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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933662/evidence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-proliferation-and-migration-in-canaliculi-of-live-cortical-bone-in-murine-models-of-osteomyelitis
#1
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ryan Trombetta, Kohei Nishitani, Sheila N Bello-Irizarry, Mark Ninomiya, Longze Zhang, Hung Li Chung, James L McGrath, John L Daiss, Hani A Awad, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz
While Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is considered to be incurable, the major bacterial reservoir in live cortical bone has remained unknown. In addition to biofilm bacteria on necrotic tissue and implants, studies have implicated intracellular infection of osteoblasts and osteocytes as a mechanism of chronic osteomyelitis. Thus, we performed the first systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies to formally define major reservoirs of S. aureus in chronically infected mouse (Balb/c J) long bone tissue...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933539/systems-genetics-analysis-of-iron-and-its-regulation-in-brain-and-periphery
#2
Byron C Jones, Leslie C Jellen
In this contribution, we demonstrate the utility of the systems genetics-systems biology approach to the study of iron regulation while employing a comprehensive database. We describe our work in iron regulation in the brain and periphery under normal iron and iron-restricted dietary conditions in the BXD family of recombinant inbred mouse strains. Using multiple measures, we showed wide variation among the strains in the effect of being fed an iron-restricted diet for 100 days in every measure from brain and from the periphery...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933523/integrative-functional-genomics-for-systems-genetics-in-geneweaver-org
#3
Jason A Bubier, Michael A Langston, Erich J Baker, Elissa J Chesler
The abundance of existing functional genomics studies permits an integrative approach to interpreting and resolving the results of diverse systems genetics studies. However, a major challenge lies in assembling and harmonizing heterogeneous data sets across species for facile comparison to the positional candidate genes and coexpression networks that come from systems genetic studies. GeneWeaver is an online database and suite of tools at www.geneweaver.org that allows for fast aggregation and analysis of gene set-centric data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933213/molecular-pathology-of-cancer-how-to-communicate-with-disease
#4
REVIEW
Peter Birner, Gerald Prager, Berthold Streubel
: Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933057/glutamine-induced-secretion-of-intestinal-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-a-mechanistic-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Wenkai Ren, Kai Wang, Jie Yin, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Bie Tan, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is one important line of defense in the intestinal mucosal surface to protect the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple factors, such as intestinal microbiota, intestinal cytokines, and nutrients are highly involved in production of SIgA in the intestine. Recently, glutamine has been shown to affect intestinal SIgA production; however, the underlying mechanism by which glutamine stimulates secretion of intestinal SIgA is unknown. Here, we review current knowledge regarding glutamine in intestinal immunity and show that glutamine-enhanced secretion of SIgA in the intestine may involve intestinal microbiota, intestinal antigen sampling and presentation, induction pathways for SIgA production by plasma cells (both T-dependent and T-independent pathway), and even transport of SIgA...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933037/blad-containing-oligomer-fungicidal-activity-on-human-pathogenic-yeasts-from-the-outside-to-the-inside-of-the-target-cell
#6
Ana M Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Filipe Rollo, Rui Fernandes, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara A Monteiro
Blad polypeptide comprises residues 109-281 of Lupinus albus β-conglutin precursor. It occurs naturally as a major subunit of an edible, 210 kDa oligomer which accumulates to high levels, exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus seedlings between the 4th and 14th day after the onset of germination. Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) exhibits a potent and broad spectrum fungicide activity toward plant pathogens and is now on sale in the US under the tradename Fracture(TM). In this work we demonstrate its antifungal activity toward human pathogens and provide some insights on its mode of action...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933015/high-entrepreneurship-leadership-and-professionalism-help-toward-an-integrated-empirically-based-perspective
#7
Annamaria Di Fabio, Ornella Bucci, Alessio Gori
This article evaluates the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing the constructs of entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism, from an integrated point of view, the High Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Professionalism Questionnaire (HELP-Q). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a factor structure with three principal dimensions, and confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit indices indicated a good fit of the model to the data. All the dimensions showed good values of internal consistency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932700/predictors-of-enteral-tube-feeding-in-hospitalized-older-adults
#9
Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte, Thiago Junqueira Avelino-Silva, Daniel Apolinario, Jose Antonio Esper Curiati, Flavia Campora, Wilson Jacob-Filho
BACKGROUND: Despite general recognition that enteral tube feeding (ETF) is frequently employed in long-term care facilities and patients with dementia, remarkably little research has determined which factors are associated with its use in acutely ill older adults. In this study, we aimed to investigate determinants of ETF introduction in hospitalized older adults. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of acutely ill patients, aged 60 years and older, admitted to a university hospital's geriatric ward from 2014-2015, in São Paulo, Brazil...
December 8, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932607/randomized-open-label-phase-1-2a-study-to-determine-the-maximum-tolerated-dose-of-intraventricular-sustained-release-nimodipine-for-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-newton-nimodipine-microparticles-to-enhance-recovery-while-reducing-toxicity-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#10
Daniel Hänggi, Nima Etminan, Francois Aldrich, Hans Jakob Steiger, Stephan A Mayer, Michael N Diringer, Brian L Hoh, J Mocco, Herbert J Faleck, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 1/2a, dose-escalation study of intraventricular sustained-release nimodipine (EG-1962) to determine safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical effects in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Subjects with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage repaired by clipping or coiling were randomized to EG-1962 or enteral nimodipine. Subjects were World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 2 to 4 and had an external ventricular drain...
