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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026111/distraction-and-expressive-suppression-strategies-in-regulation-of-high-and-low-intensity-negative-emotions
#1
Ping Li, Wei Wang, Cong Fan, Chuanlin Zhu, Shuaixia Li, Zhao Zhang, Zhengyang Qi, Wenbo Luo
The current study compared the effectiveness of distraction, an antecedent-focused strategy that involves diverting an individual's attention away from affective terms, and expressive suppression, a response-focused strategy that involves inhibiting conscious emotion-expressive behavior during an emotionally aroused state, in the regulation of high- and low-intensity unpleasant stimuli, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixteen participants completed an emotion regulation experiment in which they passively viewed high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (view), solved a mathematical equation presented on high- or low-intensity negative images (distraction), or suppressed their emotional expression in response to high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (suppression)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022943/simultaneous-measurement-of-sleep-and-feeding-in-individual-drosophila
#2
Keith R Murphy, Jin Hong Park, Robert Huber, William W Ja
Drosophila is widely used for the dissection of genetic and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. Recently, flies have emerged as a model for investigating the regulation of feeding and sleep. Although typically studied in isolation, increasing evidence points to a fundamental connection between these behaviors. Thus, a system for measuring sleep and feeding simultaneously in a single integrated system is important for interpreting behavioral shifts of either state. Here, we describe the construction and use of the Activity Recording Capillary Feeder or CAFE (ARC), a machine-vision (automated image tracking)-based system for the integrated measurement of sleep and feeding in individual Drosophila...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020756/using-focus-group-interviews-to-analyze-the-behavior-of-users-of-new-types-of-tobacco-products
#3
Jinyoung Kim, Sungkyu Lee
Objectives: To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020067/interoception-and-sexual-response-in-women-with-low-sexual-desire
#4
Julia Velten, Lori A Brotto
Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992038/understanding-female-receiver-psychology-in-reproductive-contexts
#5
Kathleen S Lynch
Mate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component...
August 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986066/the-crosstalk-between-sirt1-and-keap1-nrf2-are-anti-oxidative-pathway-forms-a-positive-feedback-loop-to-inhibit-fn-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expressions-in-rat-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#6
Kaipeng Huang, Xiang Gao, Wentao Wei
Oxidative stress aroused by advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) is a culprit in the pathological progression of diabetic nephropathy. Both Sirt1 and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE anti-oxidative pathway exert crucial inhibitory effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy. Our previous study has confirmed that Sirt1 activation can inhibit the upregulation of fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by promoting Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) challenged with AGEs...
October 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981314/alterations-in-positive-affect-relationship-to-symptoms-traumatic-experiences-and-affect-ratings
#7
Jonathan DePierro, Wendy D'Andrea, Paul Frewen, McWelling Todman
OBJECTIVE: Intrusive negative affect and concurrent deficits in positive affect are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to further extend the extant literature by exploring the experience of negative affect intrusion upon potentially positive situations (here termed, "negative affect interference," NAI). METHOD: Two studies with adults endorsing at least 1 traumatic event (Study 1, N = 294; Study 2, N = 286) examined how NAI and more general hedonic deficits (HD) relate to psychopathology, trauma exposure characteristics, and ratings of normed visual stimuli...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977772/caffeine-alters-emotion-and-emotional-responses-in-low-habitual-caffeine-consumers
#8
Grace E Giles, Alexander M Spring, Heather L Urry, Joseph M Moran, Caroline R Mahoney, Robin B Kanarek
Caffeine reliably increases emotional arousal, but it is unclear if and how it influences other dimensions of emotion such as emotional valence. These experiments documented whether caffeine influences emotion and emotion regulation choice and success. Low to abstinent caffeine consumers (maximum 100 mg/day) completed measures of state anxiety, positive and negative emotion, and salivary cortisol before, 45 minutes, and 75 minutes after consuming 400 mg caffeine or placebo. Participants also completed an emotion regulation choice task in which they chose to employ cognitive reappraisal or distraction in response to high and low intensity negative pictures (Experiment 1) or a cognitive reappraisal task, in which they employed cognitive reappraisal or no emotion regulation strategy in response to negative and neutral pictures (Experiment 2)...
October 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974937/the-influence-of-emotion-on-fairness-related-decision-making-a-critical-review-of-theories-and-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Ya Zheng, Zhong Yang, Chunlan Jin, Yue Qi, Xun Liu
Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974736/the-regulatory-effect-of-choice-in-situation-selection-reduces-experiential-exocrine-and-respiratory-arousal-for-negative-emotional-stimulations
#10
Simon Thuillard, Elise S Dan-Glauser
Situation selection is a seldom studied emotion regulation strategy that entails choosing an upcoming emotional situation. Two mechanisms may drive its regulatory effect on emotional responses. One relates to the evaluation of the chosen option, people generally selecting the most positive. The other one implies that having the choice regarding the upcoming emotional situation is already regulatory, independently of what we choose. This research aimed at investigating this latter hypothesis. In a within-subject design, we compared emotional responses of 65 participants when they viewed negative and positive images they could select (use of Situation selection) vs...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974457/sex-differences-in-stress-regulation-of-arousal-and-cognition
#11
Debra A Bangasser, Samantha R Eck, Alexander M Telenson, Madeleine Salvatore
There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are more common in women than men, and women with these disorders present with more hyperarousal symptoms than men. In contrast, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and schizophrenia are more common in men than women, and men with these disorders have increased cognitive deficits compared to women. A shared feature of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is the contribution of stressful events to their onset and/or severity...
