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Arousal Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#1
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447304/self-report-and-brain-indicators-of-impaired-emotion-regulation-in-the-broad-autism-spectrum
#2
Kristel De Groot, Jan W Van Strien
Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the effect of one strategy, reappraisal. Reporting more autistic traits was related to using more maladaptive and fewer adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Across both groups, no attenuation of the late positive potential during downregulation of unpleasant pictures was found, possibly because of the used valence-changing reappraisal operationalisation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440877/bdnf-nt3-regulate-ais-location-and-affect-neuronal-excitability-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Yu Guo, Zi-Jun Su, Yi-Kun Chen, Zhen Chai
Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) has aroused great interest in recent years because it regulates action potential initiation and neuronal excitability. AIS plasticity manifests as modulation of ion channels or variation in AIS structure. However, the mechanisms underlying structural plasticity of the AIS are not well understood. Here, we combined immunofluorescence, patch-clamp recordings, and pharmacological methods in cultured hippocampal neurons to investigate the factors participating in AIS structural plasticity during development...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426970/thalamic-regulation-of-sucrose-seeking-during-unexpected-reward-omission
#4
Fabricio H Do-Monte, Angélica Minier-Toribio, Kelvin Quiñones-Laracuente, Estefanía M Medina-Colón, Gregory J Quirk
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421286/-listening-to-music-in-old-age-investigation-of-utilization-and-psychosocial-resources
#5
Thomas Schäfer, Jasmin Riedel
BACKGROUND: Studies with younger participants have shown that listening to music is used to achieve a multitude of positive effects that can be summarized by three fundamental dimensions: self-awareness, social relatedness and regulation of mood and arousal. For the elderly, these effects contain a high potential with respect to alleviation of affective symptoms and enhancement of social participation; however, it is still unclear if the elderly exhibit the same pattern of fundamental uses of listening to music as younger persons and how they evaluate their access to music in different housing situations...
April 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411274/posterior-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-pathways-to-the-amygdala-target-inhibitory-and-excitatory-systems-with-opposite-functions
#6
Basilis Zikopoulos, Malin Hoistad, Yohan John, Helen Barbas
The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys we found that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409438/emotional-intelligence-buffers-the-effect-of-physiological-arousal-on-dishonesty
#7
Andrea Pittarello, Beatrice Conte, Marta Caserotti, Sara Scrimin, Enrico Rubaltelli
We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a certain card when presented on the screen to avoid losing their money. We found that higher skin conductance corresponded to lower cheating rates. Importantly, emotional intelligence regulated this effect; participants with high emotional intelligence were less affected by their physiological reactions than those with low emotional intelligence...
April 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408300/%C3%AE-9-nachr-knockout-mice-exhibit-dysregulation-of-stress-responses-affect-and-reward-related-behaviour
#8
Sarasa A Mohammadi, Thomas J Burton, MacDonald J Christie
The α9α10-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has recently garnered interest in biomedicine and is being pursued as an analgesic target. However, the receptor exhibits diverse tissue distribution, the function of which is known to varying degrees, and targeting this receptor for clinical treatments without a broad understanding of its function may have adverse consequences. The α9α10-nAChR is expressed in the adrenal and pituitary glands, suggesting a potential role in the stress response, but little is known about its function in this tissue...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#9
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393646/-start-development-of-an-intervention-for-a-first-stabilization-and-arousal-modulation-for-highly-stressed-minor-refugees
#10
Andrea Dixius, Eva Möhler
START - Development of an Intervention for a First Stabilization and Arousal-modulation for Highly Stressed Minor Refugees This article focuses on the development of an intervention called "Stress-Traumasymptoms- Arousal-Regulation-Treatment" (START), through the process of working with refugeed minors in acute stress during the clearing process immediately on arrival in Germany. START is a short manualized structured intervention for crisis intervention and stabiliziation of children and adolescents suffering from intense stress and acute tension or desperation...
April 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391130/zebrafish-sleep-from-genezzz-to-neuronzzz
#11
REVIEW
Ida L Barlow, Jason Rihel
All animals have a fundamental and unavoidable requirement for rest, yet we still do not fully understand the processes that initiate, maintain, and regulate sleep. The larval zebrafish is an optically translucent, genetically tractable model organism that exhibits sleep states regulated by conserved sleep circuits, thereby offering a unique system for investigating the genetic and neural control of sleep. Recent studies using high throughput monitoring of larval sleep/wake behaviour have unearthed novel modulators involved in regulating arousal and have provided new mechanistic insights into the role of established sleep/wake modulators...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386207/activation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-increased-wakefulness-in-mice
#12
Huan-Xin Sun, Dian-Ru Wang, Chen-Bo Ye, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Chen-Yao Wang, Zhi-Li Huang, Su-Rong Yang
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is crucial for brain functions, such as voluntary movement and cognition; however, the role of VTA in sleep-wake regulation when directly activated or inhibited remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of activation or inhibition of VTA neurons on sleep-wake behavior using the pharmacogenetic "designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)" approach. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to confirm the microinjection sites, and combined with electrophysiological experiments, to determine whether the VTA neurons were activated or inhibited...
