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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533890/effect-of-music-tempo-on-exercise-performance-and-heart-rate-among-young-adults
#1
Avinash E Thakare, Ranjeeta Mehrotra, Ayushi Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533747/selective-inhibition-of-orexin-2-receptors-prevents-stress-induced-acth-release-in-mice
#2
Sujin Yun, Michelle Wennerholm, Jonathan E Shelton, Pascal Bonaventure, Michael A Letavic, Brock T Shireman, Timothy W Lovenberg, Christine Dugovic
Orexins peptides exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes including stress responding, by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors located widely throughout the brain. Stress or orexin administration stimulates hyperarousal, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release, and selective OX1R blockade can attenuate several stress-induced behavioral and cardiovascular responses but not the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. As opposed to OX1R, OX2R are preferentially expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which is involved in the HPA axis regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516827/bold-activation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-late-life-depression-and-comparison-participants
#4
Akshya Vasudev, Michael J Firbank, Joseph S Gati, Emily Ionson, Alan J Thomas
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex's (vMPFC) role in regulating emotions in late life depression (LLD) remains unclarified. We assessed vMPFC activation in an emotional valence blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) task and related the findings to extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Sixteen participants with mild to moderate LLD were compared to 14 similar aged comparison participants. Participants in the scanner viewed words matched for length and arousal, indicated the perceived valence by pressing one of the three buttons i...
May 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514792/autonomic-dysregulation-in-burnout-and-depression-evidence-for-the-central-role-of-exhaustion
#5
Magdalena K Kanthak, Tobias Stalder, LaBarron K Hill, Julian F Thayer, Marlene Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
Objectives Given the important role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in stress regulation, astonishingly little is known about ANS functioning in burnout, a condition arising after prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The current study sought to investigate ANS modulation, as indexed by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV), in relation to burnout symptomatology to (i) distinguish associations between the three dimensions of burnout [emotional exhaustion (EE), cynicism, reduced personal accomplishment] and (ii) investigate overlap in associations with depressive symptomatology...
May 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504308/brainstem-as-a-developmental-gateway-to-social-attention
#6
Ronny Geva, Ayelet Dital, Dan Ramon, Jessica Yarmolovsky, Maor Gidron, Jacob Kuint
BACKGROUND: Evolution preserves social attention due to its key role in supporting survival. Humans are attracted to social cues from infancy, but the neurobiological mechanisms for the development of social attention are unknown. An evolutionary-based, vertical-hierarchical theoretical model of self-regulation suggests that neonatal brainstem inputs are key for the development of well-regulated social attention. METHODS: Neonates born preterm (N = 44, GA 34 w...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500541/ambivalence-over-emotional-expression-intrusive-thoughts-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-chinese-american-breast-cancer-survivors
#7
Qian Lu, Nelson Yeung, Jenny Man, Matthew W Gallagher, Qiao Chu, Sidra H Deen
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common among breast cancer survivors. However, the association and the underlying mediating mechanism between psychosocial factors and PTSS were rarely investigated among breast cancer survivors. Previous studies have suggested the importance of emotional expression in cancer survivors' PTSS. This study examined the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE; defined as the conflict between the desire to express feelings and the fear of its consequences) and PTSS, and proposed intrusive thoughts as the mediators in such an association...
May 12, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498499/heterogeneous-extracellular-dopamine-regulation-in-the-subregions-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#8
Jinwoo Park, Ken T Wakabayashi, Caitlin Szalkowski, Rohan V Bhimani
Recent studies show that dense dopamine (DA) innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the olfactory tubercle (OT) may play an important role in processing multisensory information pertaining to arousal and reward, yet little is known about DA regulation in the OT. This is mainly due to the anatomical limitations of conventional methods of determining DA dynamics in small heterogeneous OT subregions located in the ventral most part of the brain. Additionally, there is increasing awareness that anteromedial and anterolateral subregions of the OT have distinct functional roles in natural and psychostimulant drug reinforcement as well as in regulating other types of behavioral responses, such as aversion...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489327/new-directions-for-the-treatment-of-depression-targeting-the-photic-regulation-of-arousal-and-mood-pram-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Hannah E Bowrey, Morgan H James, Gary Aston-Jones
Both preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that depression is strongly associated with reduced light availability, which in turn contributes to decreased function of brain regions that control mood. Here, we review findings that support a critical pathway for the control of mood that depends upon ambient light. We put forward a novel hypothesis, functionally linking retina to locus coeruleus (LC) in depression, and discuss the role of norepinephrine in affective disease. Finally, we discuss how utilizing the chemogenetic tool Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to precisely control this retina-LC circuit may be used as a novel therapeutic to treat depression...