December 8, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932568/targeting-hif2-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Hyejin Cho, William G Kaelin
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor protein (pVHL) is the signature "truncal" event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of kidney cancer. pVHL is part of a ubiquitin ligase the targets the α subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for destruction when oxygen is available. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that deregulation of HIF, and particularly HIF2, drives pVHL-defective renal carcinogenesis. Although HIF2α was classically considered undruggable, structural and chemical work by Rick Bruick and Kevin Gardner at University of Texas Southwestern laid the foundation for the development of small molecule direct HIF2α antagonists (PT2385 and the related tool compound PT2399) by Peloton Therapeutics that block the dimerization of HIF2α with its partner protein ARNT1...
December 8, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932387/the-long-non-coding-rna-transcriptome-of-dictyostelium-discoideum-development
#12
Rafael D Rosengarten, Balaji Santhanam, Janez Kokosar, Gad Shaulsky
Dictyostelium discoideum live in the soil as single cells, engulfing bacteria and growing vegetatively. Upon starvation, tens of thousands of amoebae enter a developmental program that includes aggregation, multicellular differentiation, and sporulation. Major shifts across the protein-coding transcriptome accompany these developmental changes. However, no study has presented a global survey of long non-coding RNAs in D. discoideum To characterize the antisense and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcriptome, we analyzed previously published developmental time course samples using an RNA-sequencing library preparation method that selectively depletes ribosomal RNAs...
December 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932219/the-effects-of-long-term-management-on-patterns-of-carbon-storage-in-a-northern-highbush-blueberry-production-system
#13
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932206/detailed-analysis-of-balb-c-mice-challenged-with-wild-type-rotavirus-edim-provide-an-alternative-for-infection-model-of-rotavirus
#14
Jialiang Du, Zhiling Lan, Yueyue Liu, Yan Liu, Yanchao Li, Xiangming Li, Tai Guo
Mouse is one of the infection animal models for rotavirus. Since the optimal age of mouse sensitive to rotavirus infection thus far has not been unified, we elucidated clinical symptoms, immune responses and pathological changes of mice in different ages after challenged by murine rotavirus wild strain EDIM (Epidemic Diarrhea of Infant Mice) to provide data for the estimation. One-week-old, two-week-old, and three-week-old BALB/c mice were inoculated with EDIM in the challenge dose of 235 ID50, 470 ID50 and 705 ID50 respectively and were compared to mock-infected controls...
December 5, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932185/inferior-vena-cava-duodenal-drainage-in-pancreas-alone-transplantation-for-chronic-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#15
B H Choi, Y M Park, K H Yang, C W Chu, J H Ryu
Enteric drainage has been the main trend in solitary pancreas transplantation. Compared with bladder drainage, it does not cause metabolic or urologic complications, but there is no way to perform immunologic monitoring, except by graft pancreas biopsy. Additionally, although portal drainage of the graft vein is considered physiological drainage, it has more of a risk for surgical complications. To overcome these disadvantages, we successfully performed inferior vena cava (IVC)-duodenal drainage in pancreas alone transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931838/routine-use-of-gene-panel-testing-in-hereditary-breast-cancer-should-be-performed-with-caution
#16
REVIEW
Cedric van Marcke, Anne De Leener, Martine Berlière, Miikka Vikkula, Francois P Duhoux
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer occurring in women. Ten percent of these cancers are considered hereditary. Among them, 30% are attributed to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes of lower penetrance are also known, explaining together up to 40% of the hereditary risk of breast cancer. New techniques, such as next-generation sequencing, allow the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a cost-effective way. As a logical consequence, gene panel testing is entering clinical practice with the promise of personalized care...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931751/phase-ii-study-of-irinotecan-in-combination-with-bevacizumab-in-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#17
Fernanda Musa, Bhavana Pothuri, Stephanie V Blank, Huichung T Ling, James L Speyer, John Curtin, Leslie Boyd, Xiaochun Li, Judith D Goldberg, Franco Muggia, Amy Tiersten
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of irinotecan and bevacizumab in recurrent ovarian cancer. The primary objective was to estimate the progression free survival (PFS) rate at 6months. Secondary objectives included estimation of overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), duration of response, and an evaluation of toxicity. METHODS: Recurrent ovarian cancer patients with no limit on prior treatments were eligible. Irinotecan 250mg/m2 (amended to 175mg/m2 after toxicity assessment in first 6 patients) and bevacizumab 15mg/kg were administered every 3weeks until progression or toxicity...
December 5, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931677/assuming-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-mycobacterial-infection
#18
REVIEW
Rikesh K Dubey
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) affecting millions of people worldwide. Mycobacterium species enter host macrophages during infection and target various cellular organelles and their function for their own benefit. Mitochondria appear to be among the important targets for bacterial pathogens. Mtb and other pathogenic bacteria secrete various proteins that initiate structural changes in mitochondria to modulate its function. Additionally, virulent mycobacteria interfere with the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors to inhibit apoptosis and, in later stages, promote necrosis...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931638/complications-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-endoscopic-ultrasound
#19
REVIEW
Sundeep Lakhtakia
Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) provides the unique opportunity to visualize, interrogate and intervene gastrointestinal (GI) luminal, mural or peri-luminal structures and pathology with negligible adverse effects. Diagnostic, upper GI and rectal EUS is feasible, extremely safe, and efficacious. Most EUS guided interventions are safe, effective and minimally invasive, compared to peers in the percutaneous radiological or surgical procedures. As with any endoscopic procedure, EUS and its guided interventions may be accompanied by adverse events...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931635/complications-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#20
REVIEW
Tomas Hucl, Julius Spicak
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has become the method of choice for mid-to long-term enteral feeding. The majority of complications that occur are minor, but the rare major complications may be life threatening. Some complications occur soon after tube placement, others develop later, when the gastrostomy tract has matured. Older patients with comorbidities and infections appear to be at a greater risk of developing complications. Apart from being aware of indications and contraindications, proper technique of PEG placement, including correct positioning of the external fixation device, and daily tube care are important preventive measures...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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