2017: Sleep and Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384477/rethinking-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-from-cellular-organization-to-function
#13
REVIEW
Juan Mena-Segovia, J Paul Bolam
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has long been considered an interface between the basal ganglia and motor systems, and its ability to regulate arousal states puts the PPN in a key position to modulate behavior. Despite the large amount of data obtained over recent decades, a unified theory of its function is still incomplete. By putting together classical concepts and new evidence that dissects the influence of its different neuronal subtypes on their various targets, we propose that the PPN and, in particular, cholinergic neurons have a central role in updating the behavioral state as a result of changes in environmental contingencies...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379355/neuromodulation-in-chemosensory-pathways
#14
Jeremy C McIntyre, Nicolas Thiebaud, John P McGann, Takaki Komiyama, Markus Rothermel
Interactions with the environment depend not only on sensory perception of external stimuli but also on processes of neuromodulation regulated by the internal state of an organism. These processes allow regulation of stimulus detection to match the demands of an organism influenced by its general brain state (satiety, wakefulness/sleep state, attentiveness, arousal, learning etc.). The sense of smell is initiated by sensory neurons located in the nasal cavity that recognize environmental odorants and project axons into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they form synapses with several types of neurons...
April 4, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367128/the-role-of-norepinephrine-and-its-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Vladimir Maletic, Anna Eramo, Keva Gwin, Steve J Offord, Ruth A Duffy
Norepinephrine (NE) is recognized as having a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia, although its distinct actions via α-adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are not well defined. We performed a systematic review examining the roles of NE and α-ARs in MDD and schizophrenia. PubMed and ProQuest database searches were performed to identify English language papers published between 2008 and 2015. In total, 2,427 publications (PubMed, n = 669; ProQuest, n = 1,758) were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360327/breathing-control-center-neurons-that-promote-arousal-in-mice
#17
Kevin Yackle, Lindsay A Schwarz, Kaiwen Kam, Jordan M Sorokin, John R Huguenard, Jack L Feldman, Liqun Luo, Mark A Krasnow
Slow, controlled breathing has been used for centuries to promote mental calming, and it is used clinically to suppress excessive arousal such as panic attacks. However, the physiological and neural basis of the relationship between breathing and higher-order brain activity is unknown. We found a neuronal subpopulation in the mouse preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the primary breathing rhythm generator, which regulates the balance between calm and arousal behaviors. Conditional, bilateral genetic ablation of the ~175 Cdh9/Dbx1 double-positive preBötC neurons in adult mice left breathing intact but increased calm behaviors and decreased time in aroused states...
March 31, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348522/lack-of-%C3%AE-2-ar-increases-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-rewarding-properties-of-cocaine
#18
Huiwen Zhu, Zhiyuan Liu, Yiming Zhou, Xuming Yin, Bo Xu, Lan Ma, Xing Liu
It is well known that β-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) play a critical role in emotional arousal and stressful events, but the specific contributions of the β2-AR subtype to the psychological disorders are largely unknown. To investigate whether β2-AR are involved in anxiety-like behavior and reward to addictive drugs, we conducted a series of behavioral tests on β2-AR knock-out (KO) mice. β2-AR KO mice exhibited increased preference for the dark compartment and closed arm in tests of Light/Dark box and elevated plus maze, indicating that β2-AR deletion elevates level of anxiety or innate fear...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348515/transcriptome-analysis-of-hypothalamic-gene-expression-during-daily-torpor-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#19
Ceyda Cubuk, Julia Kemmling, Andrej Fabrizius, Annika Herwig
Animals living at high or temperate latitudes are challenged by extensive changes in environmental conditions over seasons. Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) are able to cope with extremely cold ambient temperatures and food scarcity in winter by expressing spontaneous daily torpor. Daily torpor is a circadian controlled voluntary reduction of metabolism that can reduce energy expenditure by up to 65% when used frequently. In the past decades it has become more and more apparent, that the hypothalamus is likely to play a key role in regulating induction and maintenance of daily torpor, but the molecular signals, which lead to the initiation of daily torpor, are still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345662/brain-arousal-regulation-as-response-predictor-for-antidepressant-therapy-in-major-depression
#20
Frank M Schmidt, Christian Sander, Marie-Elisa Dietz, Claudia Nowak, Thomas Schröder, Roland Mergl, Peter Schönknecht, Hubertus Himmerich, Ulrich Hegerl
A tonically high level of brain arousal and its hyperstable regulation is supposed to be a pathogenic factor in major depression. Preclinical studies indicate that most antidepressants may counteract this dysregulation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that responders to antidepressants show a) a high level of EEG-vigilance (an indicator of brain arousal) and b) a more stable EEG-vigilance regulation than non-responders. In 65 unmedicated depressed patients 15-min resting-state EEGs were recorded off medication (baseline)...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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