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Arousal Regulation

Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Samantha M Logan, Kenneth B Storey
Background: Inflammation is generally suppressed during hibernation, but select tissues (e.g. lung) have been shown to activate both antioxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, particularly during arousal from torpor when breathing rates increase and oxidative metabolism fueling the rewarming process produces more reactive oxygen species. Brown and white adipose tissues are now understood to be major hubs for the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, yet how these potentially damaging processes are regulated by fat tissues during hibernation has hardly been studied...
2018: PeerJ
Sarah E D Perzow, Bethany C Bray, Martha E Wadsworth
Parenting in the context of poverty is accompanied by heightened stress and heightened stakes. How parents respond to poverty-related stress has important implications for family functioning, but research investigating individual differences in low-income mothers' and fathers' responses to financial stress and their associations with parents' concurrent psychosocial adaptation is lacking. A better understanding of differences in stress responses among low-income parents is required to develop and tailor prevention programs that meet these families' needs...
June 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Kasia Kozlowska, Chris J Spooner, Donna M Palmer, Anthony Harris, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stephen Scher, Leanne M Williams
Objective: Children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) present with diverse neurological symptoms not explained by a disease process. Functional neurological symptoms have been conceptualized as somatoform dissociation, a disruption of the brain's intrinsic organization and reversion to a more primitive level of function. We used EEG to investigate neural function and functional brain organization in children/adolescents with FND. Method: EEG was recorded in the resting eyes-open condition in 57 patients (aged 8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
J A Giménez-Bastida, J M Laparra-Llopis, N Baczek, H Zielinski
Buckwheat (BW) constitutes a good source of bioactive components that show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The use of functional foods in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has aroused increasing interest. This study investigates the effect of in vitro digested BW and BW-enriched products (BW-enriched wheat breads, roasted BW groats -fermented and non-fermented-, and BW sprouts) on colon myofibroblasts, the cells involved in the regulation of inflammatory response in the intestine...
June 5, 2018: Food & Function
Ya-Xiong Yi, Yue Ding, Yong Zhang, Ning-Hui Ma, Feng Shi, Ping Kang, Zhen-Zhen Cai, Tong Zhang
Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD), a famous traditional Chinese formula, has been used for treating cholestasis for 1000s of years. The cholagogic effect of YCHD has been widely reported, but its pharmacodynamic material and underlying therapeutic mechanism remain unclear. By using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 11 original active components and eight phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of YCHD, including three new phase II metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tong Xiao, Cheri M Ackerman, Elizabeth C Carroll, Shang Jia, Adam Hoagland, Jefferson Chan, Bao Thai, Christine S Liu, Ehud Y Isacoff, Christopher J Chang
The unusually high demand for metals in the brain, along with insufficient understanding of how their dysregulation contributes to neurological diseases, motivates the study of how inorganic chemistry influences neural circuitry. We now report that the transition metal copper is essential for regulating rest-activity cycles and arousal. Copper imaging and gene expression analysis in zebrafish identifies the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system, a vertebrate-specific neuromodulatory circuit critical for regulating sleep, arousal, attention, memory and emotion, as a copper-enriched unit with high levels of copper transporters CTR1 and ATP7A and the copper enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) that produces NE...
June 4, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Martin J Kelly, Jian Qiu, Oline K Rønnekleiv
All of the canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) with the exception of TRPC 2 are expressed in hypothalamic neurons and are involved in multiple homeostatic functions. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to be coupled to TRPC channel activation in cortical and sub-cortical brain regions, in the hypothalamus multiple amine and peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor/cytokine receptors are linked to activation of TRPC channels that are vital for reproduction, temperature regulation, arousal and energy homeostasis...
May 31, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
BACKGROUND: The hypocretin/orexin system is involved in regulating arousal, and much recent work demonstrates that decreasing hypocretin receptor-1 (HCRTr1) activity using antagonists decreases appetitive behavior, including stimulant drug self-administration and reinstatement. METHODS: The present study determined the effects of hypocretin-1 and HCRTr1 antagonists on responding reinforced by intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration (0.0125 - 0.05 mg/kg/infusion) in 5 female rhesus monkeys...
May 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Mustafa al'Absi
Depression is an established predictor of adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. Less is known about cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of depression. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Patel et al. report data indicating that pre-existing hypertension may be associated with the atypical but not typical form of depression. We highlight here the strengths and limitations of the article and discuss the findings in light of research linking blood pressure and emotion regulation. In general, evidence suggests that higher blood pressure is associated with reduced expression of negative emotions and pain...
