in three dimensions. Because this technique requires specimens to be translucent they commonly have to be cleared before microscopy inspection. Here, we provide 3DISCO based protocols for preparing cleared samples of immuno-stained neural networks, lectin-labeled vascular networks, and Methoxy-X04 labeled beta-amyloid plaques in mice. 3DISCO utilizes the lipophilic solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dibenzylether (DBE) for dehydration and successive clearing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315272/sigma-receptors-and-substance-use-disorders
#14
Valentina Sabino, Callum Hicks, Pietro Cottone
Thanks to advances in neuroscience, addiction is now recognized as a chronic brain disease with genetic, developmental, and cultural components. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, are able to produce significant neuroplastic changes responsible for the profound disturbances shown by drug addicted individuals. The current lack of efficacious pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders has encouraged the search for novel and more effective pharmacotherapies. Growing evidence strongly suggests that Sigma Receptors are involved in the addictive and neurotoxic properties of abused drugs, including cocaine , methamphetamine , and alcohol...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314462/neuroscience-inspired-behavioral-change-program-for-university-students
#15
REVIEW
James J Hudziak, Gesa L Tiemeier
It is clear that environmental influences impact the structure and function of the human brain, and thus, thoughts, actions, and behaviors. These in turn influence whether an individual engages in high-risk (drugs, alcohol, violence) or health-promoting (exercise, meditation, music) activities. The developmental mismatch between cortical and subcortical maturation of the transitional age brain places college students at risk for negative outcomes. This article argues that the prescription of incentive-based behavioral change and brain-building activities simply make good scientific, programmatic, and financial sense for colleges and universities...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259862/-modeling-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-vitro-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-highlighting-findings-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-schizophrenia
#16
Edit Hathy, Sara Kalman, Agota Apati, Zsofia Nemoda, Janos M Rethelyi
Over the past decade we witnessed the birth of a new scientific area that lies at the borders of developmental biology, stem cell biology, basic and clinical neuroscience. In vitro disease modeling refers to the approach that exploits the capacity of stem cells for self-renewal and pluripotency by generating specific cell types that are relevant for a given disorder. Based on this method, neurological and psychiatric disorders can be investigated by differentiating stem cells into neurons in a dish, and studying the relevant neuronal populations affected in the pathophysiology of the disorder in terms of specific cellular phenotypes...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235453/leveraging-neuroscience-to-inform-adolescent-health-the-need-for-an-innovative-transdisciplinary-developmental-science-of-adolescence
#17
REVIEW
Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Ronald E Dahl
In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221003/trends-in-high-throughput-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
REVIEW
Yongmin Cho, Charles L Zhao, Hang Lu
The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the development and function of larger, more complex nervous systems. It is prized for its ease of handling, rapid life cycle, and stereotyped, well-cataloged development, with the development of all 302 neurons mapped all the way from zygote to adult. The combination of easy genetic manipulation and optical transparency of the worm allows for the direct imaging of its interior with fluorescent microscopy, without physically compromising the normal physiology of the animal itself...
February 21, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188857/sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-and-translational-studies-of-anxiety-disorders
#20
Marco Battaglia
Heightened concentrations of CO2 in inhaled air provoke temporary acidification of the brain, followed by compensatory hyperventilation and increased arousal/anxiety. These responses are likely to map a basic, latent general alarm/avoidance system that is largely shared across mammals, and are sources of individual differences. By showing paroxysmal respiratory and emotional responses to CO2 challenges, humans with panic and separation anxiety disorders lie at one extreme of the distribution for CO2 sensitivity...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
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