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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234278/effects-of-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-in-mice
#1
Fiona Henderson, Vincent Vialou, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Fabre
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231317/-regulation-action-and-nerve-electrophysiology-mechanism-of-acupuncture-on-arousal-state-in-patients-of-primary-insomnia
#2
Yi Liu, Hui Feng, Wenjuan Liu, Hongjing Mao, Yali Mo, Yan Yin, Zhenghe Yu, Lianlian Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference between acupuncture and estazolam on arousal state in patients of primary insomnia, and to explore its nerve electrophysiology mechanism. METHODS: Sixty-four patients of primary insomnia were randomized into an acupuncture group (32 cases) and a medication group (32 cases). After 3 patients were excluded, 31 cases in the acupuncture group and 30 cases in the medication group were included. Patients in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Anmian (Extra), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zhaohai (KI 6), Shenmai (BL 62) as main acupoints, combined with supporting acupoints, once a day, five times per week, continuously for 4 weeks...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225025/neuropeptide-y-regulates-sleep-by-modulating-noradrenergic-signaling
#3
Chanpreet Singh, Jason Rihel, David A Prober
Sleep is an essential and evolutionarily conserved behavioral state whose regulation remains poorly understood. To identify genes that regulate vertebrate sleep, we recently performed a genetic screen in zebrafish, and here we report the identification of neuropeptide Y (NPY) as both necessary for normal daytime sleep duration and sufficient to promote sleep. We show that overexpression of NPY increases sleep, whereas mutation of npy or ablation of npy-expressing neurons decreases sleep. By analyzing sleep architecture, we show that NPY regulates sleep primarily by modulating the length of wake bouts...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223896/environmental-status-of-livestock-and-poultry-sectors-in-china-under-current-transformation-stage
#4
Yi Qian, Kaihui Song, Tao Hu, Tianyu Ying
Intensive animal husbandry had aroused great environmental concerns in many developed countries. However, some developing countries are still undergoing the environmental pollution from livestock and poultry sectors. Driven by the large demand, China has experienced a remarkable increase in dairy and meat production, especially in the transformation stage from conventional household breeding to large-scale industrial breeding. At the same time, a large amount of manure from the livestock and poultry sector is released into waterbodies and soil, causing eutrophication and soil degradation...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222933/benefits-of-emotional-integration-and-costs-of-emotional-distancing
#5
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shachar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory (SDT) conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (n = 90) IER, ED, and a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209619/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-for-veterinary-infectious-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Hao Dong, Qiang Gao, Xiaowei Peng, Yu Sun, Tao Han, Bolin Zhao, Yufu Liu, Chuanbin Wang, Xiaohui Song, Jiajun Wu, Lin Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of small non-coding RNA molecules that could regulate multiple biological pathways at posttranscriptional level. Over 2,000 miRNAs have so far been discovered in humans, and many of them are found to be linked to various kinds of diseases. Thus, miRNAs are being considered as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic targets. With the discovery of high stability of circulating miRNAs in various kinds of mammalian body fluids, the potential of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious diseases aroused great interest among researchers...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207107/modular-organization-of-a-hypocretin-gene-minimal-promoter
#7
Adriana Sánchez-García, Griselda A Cabral-Pacheco, Viviana C Zomosa-Signoret, Rocío Ortiz-López, Alberto Camacho, Paulo M Tabera-Tarello, José A Garnica-López, Román Vidaltamayo
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202639/emotional-responding-in-nssi-examinations-of-appraisals-of-positive-and-negative-emotional-stimuli-with-and-without-acute-stress
#8
Ruth Tatnell, Penelope Hasking, Ottmar V Lipp, Mark Boyes, Jessica Dawkins
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is commonly used by young adults to regulate emotional responses. Yet, experimental examination of how people who self-injure appraise and respond to emotional stimuli is limited. We examined appraisals of, and responses to, emotive images in young adults who did and did not self-injure, and assessed whether these were impacted by exposure to a stressor. Study 1 (N = 51) examined whether participants differed in their appraisals of emotional images. Study 2 (N = 78) assessed whether appraisals of images changed after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test...
December 5, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177005/altered-pre-ejection-period-response-to-social-evaluative-threat-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
E Kale Edmiston, Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Introduction: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in regulating social behavior; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by alterations in social behavior and reduced physiological response to threat. We hypothesized that adolescents with ASD would show reduced ANS response to social threat. Methods: Eighteen males with ASD and thirteen males with typical development (TD), ages 12 to 17, completed a social threat paradigm while wearing an impedance cardiography apparatus...
April 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174912/behavioral-responses-and-fluid-regulation-in-male-rats-after-combined-dietary-sodium-deficiency-and-water-deprivation
#10
Kimberly J Lucia, Kathleen S Curtis
Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0...
