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Arousal Regulation

Micah Allen, Darya Frank, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Joel S Winston, Tobias U Hauser, Geraint Rees
Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision...
October 25, 2016: ELife
David E Moorman, Morgan H James, Elisabeth A Kilroy, Gary Aston-Jones
The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system regulates motivation for natural rewards and drugs of abuse such as alcohol. ORX receptor antagonists, most commonly OX1R antagonists including SB-334867 (SB), decrease alcohol drinking, self-administration and reinstatement in both genetically-bred alcohol-preferring and outbred strains of rats. Importantly, levels of alcohol seeking and drinking in outbred rats are variable, as they are in humans. We have shown that OX1R antagonism selectively decreases homecage alcohol drinking in high-, but not low-alcohol-preferring rats...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research
Martin Dobricki, Paul Pauli
Almost all living species regularly explore environments that they experience as pleasant, aversive, arousing or frightening. We postulate that such exploratory behavior and emotional experience both are regulated based on the interdependent perception of one's body and stimuli that collectively define a spatial context such as a cliff. Here we examined this by testing if the interaction of the sensory input on one's gait and the sensory input on the spatial context is modulating both the emotional experience of the environment and its exploration through head motion...
October 2016: Heliyon
Lin Huang, Lluis Capdevila
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. SUBJECTS: The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (Mage = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). INTERVENTION: All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Melanie S Fischer, Donald H Baucom, Brian R Baucom, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Jennifer S Kirby, Cynthia M Bulik
Impaired emotion regulation and maladaptive strategies to manage distress are central to psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion regulation can be fostered or thwarted by romantic partners, and the tendency to rely on interpersonally oriented emotion regulation may vary by disorder. This study examined coregulation as a form of interpersonal emotion regulation in OCD and AN. We hypothesized that OCD is associated with exaggerated and AN with diminished coregulation, and that OCD patients have greater overall levels of emotional arousal than AN patients...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jelena Obradović, Jenna E Finch
This study employed piecewise growth curve modeling to examine how children's executive function (EF) skills relate to different components of children's physiological response trajectory - initial arousal, reactivity, and recovery. The sample included 102 ethnically diverse kindergarteners, whose EF skills were measured using standard tasks and observer ratings. Physiological response was measured via changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to a laboratory socio-cognitive challenge. Children's cool and hot EF skills were differentially related to both linear and quadratic components of RSA response during the challenge...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Cornelia Habacher, Yanwu Guo, Richard Venz, Pooja Kumari, Anca Neagu, Dimos Gaidatzis, Eva B Harvald, Nils J Færgeman, Heinz Gut, Rafal Ciosk
Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Valerie Van Cauwenberge, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Karla Van Leeuwen, Jan R Wiersema
Studies have demonstrated inefficient use of antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategies in children with ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the current study we tested for the first time if ADHD is also associated with difficulties in response-focused strategies by measuring the ability to override action tendencies induced by emotional information. Performance data on a computer-based approach-avoidance paradigm of 28 children with ADHD and 38 typically developing children between 8 and 15 years of age were analyzed, by comparing a congruent condition in which they were instructed to approach positive and avoid negative pictures and an incongruent condition where they had to override these automatic reactions and approach negative and avoid positive pictures...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
A Bion, T Cascales, S Dubedout, N Bodeau, J P Olives, J P Raynaud
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the study of early feeding disorders (FD) has steadily increased during recent decades. During this period, research described the importance of the transactional relationships and the complex interplay between caregiver and child over time. On the basis of the previous studies, our study tried to explore the associations between the characteristics of the parents and the temperamental characteristics of the infants with early FD. GOALS: A first aim of the present study was to show if parental perception of child temperament (including ability for arousal self-regulation) and parental characteristics (emotional and eating attitudes) are associated with early FD...
October 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Maria Fusaro, Maurizio Gallieni, Maria Antonietta Rizzo, Andrea Stucchi, Pierre Delanaye, Etienne Cavalier, Rosa M A Moysés, Vanda Jorgetti, Giorgio Iervasi, Sandro Giannini, Fabrizio Fabris, Andrea Aghi, Stefania Sella, Francesco Galli, Valentina Viola, Mario Plebani
Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Aimee Chan, SiHan Li, Ahn R Lee, Joseph Leung, Alissa Yip, Jaimie Bird, Kyle E Godden, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels C Rattenborg, Evan Balaban, Maria Pompeiano
Coordinated activity in different sets of widely-projecting neurochemical systems characterize waking (W) and sleep (S). How and when this coordination is achieved during development is not known. We used embryos and newborns of a precocial bird species (chickens) to assess developmental activation in different neurochemical systems using cFos expression, which has been extensively employed to examine cellular activation during S and W in adult mammals. Similarly to adult mammals, newborn awake chicks showed significantly higher cFos expression in W-active hypocretin/orexin (H/O), serotonergic Dorsal Raphe, noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus and cholinergic Laterodorsal and Pedunculopontine Tegmental (Ch-LDT/PT) neurons when compared to sleeping chicks...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Amita R Somalwar, Gajanan P Shelkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Rats with electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)-medial forebrain bundle (MFB) area actively engage in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the neuronal substrate that translates the electrical pulses into the neural signals, and integrates the information with mesolimbic reward system, has remained elusive. We test the hypothesis that the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons in the LH-MFB area may support this function. The ICSS activity via an electrode in LH-MFB area was facilitated by CART (55-102) peptide stereotaxically injected in the lateral ventricle or posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), but attenuated by CART antibody...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Masaru Ishibashi, Iryna Gumenchuk, Kenichi Miyazaki, Takafumi Inoue, William N Ross, Christopher S Leonard
UNLABELLED: Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including reward and arousal, in part by exciting serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons, the major source of forebrain serotonin. Here, using mouse brain slices, we found that, instead of simply depolarizing these neurons, orexin-A altered the spike encoding process by increasing the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) via two distinct mechanisms. This orexin-enhanced AHP (oeAHP) was mediated by both OX1 and OX2 receptors, required Ca(2+) influx, reversed near EK, and decayed with two components, the faster of which resulted from enhanced SK channel activation, whereas the slower component decayed like a slow AHP (sAHP), but was not blocked by UCL2077, an antagonist of sAHPs in some neurons...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Johannes L Hatfield
The purpose of the present mixed method study was to investigate personal benefits, perceptions, and the effect of a 15-week sport psychological skills training program adapted for musicians. The program was individually tailored for six music performance students with the objective of facilitating the participants' instrumental practice and performance. The participants learnt techniques such as goal setting, attentional focus, arousal regulation, imagery, and acceptance training/self-talk. Zimmerman's (1989) cyclical model of self-regulated learning was applied as a theoretical frame for the intervention...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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