September 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966976/neurochemical-heterogeneity-among-lateral-hypothalamic-hypocretin-orexin-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-neurons-identified-through-single-cell-gene-expression-analysis
#12
Laura E Mickelsen, Fredrick W Kolling, Brock R Chimileski, Akie Fujita, Carol Norris, Kun Chen, Craig E Nelson, Alexander C Jackson
The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) lies at the intersection of multiple neural and humoral systems and orchestrates fundamental aspects of behavior. Two neuronal cell types found in the LHA are defined by their expression of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Ox) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and are both important regulators of arousal, feeding, and metabolism. Conflicting evidence suggests that these cell populations have a more complex signaling repertoire than previously appreciated, particularly in regard to their coexpression of other neuropeptides and the machinery for the synthesis and release of GABA and glutamate...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966950/measuring-caenorhabditis-elegans-sleep-during-the-transition-to-adulthood-using-a-microfluidics-based-system
#13
Huiyan Huang, Komudi Singh, Anne C Hart
C. elegans sleep during development is regulated by genes and cellular mechanisms that are conserved across the animal kingdom (Singh et al., 2014; Trojanowski & Raizen, 2016). C. elegans developmental sleep is usually assessed during the transition to adulthood, a 2.6 h time interval called lethargus (Raizen et al., 2008; Singh et al., 2011). During lethargus, animals cycle between periods of immobility (sleep bouts) and periods of active locomotion (motion bouts). Sleep bouts resemble sleep in other species based on behavioral criteria, including cessation of feeding and locomotion, increased arousal threshold for response to sensory stimulation, rapid reversibility, and homeostatic response to sleep loss...
March 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965762/a-population-representation-of-absolute-light-intensity-in-the-mammalian-retina
#14
Elliott Scott Milner, Michael Tri Hoang Do
Environmental illumination spans many log units of intensity and is tracked for essential functions that include regulation of the circadian clock, arousal state, and hormone levels. Little is known about the neural representation of light intensity and how it covers the necessary range. This question became accessible with the discovery of mammalian photoreceptors that are required for intensity-driven functions, the M1 ipRGCs. The spike outputs of M1s are thought to uniformly track intensity over a wide range...
September 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965028/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-an-attractive-biomarker-for-the-evaluation-of-subjects-with-insulin-resistance-and-related-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Su Wang, Xiafei Hong, Zhigang Tu, Guoyue Yuan
Insulin resistance is prevalent worldwide and is associated with many metabolic diseases, in particular, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8), a newly-identified secreted protein composing of 198 amino acids, is enriched in the liver of human. Considering its promising potential for β-cell proliferation and therapeutic prospect for diabetes, ANGPTL8 has aroused extensive interests...
September 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963505/slow-wave-sleep-is-controlled-by-a-subset-of-nucleus-accumbens-core-neurons-in-mice
#16
Yo Oishi, Qi Xu, Lu Wang, Bin-Jia Zhang, Koji Takahashi, Yohko Takata, Yan-Jia Luo, Yoan Cherasse, Serge N Schiffmann, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Yoshihiro Urade, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang, Michael Lazarus
Sleep control is ascribed to a two-process model, a widely accepted concept that posits homoeostatic drive and a circadian process as the major sleep-regulating factors. Cognitive and emotional factors also influence sleep-wake behaviour; however, the precise circuit mechanisms underlying their effects on sleep control are unknown. Previous studies suggest that adenosine has a role affecting behavioural arousal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area critical for reinforcement and reward. Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep...
September 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959198/distributed-neural-processing-predictors-of-multi-dimensional-properties-of-affect
#17
Keith A Bush, Cory S Inman, Stephan Hamann, Clinton D Kilts, G Andrew James
Recent evidence suggests that emotions have a distributed neural representation, which has significant implications for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion regulation and dysregulation as well as the potential targets available for neuromodulation-based emotion therapeutics. This work adds to this evidence by testing the distribution of neural representations underlying the affective dimensions of valence and arousal using representational models that vary in both the degree and the nature of their distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959191/distinct-temporal-coordination-of-spontaneous-population-activity-between-basal-forebrain-and-auditory-cortex
#18
Josue G Yague, Tomomi Tsunematsu, Shuzo Sakata
The basal forebrain (BF) has long been implicated in attention, learning and memory, and recent studies have established a causal relationship between artificial BF activation and arousal. However, neural ensemble dynamics in the BF still remains unclear. Here, recording neural population activity in the BF and comparing it with simultaneously recorded cortical population under both anesthetized and unanesthetized conditions, we investigate the difference in the structure of spontaneous population activity between the BF and the auditory cortex (AC) in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932220/chalcone-attenuates-staphylococcus-aureus-virulence-by-targeting-sortase-a-and-alpha-hemolysin
#19
Bing Zhang, Zihao Teng, Xianhe Li, Gejin Lu, Xuming Deng, Xiaodi Niu, Jianfeng Wang
Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) resistance, considered a dilemma for the clinical treatment of this bacterial infection, is becoming increasingly intractable. Novel anti-virulence strategies will undoubtedly provide a path forward in combating these resistant bacterial infections. Sortase A (SrtA), an enzyme responsible for anchoring virulence-related surface proteins, and alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming cytotoxin, have aroused great scientific interest, as they have been regarded as targets for promising agents against S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#20
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
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