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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783577/positive-affect-and-parasympathetic-activity-evidence-for-a-quadratic-relationship-between-feeling-safe-and-content-and-heart-rate-variability
#1
Joana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia
There has been an increased interest in the study of underlying autonomic correlates of emotions. This study tests the hypothesis that high levels of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) are associated with positive emotions. In addition, we hypothesize that this association will differ according to the type of positive emotion. Also, based on recent findings, we tested the hypothesis that this relationship would be nonlinear. Resting-state HRV was collected and self-report measures of different positive emotions were administered to a sample of 124 volunteers...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781048/drosophila-cry-entrains-clocks-in-body-tissues-to-light-and-maintains-passive-membrane-properties-in-a-non-clock-body-tissue-independent-of-light
#2
Parul Agrawal, Jerry H Houl, Kushan L Gunawardhana, Tianxin Liu, Jian Zhou, Mark J Zoran, Paul E Hardin
Circadian (∼24 hr) clocks regulate daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior via cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the blue-light photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) synchronizes these feedback loops to light:dark cycles by binding to and degrading TIMELESS (TIM) protein. CRY also acts independently of TIM in Drosophila to alter potassium channel conductance in arousal neurons after light exposure, and in many animals CRY acts independently of light to repress rhythmic transcription...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769782/toll-like-receptor-2-is-a-regulator-of-circadian-active-and-inactive-state-consolidation-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Nicholas W DeKorver, Tammy R Chaudoin, Stephen J Bonasera
Regulatory systems required to maintain behavioral arousal remain incompletely understood. We describe a previously unappreciated role that toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2, a membrane bound pattern recognition receptor that recognizes specific bacterial, viral, and fungal peptides), contributes toward regulation of behavioral arousal. In 4-4.5 month old mice with constitutive loss of Tlr2 function (Tlr2(-/-) mice), we note a marked consolidation in the circadian pattern of both active and inactive states. Specifically, Tlr2(-/-) mice demonstrated significantly fewer but longer duration active states during the circadian dark cycle, and significantly fewer but longer duration inactive states during the circadian light cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766372/role-of-event-centrality-and-emotion-regulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-internally-displaced-persons
#4
JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji, Chuka Mike Ifeagwazi, John E Eze
BACKGROUND: Event centrality and emotion regulation in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been documented in various global samples especially in Western cultures; but internally displaced persons (IDPs) still constitute an underrepresented population in psychotraumatology literature. This study tested the roles of event centrality and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in PTSD symptoms among IDPs in Nigeria. DESIGN: The multi-group cross-sectional design was adopted...
August 2, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758704/an-ecological-investigation-of-the-emotional-context-surrounding-nonsuicidal-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviors-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
Amy Kranzler, Kara B Fehling, Janne Lindqvist, Julia Brillante, Fengpeng Yuan, Xianyi Gao, Alec L Miller, Edward A Selby
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology was used to examine the emotional context of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Forty-seven adolescents and young adults used a novel smartphone app to monitor their emotional experiences, NSSI thoughts, and NSSI behaviors for 2 weeks. Momentary changes in both negative and positive emotions predicted greater intensity of NSSI thoughts at the subsequent assessment, while only increases in negative emotion predicted NSSI behaviors. Immediately following NSSI behaviors participants reported reduced high-arousal negative emotions and increased low-arousal positive emotions, suggesting that NSSI may be an efficient and effective method of regulating emotion...
July 31, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757457/dual-transmitter-systems-regulating-arousal-attention-learning-and-memory
#6
REVIEW
Sherie Ma, Balázs Hangya, Christopher S Leonard, William Wisden, Andrew L Gundlach
An array of neuromodulators, including monoamines and neuropeptides, regulate most behavioural and physiological traits. In the past decade, dramatic progress has been made in mapping neuromodulatory circuits, in analysing circuit dynamics, and interrogating circuit function using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic and imaging methods This review will focus on several distinct neural networks (acetylcholine/GABA/glutamate; histamine/GABA; orexin/glutamate; and relaxin-3/GABA) that originate from neural hubs that regulate wakefulness and related attentional and cognitive processes, and highlight approaches that have identified dual transmitter roles in these behavioural functions...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754889/genetic-and-neuronal-mechanisms-governing-the-sex-specific-interaction-between-sleep-and-sexual-behaviors-in-drosophila
#7
Dandan Chen, Divya Sitaraman, Nan Chen, Xin Jin, Caihong Han, Jie Chen, Mengshi Sun, Bruce S Baker, Michael N Nitabach, Yufeng Pan
Animals execute one particular behavior among many others in a context-dependent manner, yet the mechanisms underlying such behavioral choice remain poorly understood. Here we studied how two fundamental behaviors, sex and sleep, interact at genetic and neuronal levels in Drosophila. We show that an increased need for sleep inhibits male sexual behavior by decreasing the activity of the male-specific P1 neurons that coexpress the sex determination genes fru (M) and dsx, but does not affect female sexual behavior...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754276/physiological-correlates-of-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-early-adolescents
#8
Melissa D Latham, Nina Cook, Julian G Simmons, Michelle L Byrne, Jonathan W L Kettle, Orli Schwartz, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen
Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images...
