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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687164/central-noradrenergic-interactions-with-alcohol-and-regulation-of-alcohol-related-behaviors
#1
Elena M Vazey, Carolina R den Hartog, David E Moorman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results from disruption of a number of neural systems underlying motivation, emotion, and cognition. Patients with AUD exhibit not only elevated motivation for alcohol but heightened stress and anxiety, and disruptions in cognitive domains such as decision-making. One system at the intersection of these functions is the central norepinephrine (NE) system. This catecholaminergic neuromodulator, produced by several brainstem nuclei, plays profound roles in a wide range of behaviors and functions, including arousal, attention, and other aspects of cognition, motivation, emotional regulation, and control over basic physiological processes...
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684768/aberrant-parasympathetic-reactivity-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#2
Elizabeth H Andersen, Gregory F Lewis, Aysenil Belger
Autonomic dysfunction represents a core domain of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ), with aberrant physiologic arousal underlying maladaptive social and cognitive behaviors. Antagonistic parasympathetic and sympathetic systems support autonomic flexibility to appropriately regulate arousal and respond to environmental challenges, which can be modeled using physiologic measures. SCZ patients consistently show heightened basal stress, however, their parasympathetic reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor is poorly understood...
April 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680151/vmat2-inhibitors-and-the-path-to-ingrezza-valbenazine
#3
Nicole D Harriott, John P Williams, Evan B Smith, Haig P Bozigian, Dimitri E Grigoriadis
The dopaminergic system plays a key role in the central nervous system, regulating executive function, arousal, reward, and motor control. Dysregulation of this critical monoaminergic system has been associated with diseases of the central nervous system including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and addiction. Drugs that modify the dopaminergic system by modulating the activity of dopamine have been successful in demonstrating clinical efficacy by providing treatments for these diseases...
2018: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679598/sleep-in-women-across-the-lifespan
#4
REVIEW
Martino Pengo, Christine Won, Ghada Bourjeily
There are many ways in which women experience sleep differently than men. Women contend with distinct sleep challenges, respond differently to sleep disorders, sleep deprivation and deficiency, and face particular health outcomes as a result of poor sleep. Idiosyncrasies - including changes that occur with the biological life cycles of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause- make the understanding of sleep in women an important topic to study. Each phase of a woman's life, from childhood to menopause, increases the risk of sleep disturbance in unique ways that may require distinct management...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679154/effectiveness-of-a-mandibular-advancement-device-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#5
Rocío Marco Pitarch, Marina Selva García, Javier Puertas Cuesta, Jaime Marco Algarra, Enrique Fernández Julian, Antonio Fons Font
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a mandibular advancement device in a sample of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients by the evaluation of respiratory and neurophysiologic parameters and clinical symptoms. Second, the influence of certain predictor factors related with the patient and the intraoral device, were considered in the final response with this treatment option. METHODS: Forty-one patients constituted the final sample. Outcomes were measured using polysomnography, Epworth sleepiness scale and an analogue visual snoring scale, before treatment and once the device was properly titrated...
April 20, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678754/sex-and-age-dependent-effects-of-orexin-1-receptor-blockade-on-open-field-behavior-and-neuronal-activity
#6
Shannon R Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar
Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677267/the-short-lived-epidemic-of-botulism-from-commercially-canned-foods-in-the-united-states-1919-to-1925
#7
Powel Kazanjian
In 1919, three deadly outbreaks of botulism caused by consumption of canned olives packed in California captured national headlines. In all of the outbreaks, which occurred in separate locales, unsuspecting people died after consuming tainted food during a banquet or family meal. The press's sensational portrayal of canned food as hazardous aroused alarm among consumers at a time when commercial canning was becoming more common. Intent on restoring the image of their product as safe and wholesome, canning industry leaders funded a "botulism commission" of scientific experts in 1919 to investigate how to systematically eliminate the threat of botulism that had imperiled their business...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#8
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669060/plasticizer-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-renal-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Cheng-Tien Wu, Ching-Chia Wang, Li-Chen Huang, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
Plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known as an endocrine disruptor and a peroxisome proliferator. A currently epidemiological study has suggested that daily high di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) intake from phthalate-tainted foods in children may be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. DEHP can leach from medical devices such as blood storage bags and the tubing. Long-term exposure to DEHP is associated with nephropathy and exacerbates chronic kidney diseases (CKD) progression. However, the detailed effects and molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
April 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664199/affective-evaluation-of-food-images-according-to-stimulus-and-subject-characteristics
#10
C Padulo, L Carlucci, D Marzoli, V Manippa, L Tommasi, A Saggino, S Puglisi-Allegra, A Brancucci
BACKGROUND: The food-rich environment in which we live makes the regulation of food choices a very complex phenomenon determined by many factors, as well as their interactions. Much evidence suggests that the sensory perception of food can be considered as a central factor affecting individual food choices. Despite this, the approaches used to study the various food aspects usually do not distinguish between different types of food. METHODS: In the present study, a large and heterogeneous sample of 1149 participants aged 7-90 years was asked to judge food images that were labelled differently (i...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661689/cardiometabolic-risk-and-female-sexuality-part-ii-understanding-and-overcoming-gender-differences-the-key-role-of-an-adequate-methodological-approach
#11
REVIEW
Elisa Maseroli, Irene Scavello, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Although basic science and clinical research indicate that the vascular physiopathology of male and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is similar, to date the association between FSD and cardiovascular (CV) diseases has been only marginally explored. AIM: To discuss the potential reasons for differences in the role of CV diseases and risk factors in sexual function in women vs men in the 2nd part of a 2-part review. METHODS: A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed using the PubMed database...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651261/defining-the-construct-of-synthetic-androgen-intoxication-an-application-of-general-brain-arousal
#12
Tom Hildebrandt, Ashley Heywood, Daniel Wesley, Kurt Schulz
Synthetic androgens (i. e., anabolic-androgenic steroids) are the primary component to the majority of problematic appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use. Despite evidence that these substances are associated with increased risk for aggression, violence, body image disturbances, and polypharmacy and can develop a pattern of chronic use consistent with drug dependence, there are no formal definitions of androgen intoxication. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to establish a testable theory of androgen intoxication...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648857/associations-of-patient-rated-emotional-bond-and-vocally-encoded-emotional-arousal-among-clinicians-and-acutely-suicidal-military-personnel
#13
Craig J Bryan, Brian R Baucom, Alex O Crenshaw, Zac Imel, David C Atkins, Tracy A Clemans, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch, Jim Mintz, M David Rudd
OBJECTIVE: To determine if synchrony in emotional arousal and affective regulation between patients and clinicians reflect emotional bonding during emergency behavioral health appointments. METHOD: Audio recordings of suicide risk assessment interviews and crisis intervention planning with 54 suicidal active duty soldiers presenting to an emergency department or behavioral health clinic were analyzed. Emotional arousal was assessed using mean fundamental frequency...
