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Arousal Regulation

Nadia Steiner, Clara Rossetti, Takeshi Sakurai, Masashi Yanagisawa, Luis de Lecea, Pierre J Magistretti, Olivier Halfon, Benjamin Boutrel
Compelling evidence indicates that hypocretin/orexin signaling regulates arousal, stress and reward-seeking behaviors. However, most studies on drug reward-related processes have so far described the effects of pharmacological blockers disrupting hypocretin/orexin transmission. We report here an extensive study on cocaine-related behaviors in hypocretin/orexin-deficient mice (KO) and their heterozygous (HET) and wildtype (WT) littermates. We evaluated behavioral sensitization following repeated administrations and preference for an environment repeatedly paired with cocaine injections (15 mg/kg)...
February 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Laura Palagini, Eleonora Petri, Martina Novi, Danila Caruso, Umberto Moretto, Dieter Riemann
Studies show that unhelpful cognitive processes play a role in insomnia, whereas interpersonal factors have been less studied in insomnia. Attachment theory can be used as a cognitive-interpersonal framework for understanding insomnia. Because attachment insecurity (vs security) is related to psychiatric disorders the objective was to study the attachment style in insomnia. To this aim sixty-four subjects with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) and 38 good sleepers were evaluate in a cross-sectional study with: Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Clemens Muehlan, Jules Heuberger, Pierre-Eric Juif, Marie Croft, Joop van Gerven, Jasper Dingemanse
The orexin system regulates sleep and arousal and is targeted by ACT-541468, a new dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA). Healthy male subjects received a single oral dose of 5-200 mg, to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), mass balance, metabolism, and absolute bioavailability utilizing a14 C-labeled, orally and intravenously (i.v) administered microtracer. The drug was safe and well tolerated; the PK profile was characterized by quick absorption and elimination, with median time to reach maximum concentration (tmax ) of 0...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Dongjie Zhang, Zhongjun Cheng, Hongjun Kang, Jianxin Yu, Yuyan Liu, Lei Jiang
Recently, smart surfaces with switchable wettability have aroused much attention. However, only single surface chemistry or microstructure can be changed on these surfaces, which significantly limits their wetting performances, controllability and applications. Herein, a new surface with both tunable surface microstructure and chemistry is prepared by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) onto the pillar-structured shape memory polymer, on which, multiple wetting states from the superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity can be reversibly and precisely controlled by synergistically regulating the surface microstructure and chemistry...
February 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Milan Szuperak, Matthew A Churgin, Austin J Borja, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen, Matthew S Kayser
Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required...
February 9, 2018: ELife
Julien Revaud, Yves Unterfinger, Nicolas Rol, Muhammad Suleman, Julia Shaw, Sandra Galea, Françoise Gavard, Sandrine A Lacour, Muriel Coulpier, Nicolas Versillé, Menzo Havenga, Bernard Klonjkowski, Gina Zanella, Stéphane Biacchesi, Nathalie Cordonnier, Blaise Corthésy, Juliette Ben Arous, Jennifer P Richardson
To define the bottlenecks that restrict antigen expression after oral administration of viral-vectored vaccines, we tracked vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 at whole body, tissue, and cellular scales throughout the digestive tract in a murine model of oral delivery. After intragastric administration of vectors encoding firefly luciferase or a model antigen, detectable levels of transgene-encoded protein or mRNA were confined to the intestine, and restricted to delimited anatomical zones. Expression of luciferase in the form of multiple small bioluminescent foci in the distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon suggested multiple crossing points...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tian-Ju Ma, Di-Hui Lan, Shou-Zhi He, Zi Ye, Peng Li, Wei Zhai, Wen-Qian Chen, Yang Huang, Yu Fu, Ang Sun, Yi-Bing Wang, Zheng Ye, Jing-Lan Li, Yi Gao, Xin-Lin Yan, Zhao-Hui Li
Our previous study has shown heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects human lens epithelial cells (LECs) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Nrf2, the major regulator of HO-1, is triggered during the mutual induction of oxidative stress and ER stress. In response to ER stress, unfolded protein response (UPR) serves as a program of transcriptional and translational regulation mechanism with PERK involved. Both Nrf2 and ATF4 are activated as the downstream effect of PERK signaling coordinating the convergence of dual stresses...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Philip Robert Holland, Chonlawan Saengjaroentham, Marta Vila-Pueyo
Background Migraine is a severe debilitating disorder of the brain that is ranked as the sixth most disabling disorder globally, with respect to disability adjusted life years, and there remains a significant unmet demand for an improved understanding of its underlying mechanisms. In conjunction with perturbed sensory processing, migraine sufferers often present with diverse neurological manifestations (premonitory symptoms) that highlight potential brainstem involvement. Thus, as the field moves away from the view of migraine as a consequence of purely vasodilation to a greater understanding of migraine as a complex brain disorder, it is critical to consider the underlying physiology and pharmacology of key neural networks likely involved...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Hee-Seon Park, Charith Ub Wijerathne, Hye-Yun Jeong, Chang-Seob Seo, Hyekyung Ha, Hyo-Jung Kwun
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Helicobacter pylori, which is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population, has been associated with the development of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Hwanglyeonhaedok-tang (HHT) is a popular traditional medicine for the therapies of gastric ulcers and gastritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The emerging resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics arouses requirement on alternative nonantibiotic-based therapies. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and anti-microbial activity of HHT against H...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kimberly M Wingert, Chris Blais, B Hunter Ball, Gene A Brewer
Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should predict differences in the ability to regulate attention in emotional contexts. To address this hypothesis, a complex-span working memory task was modified so that negative arousing images or neutral images subtended the background during the encoding phase. Across three experiments, negative arousing images impaired working memory encoding relative to neutral images, resulting in impoverished symmetry span scores...