July 25, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738311/perception-is-key-does-perceptual-sensitivity-and-parenting-behavior-predict-children-s-reactivity-to-others-emotions
#9
Joyce Weeland, Alithe Van den Akker, Meike Slagt, Samuel Putnam
When interacting with other people, both children's biological predispositions and past experiences play a role in how they will process and respond to social-emotional cues. Children may partly differ in their reactions to such cues because they differ in the threshold for perceiving such cues in general. Theoretically, perceptual sensitivity (i.e., the amount of detection of slight, low-intensity stimuli from the external environment independent of visual and auditory ability) might, therefore, provide us with specific information on individual differences in susceptibility to the environment...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#10
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719249/applying-sensory-modulation-to-mental-health-inpatient-care-to-reduce-seclusion-and-restraint-a-case-control-study
#11
Charlotte Andersen, Anne Kolmos, Kjeld Andersen, Volkmar Sippel, Elsebeth Stenager
BACKGROUND: Clinical training in managing conflicts and preventing violence seldom contains sensory modulation (SM) as a method to de-escalate and prevent restraint and seclusion. Sensory-based interventions promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion. SM is a complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. AIMS: Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care...
July 18, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#12
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
The dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the main thalamic site for state-dependent transmission of visual information. Non-retinal inputs from the ascending arousal system and inhibition provided by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic local circuit interneurons (INs) control neuronal activity within the dLGN. In particular, acetylcholine (ACh) depolarizes thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by inhibiting two-pore domain potassium (K2P ) channels. Conversely, ACh also hyperpolarizes INs via an as-yet-unknown mechanism...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711237/precise-role-of-dermal-fibroblasts-on-melanocyte-pigmentation
#13
REVIEW
Yinjuan Wang, Céline Viennet, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert
Dermal fibroblasts are traditionally recognized as synthesizing, remodeling and depositing collagen and extracellular matrix, the structural framework for tissues, helping to bring thickness and firmness to the skin. However, the role of fibroblasts on skin pigmentation arouses concern recently. More is known about the interactions between epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes. This review highlights the importance of fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators in the regulation of melanocyte activities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710927/effects-of-brief-mindful-breathing-and-loving-kindness-meditation-on-shame-and-social-problem-solving-abilities-among-individuals-with-high-borderline-personality-traits
#14
Shian-Ling Keng, Jun Xian Tan
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705440/inhibition-of-trkb-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-using-ana-12-regulates-basal-and-stress-induced-orexin-a-expression-within-the-mesolimbic-system-and-affects-anxiety-sociability-and-motivation
#15
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system...
July 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688946/anti-arthritic-effect-of-pilose-antler-peptide-on-adjuvant-induced-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-rats
#16
Zuo Ting, Long Hongyan, Wu Suling, Huang Luqi
The anti-inflammatory property of pilose antler peptide (PAP) aroused our interest. To investigate the effect of PAP on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats was the aim of this study. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) was induced by the administration of 0.1ml FCA in the surface of hind paw. Diclofenac sodium (DS) and Fasudil were administered as positive controls. Down-regulation of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), revealed anti-inflammatory effect of PAP, which was consisted with pathological conditions of rat paws...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687897/hypersexuality-a-critical-review-and-introduction-to-the-sexhavior-cycle
#17
Michael T Walton, James M Cantor, Navjot Bhullar, Amy D Lykins
An empirical review of hypersexuality is timely as "compulsive sexual behavior" is being considered as an impulse control disorder for inclusion in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases, 11th ed. Specifically, hypersexuality has been conceptualized in the literature as the inability to regulate one's sexual behavior that is a source of significant personal distress. Various theoretical models have been posited in an attempt to understand the occurrence of hypersexuality, although disagreement about these divergent conceptualizations of the condition has made assessment and treatment of hypersexual clients more challenging...
July 7, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685685/hemicellulose-from-plant-biomass-in-medical-and-pharmaceutical-application-a-critical-review
#18
Xinxin Liu, Qixuan Lin, Yuhuan Yan, Fenf Peng, Runcang Sung, Junli Ren
Hemicellulose is the second most abundant plant polysaccharides after cellulose. Due to the non-toxicity, abundance and biodegradability, recently more and more attention has been focused on the exploration of hemicellulose as the potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added chemicals and materials in different fields. Especially in the pharmaceutical and medical field, hemicellulose currently has aroused growing concern in immune regulation, bacteria inhibition, drug release, anti-caries, scaffold materials and anti-tumor because of its unique special physiological characteristics including biocompatibility, inhibiting cell mutation and anti-cancer effect, etc...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674771/a-review-of-the-physiology-of-a-survival-expert-of-big-freeze-deep-snow-and-an-empty-stomach-the-boreal-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an invasive canid originating from eastern Asia. Here, we review its physiological adaptations to wintering, with an emphasis on northern Europe, where the raccoon dog spends the coldest part of the year in winter sleep. The timing of physiological changes related to wintering is connected to photoperiod by melatonin. In preparation to winter, raccoon dogs display autumnal hyperphagia and fattening probably regulated by the interaction of several peptide hormones...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669028/the-excitatory-inhibitory-input-to-orexin-hypocretin-neuron-soma-undergoes-day-night-reorganization
#20
Claudia Laperchia, Roberta Imperatore, Idris A Azeez, Federico Del Gallo, Giuseppe Bertini, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Luigia Cristino, Marina Bentivoglio
Orexin (OX)/hypocretin-containing neurons are main regulators of wakefulness stability, arousal, and energy homeostasis. Their activity varies in relation to the animal's behavioral state. We here tested whether such variation is subserved by synaptic plasticity phenomena in basal conditions. Mice were sacrificed during day or night, at times when sleep or wake, respectively, predominates, as assessed by electroencephalography in matched mice. Triple immunofluorescence was used to visualize OX-A perikarya and varicosities containing the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)2 or the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) combined with synaptophysin (Syn) as a presynaptic marker...
July 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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