May 10, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486176/thalamic-control-of-functional-cortical-connectivity
#10
REVIEW
Miho Nakajima, Michael M Halassa
The thalamus is an evolutionarily conserved structure with extensive reciprocal connections to cortical regions. While its role in transmitting sensory signals is well-studied, its broader engagement in cognition is unclear. In this review, we discuss evidence that the thalamus regulates functional connectivity within and between cortical regions, determining how a cognitive process is implemented across distributed cortical microcircuits. Within this framework, thalamic circuits do not necessarily determine the categorical content of a cognitive process (e...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484412/individual-differences-in-automatic-emotion-regulation-interact-with-primed-emotion-regulation-during-an-anger-provocation
#11
Jing Zhang, Ottmar V Lipp, Ping Hu
The current study investigated the interactive effects of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation (AER) and primed emotion regulation strategy on skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate during provoked anger. The study was a 2 × 2 [AER tendency (expression vs. control) × priming (expression vs. control)] between subject design. Participants were assigned to two groups according to their performance on an emotion regulation-IAT (differentiating automatic emotion control tendency and automatic emotion expression tendency)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484378/rapid-physiological-fluctuations-in-nucleus-accumbens-oxygen-levels-induced-by-arousing-stimuli-relationships-with-changes-in-brain-glucose-and-metabolic-neural-activation
#12
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Proper entry of oxygen from arterial blood into the brain is essential for maintaining brain metabolism under normal conditions and during functional neural activation. However, little is known about physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen and their underlying mechanisms. To address this issue, we employed high-speed amperometry with platinum oxygen sensors in freely moving male rats. Recordings were conducted in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure for sensorimotor integration. Rats were exposed to arousing stimuli of different nature (brief auditory tone, a 1-min novel object presentation, a 3-min social interaction with a conspecific, and a 3-min tail-pinch)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473298/maintenance-of-neural-activities-in-torpid-rhinolophus-ferrumequinum-bats-revealed-by-2d-gel-based-proteome-analysis
#13
Qiuyuan Yin, Yijian Zhang, Dong Dong, Ming Lei, Shuyi Zhang, Chen-Chung Liao, Yi-Hsuan Pan
Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flying. Many bat species hibernate in winter. A reversible control of cerebral activities is critical for bats to accommodate a repeated torpor-arousal cycle during hibernation. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal activities in torpid bats. In this study, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum bat brain proteins were fractionated, and their abundance in active and torpid states was compared. Results of 2D gel-based proteomics showed that 38% of identified proteins with a significant change in abundance are involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and cytoskeletal integrity...
May 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472227/cortical-nnos-nk1-receptor-neurons-are-regulated-by-cholinergic-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain
#14
Rhîannan H Williams, Jacqueline Vazquez-DeRose, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
Cholinergic (ACh) basal forebrain (BF) neurons are active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and are involved in sleep homeostasis. We have previously shown in adult animals that cortical neurons that express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor for Substance P (NK1R) are activated during non-REM (NREM) sleep in proportion to homeostatic sleep drive. Here, we show that BF neurons modulate cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. In vitro optogenetic stimulation of BF terminals both activated and inhibited nNOS/NK1R neurons...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463228/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-hypothalamic-circuits-regulates-arousal-from-general-anesthesia-in-mice
#15
Haixing Zhong, Li Tong, Ning Gu, Fang Gao, Yacheng Lu, Rou-Gang Xie, Jingjing Liu, Xin Li, Richard Bergeron, Lisa E Pomeranz, Ken Mackie, Feng Wang, Chun-Xia Luo, Yan Ren, Sheng-Xi Wu, Zhongcong Xie, Lin Xu, Jinlian Li, Hailong Dong, Lize Xiong, Xia Zhang
Consciousness can be defined by two major attributes: awareness of environment and self, and arousal, which reflects the level of awareness. The return of arousal after general anesthesia presents an experimental tool for probing the neural mechanisms that control consciousness. Here we have identified that systemic or intracerebral injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM281 into the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) - but not the adjacent perifornical area (Pef) or the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus (VLPO) - accelerates arousal in mice recovering from general anesthesia...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458642/physical-activity-increases-after-an-affectively-arousing-daily-life-event
#16
Michael H Pollak, J Ryan Hart
Evidence that structured physical activity can help to regulate affective state has spurred interest in identifying associations between unstructured physical activity and affective states during daily life. The present study examined whether stressful daily life situations that elicit affective arousal also elicit increased physical activity in the form of restless movement. The study compared the physical activity of professors (n = 25) after presenting a classroom lecture to their physical activity at the same time of day on a non-lecture workday...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452286/clock-gene-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-hibernating-arctic-ground-squirrels
#17
Tomoko Ikeno, Cory T Williams, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan
Most organisms have a circadian system, entrained to daily light-dark cycles, that regulates 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. It is unclear, however, how circadian systems function in animals that exhibit seasonal metabolic suppression, particularly when this coincides with the long-term absence of a day-night cycle. The arctic ground squirrel, Urocytellus parryii, is a medium-sized, semi-fossorial rodent that appears above-ground daily during its short active season in spring and summer before re-entering a constantly dark burrow for 6 to 9 months of hibernation...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450546/nicotinic-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-cholinergic-receptor-influences-on-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortical-neuronal-firing-during-a-working-memory-task
#18
Yongan Sun, Yang Yang, Veronica C Galvin, Shengtao Yang, Amy F Arnsten, Min Wang
The primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) subserves top-down regulation of attention and working memory abilities. Depletion studies show that the neuromodulator, acetylcholine, is essential to dlPFC working memory functions, but the receptor and cellular bases for cholinergic actions are just beginning to be understood. The current study found that nicotinic receptors comprised of α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) enhance the task-related firing of Delay and Fixation cells in the dlPFC of monkeys performing a working memory task...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#19
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447304/self-report-and-brain-indicators-of-impaired-emotion-regulation-in-the-broad-autism-spectrum
#20
Kristel De Groot, Jan W Van Strien
Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the effect of one strategy, reappraisal. Reporting more autistic traits was related to using more maladaptive and fewer adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Across both groups, no attenuation of the late positive potential during downregulation of unpleasant pictures was found, possibly because of the used valence-changing reappraisal operationalisation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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