April 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628065/modulating-emotion-perception-opposing-effects-of-inhibitory-and-excitatory-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#14
Swantje Notzon, Christian Steinberg, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). This stimulation is supposed to restore excitability of prefrontal cortex regions that exhibit diminished regulation of emotion-generative systems in MDD. Based on the valence lateralization hypothesis, inhibitory rTMS of the right dlPFC has also been applied in MDD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625116/neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fiber-innervation-on-central-and-medial-amygdaloid-neurons-that-project-to-the-locus-coeruleus-and-dorsal-raphe-in-the-rat
#15
Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
The amygdaloid nuclear complex has been linked to the regulation of emotional behavior and energy regulation in that emotional stress might cause either reduction or enhancement of eating. We examined hypothalamic neuronal origin of feeding/arousal-related peptidergic fibers containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) located in the rat amygdala along with its efferent projections to the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei. First, central (CeA) as well as medial (MeA) amygdala, among several amygdaloid subdivisions, exhibited the most prominent NPY or CART immunostaining which consisted of a substantial number of somata as well as labeled fibers...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618853/associations-between-parent-emotional-arousal-and-regulation-and-adolescents-affective-brain-response
#16
Caitlin C Turpyn, Jennifer A Poon, Corynne E Ross, James C Thompson, Tara M Chaplin
Parents' emotional functioning represents a central mechanism in the caregiving environment's influence on adolescent affective brain function. However, a paucity of research has examined links between parental emotional arousal and regulation and adolescents' affective brain function. Thus, the present study examined associations between parents' self-rated negative emotion, parent emotion regulation difficulties, and adolescent brain responsivity to negative and positive emotional stimuli. Participants included 64 12-14 year-old adolescents (31 females) and their female primary caregivers...
February 2018: Social Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618588/sleep-active-neurons-conserved-motors-of-sleep
#17
REVIEW
Henrik Bringmann
Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The "motor" of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness...
April 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616340/dopamine-and-wakefulness-pharmacology-genetics-and-circuitry
#18
Jonathan P Wisor
Over the period of decades in the mid to late twentieth century, arousal-promoting functions were attributed to neuromodulators including serotonin, hypocretin, histamine, and noradrenaline. For some time, a relatively minor role in regulating sleep and wake states was ascribed to dopamine and the dopamine-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area, despite the fact that dopaminergic signaling is a major target, if not the primary target, for wake-promoting agents. In recent years, due to observations from human genetic studies, pharmacogenetic studies in animal models, and the increasingly sophisticated methods used to manipulate the nervous systems of experimental animals, it has become clear that dopaminergic signaling is central to the regulation of arousal...
April 4, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615681/emotion-regulation-compensation-following-situation-selection-failure
#19
Lara Vujović, Heather L Urry
We conducted two within-subjects experiments to determine whether people use alternative emotion regulation (ER) strategies to compensate for failure of situation selection, a form of ER in which one chooses situations based on the emotions those situations afford. Participants viewed negative and neutral (Study 1, N = 58) or negative, neutral, and positive pictures (Study 2, N = 90). They indicated for each picture whether they wanted to terminate presentation (Study 1) or view it again (Study 2). We manipulated the outcome of this decision to be congruent with participants' wishes (success) or not (failure), and measured self-reported ER strategies and emotional responses...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602082/emotional-reactivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-pilot-study
#20
Roberta Ciuffini, Paolo Stratta, Alfonso Marrelli
PURPOSE: Emotional reactivity (ER) is the early rapidly evoked response to a salient emotional stimulus which influences an individual's coping mechanisms, eliciting adaptive responses. We investigated ER in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in order to obtain an emotion-processing measure that can be related to behavioral regulation. METHODS: We measured ER in twelve patients with (MTLE) using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), the most widely employed instrument to measure ER, and compared their results with those of a matched sample of healthy subjects...
March 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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