May 30, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Bolette Daniels Beck, Steen Teis Lund, Ulf Søgaard, Erik Simonsen, Thomas Christian Tellier, Torben Oluf Cordtz, Gunnar Hellmund Laier, Torben Moe
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of studies on psychological treatment of refugees describe highly varying outcomes, and research on multi-facetted and personalized treatment of refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is needed. Music therapy has been found to affect arousal regulation and emotional processing, and a pilot study on the music therapy method Trauma-focused Music and Imagery (TMI) with traumatized refugees resulted in significant changes of trauma symptoms, well-being and sleep quality...
May 30, 2018: Trials
Heather Wilson, Beniamino Giordano, Federico E Turkheimer, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Marios Politis
Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental studies suggest involvement of the serotonergic system in the regulation of sleep and arousal. Using [11 C]DASB positron emission tomography, a marker of serotonin transporter availability, we investigated whether sleep dysfunction is associated with serotonergic dysfunction in PD. Methods: We studied 14 PD patients with sleep dysfunction, 14 PD without sleep dysfunction, and 12 healthy controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sakiko Honjoh, Shuntaro Sasai, Shannon S Schiereck, Hirotaka Nagai, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
The "non-specific" ventromedial thalamic nucleus (VM) has long been considered a candidate for mediating cortical arousal due to its diffuse, superficial projections, but direct evidence was lacking. Here, we show in mice that the activity of VM calbindin1-positive matrix cells is high in wake and REM sleep and low in NREM sleep, and increases before cortical activity at the sleep-to-wake transition. Optogenetic stimulation of VM cells rapidly awoke all mice from NREM sleep and consistently caused EEG activation during slow wave anesthesia, while arousal did not occur from REM sleep...
May 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhixi Li, Xiaogeng Deng, Gang Wu, Ronglin Qiu, Xueming Ju, Youyu Wang, Jie Zhang
AIB1 was involved in the development and progression of breast cancer. Although it was found that AIB1 could be phosphorylated by some kinases including PI3K, the function of AIB1 and AKT interaction in breast cancer is not well defined. MCF-7 cells were transfected with pERE-Luc AKT and/or AIB1 plasmids, and then ERE luciferase activity in presence or absence of estrogen (E2) were measured. Plasmids containing PTEN and an PI3K inhibitor LY294002 were transfected into or treated cells to identify the interaction of PI3K/AKT and activation of AIB1, and examine their roles in cell cycle regulation...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Zoltán Molnár
I am presenting some personal accounts of my interactions with Ray Guillery during his time in Oxford, from 1988-1996 and then from 2000-2017. This essay provides specific examples of how my scientific interactions with Ray influenced my way of thinking about brain structure and function, how it helped me to develop my scientific rigour and stimulated ideas about thalamocortical development. I shall also review some of the key contributions that Ray Guillery made to the field of thalamocortical organization and interactions and how his insight is providing some guidelines for our work today...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shanshan Chen, Xinhuai Wu, Lubin Wang, Yituo Wang, Bing Wu, Mingmei Ge, Zhan Xu, B Douglas Ward, Shi-Jiang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Zheng Yang
Clinical patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) demonstrate distinct arousal-awareness dissociation; the neuropathological mechanisms underlying such dissociation remain poorly understood. Here, we systematically examined how functional connectivity from the brainstem areas regulating arousal to the cortical networks supporting internal and external awareness is disrupted in minimally conscious state (MCS) and VS/UWS patients. Resting-state functional imaging was conducted in 23 MCS patients, 31 VS/UWS patients, and 20 age-matched healthy individuals...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Li Xuan, Xiuli Wu, Dan Qiu, Li Gao, Hui Liu, Zhiping Fan, Fen Huang, Zhenyi Jin, Jing Sun, Yangqiu Li, Qifa Liu
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on T cells result in a low incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in G-CSF-mobilized allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (G-PBSCT). However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Regulatory γδ T cells (γδTregs), characterized by the presence of TCRγδ and Foxp3, have aroused great concern in the maintenance of immune tolerance. We hypothesized that γδTregs might involve in the immunomodulatory effects of G-CSF mobilization...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jacqueline S Leventon, Gabriela L Camacho, Maria D Ramos Rojas, Angelica Ruedas
Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies...
May 22, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Michael D Schwartz, Juan J Canales, Riccardo Zucchi, Stefano Espinoza, Ilya Sukhanov, Raul R Gainetdinov
The trace amines, endogenous amines closely related to the biogenic amine neurotransmitters, have been known to exert physiological and neurological effects for decades. The recent identification of a trace amine-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), and subsequent development of TAAR1-selective small-molecule ligands, has renewed research into the therapeutic possibilities of trace amine signaling. Areas covered. Recent efforts in elucidating the neuropharmacology of TAAR1, particularly in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease, addiction, and regulation of arousal state, will be discussed...
May 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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