February 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Hui-Chun Huang, Shao-Jung Hsu, Ching-Chih Chang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
Critical illness is accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, but adrenal insufficiency characterized by inadequate glucocorticoid synthesis is common in critically ill cirrhotic patients, the 'hepato-adrenal syndrome'. Adrenal cortex also synthesizes androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). DHEA maintains microcirculation by enhancing vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In critical patients of other disease entities, a shift of adrenal steroidogenesis away from androgens towards glucocorticoid has been noted, arousing interests in androgen replacement in critical settings...
February 1, 2018: Shock
Susanne Skora, Fanny Mende, Manuel Zimmer
Neural information processing entails a high energetic cost, but its maintenance is crucial for animal survival. However, the brain's energy conservation strategies are incompletely understood. Employing functional brain-wide imaging and quantitative behavioral assays, we describe a neuronal strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans that balances energy availability and expenditure. Upon acute food deprivation, animals exhibit a transiently elevated state of arousal, indicated by foraging behaviors and increased responsiveness to food-related cues...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
James R Houston, Michelle L Hughes, Mei-Ching Lien, Bryn A Martin, Francis Loth, Mark G Luciano, Sarel Vorster, Philip A Allen
Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the cervical spinal subarachnoid space resulting in cervico-medullary compression. Early case-control investigations have indicated cognitive deficits in the areas of attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial function. The present study further examined cognitive and emotional processing deficits associated with CMI using a dual-task paradigm. Nineteen CMI patients were recruited during pre-surgical consultation and 19 matched control participants identified emotional expressions in separate single and asynchronous dual-task designs...
January 30, 2018: Cerebellum
Hua Yang, Tiantian Tian, Dianhui Wu, Dejun Guo, Jian Lu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes are serious threat to human health and more and more aroused people's attention. It is important to find the safe and effective prevention and treatment methods for the three deadly diseases. At present, a generally attention in the possible positive effects of edible berries for the three deadly diseases has been noted. Berry phytochemical compounds regulate different signaling pathways about cell survival, growth and differentiation. They contribute to the prevention and treatment of CVD, cancer and diabetes...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Haleigh R Smith, Nicole K Leibold, Daniel A Rappoport, Callie M Ginapp, Benton S Purnell, Nicole M Bode, Stephanie L Alberico, Young-Cho Kim, Enrica Audero, Cornelius T Gross, Gordon F Buchanan
Arousal from sleep in response to CO2 is a critical protective phenomenon. Dysregulation of CO2-induced arousal contributes to morbidity and mortality from prevalent diseases like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Despite the critical nature of this protective reflex, the precise mechanism for CO2-induced arousal is unknown. Since CO2 is a major regulator of breathing, prevailing theories suggest that activation of respiratory chemo- and mechano-sensors is required for CO2-induced arousal...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiao Liu, Jacco A de Zwart, Marieke L Schölvinck, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, David A Leopold, Jeff H Duyn
Cortical activity during periods of rest is punctuated by widespread, synchronous events in both electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals, but their behavioral relevance remains unclear. Here we report that these events correspond to momentary drops in cortical arousal and are associated with activity changes in the basal forebrain and thalamus. Combining fMRI and electrophysiology in macaques, we first establish that fMRI transients co-occur with spectral shifts in local field potentials (LFPs) toward low frequencies...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
T Kaminski, N Smolinska, M Kiezun, K Dobrzyn, K Szeszko, A Maleszka
Orexin A (OXA) and B (OXB) are hypothalamic neuropeptides identified as regulators of food intake, energy homoeostasis, sleep-wake cycle and arousal. They also create an integrative link between energy homoeostasis and reproduction. Although their functions in the ovaries and testes have been partially explored, to date, less attention has been focused on the role of the peptides in the uterus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one of orexins - orexin B on oestradiol (E2), oestrone (E1) and testosterone (T) secretion by porcine endometrial and myometrial slices as well as the gene expression of key steroidogenic enzymes responsible for steroid production (CYP17A1, CYP19A3) during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle (days 10 to 11) and early pregnancy (days 10 to 11, 12 to 13, 15 to 16, 27 to 28)...
January 25, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Christine Ulke, Nicole Mauche, Christian Makiol, Klara Bednasch, Dirk A Wittekind, Ulrich Hegerl, Maria Strauß
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Liyan Zhao, Yonghai Zhang, Fan Yang, Di Zhu, Ningkang Li, Li Zhao, Na Li, Jianqiang Yu, Hanxiang Ma
Neuraxial anesthesia produces an anesthetic-sparing, sedative effect. The mechanism underlying this effect potentially involves decreased spinal afferent input. However, the neurochemical mechanisms at the spinal level remain unknown. The N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptor 2B subunit/calcium‑calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase II α/cAMP response element‑binding protein (NR2B/CaMKIIα/CREB) signaling pathway serves an important role in regulating the transmittance of peripheral noxious stimulation to supraspinal regions in the process of nociception...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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