November 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174887/fbxl4-serves-as-a-clock-output-molecule-that-regulates-sleep-through-promotion-of-rhythmic-degradation-of-the-gabaa-receptor
#11
Qian Li, Yi Li, Xiao Wang, Junxia Qi, Xi Jin, Huawei Tong, Zikai Zhou, Zi Chao Zhang, Junhai Han
The timing of sleep is tightly governed by the circadian clock, which contains a negative transcriptional feedback loop and synchronizes the physiology and behavior of most animals to daily environmental oscillations. However, how the circadian clock determines the timing of sleep is largely unclear. In vertebrates and invertebrates, the status of sleep and wakefulness is modulated by the electrical activity of pacemaker neurons that are circadian regulated and suppressed by inhibitory GABAergic inputs. Here, we showed that Drosophila GABAA receptors undergo rhythmic degradation in arousal-promoting large ventral lateral neurons (lLNvs) and their expression level in lLNvs displays a daily oscillation...
November 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172619/differential-effects-of-state-and-trait-mindfulness-on-the-late-positive-potential
#12
Ryan P Egan, Kaylin E Hill, Dan Foti
Mindfulness is an effective emotion regulation strategy, and its principles have formed the basis for several psychotherapies. Of interest is how a mindful perspective changes not only the subjective experience of emotion, but also neural activity involved in emotional processing. In a previous event-related potential (ERP) study, trait mindfulness was linked with reduced neural activity in response to affective stimuli, as measured by the late positive potential (LPP). Building on this result, we investigated how both state (i...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171689/the-moderating-role-of-regulatory-emotional-self-efficacy-on-smoking-craving-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#13
Ming Yuan, Xucheng Guo, Xi Li, Xijing Chen, Chunguang Wang, Yonghui Li
Emotion is presumed as a major reason for smoking, but this hypothesis needs support from data with high ecological validity. Regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) is key for emotion regulation, therefore RESE is likely to moderate the relationship between emotional states and smoking. The present study used the ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to record the levels of pleasure, arousal, and smoking craving in 33 male current smokers' daily lives, and examined the moderating effect of RESE in the prediction relationship between emotion and craving...
November 24, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169951/regulation-of-noradrenergic-and-serotonergic-systems-by-cannabinoids-relevance-to-cannabinoid-induced-effects
#14
REVIEW
Aitziber Mendiguren, Erik Aostri, Joseba Pineda
The cannabinoid system is composed of Gi/o protein-coupled cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor and endogenous compounds. The CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and it is involved in the regulation of common physiological functions. At the neuronal level, the CB1 receptor is mainly placed at GABAergic and glutamatergic axon terminals, where it modulates excitatory and inhibitory synapses. To date, the involvement of CB2 receptor in the regulation of neurotransmission in the CNS has not been clearly shown...
November 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162665/the-beneficial-effects-of-curcumin-in-cirrhotic-rats-with-portal-hypertension
#15
Shao-Jung Hsu, Jing-Yi Lee, Te-Yueh Lin, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Han-Chieh Lin, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
In liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension, the uneven distribution of vasoactive substances leads to increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and splanchnic vasodilatation. Angiogenesis also induces increased portal inflow and portosystemic collaterals. The collaterals may induce lethal complications such as gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage, but the therapeutic effect of vasoconstrictors is still suboptimal due to poor collateral vasoresponsivenss. Curcumin has aroused much attention for its anti-fibrosis, vasoactive and anti-angiogenesis actions...
November 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#16
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157006/chronotype-description-in-search-of-a-solid-subjective-amplitude-scale
#17
Halszka Oginska, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Olivier Mairesse
The term "subjective circadian amplitude" refers to the range or the distinctness of diurnal variations of arousal, that is, the awareness (or lack thereof) of difference between hyper- and hypo-activation phases, the ability to volitionally modulate one's own psychophysiological state, the strength of morning-evening preferences and flexibility of the rhythm or perceived stability of the circadian phase. The complexity of this construct is the source of difficulties in research and measurement. The psychometric features of distinctness subscales of the Chronotype Questionnaire and the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire are not satisfactory...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156227/low-physiological-arousal-and-high-impulsivity-as-predictors-of-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviors-among-adolescents
#18
Jaclyn T Aldrich, Madeline D Wielgus, Amy H Mezulis
Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors are used to escape or regulate aversive physiological states during stress. Low sympathetic nervous system arousal during stress has been shown to confer risk. This risk may be exacerbated by trait impulsivity; adolescents high in impulsivity are more likely to rashly use maladaptive regulation strategies. We examined this relationship longitudinally in a sample of adolescents ages 10 to 14 (55.4% female) from the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, low arousal during stress and high trait impulsivity interacted to predict the use of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over a six-month period...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155610/seasonal-and-sexual-variation-in-metabolism-thermoregulation-and-hormones-in-the-big-brown-bat-eptesicus-fuscus
#19
Christopher S Richardson, Tim Heeren, Thomas H Kunz
In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T3), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-changes-in-immune-gene-expression-following-bacterial-infection-or-stimulation-with-pro-inflammatory-molecules
#20
Kimberly A Veenstra, Eakapol Wangkahart, Tiehui Wang, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
In mammals, visceral adipose is increasingly seen as playing an important role in immune function with numerous pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating proteins and peptides being identified in adipocytes. Adipose is also now known as a tissue that has an important role in the regulation of peritoneal immune responses. Despite this, only lately has consideration been given to visceral adipose as an important immune tissue in fish, especially in the context of intraperitoneal vaccination. The present study demonstrates that fish visceral adipose is capable of expressing a large range of immune molecules in response to stimulation with a live bacterium (A...
November 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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