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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214862/differential-clonal-expansion-in-an-invading-cell-population-clonal-advantage-or-dumb-luck
#1
Donald F Newgreen, Dongcheng Zhang, Bevan L Cheeseman, Benjamin J Binder, Kerry A Landman
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling and clonal labelling experiments applied to the developmental model system of the forming enteric nervous system, we describe how cells which are qualitatively identical may consistently produce clones of dramatically different sizes: most clones are very small while a few clones we term "superstars" contribute most of the cells to the final population...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214724/where-biomedicalisation-and-magic-meet-therapeutic-innovations-of-elite-sports-injury-in-british-professional-football-and-cycling
#2
Alex Faulkner, Michael McNamee, Catherine Coveney, Jonathan Gabe
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies...
February 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214722/when-high-pressure-system-constraints-and-a-social-justice-mission-collide-a-socio-structural-analysis-of-emergency-department-social-work-services
#3
Megan Moore, Margaret Cristofalo, Danae Dotolo, Nicole Torres, Alexandra Lahdya, Leyna Ho, Mia Vogel, Mollie Forrester, Bonnie Conley, Susan Fouts
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10)...
February 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214665/when-are-night-shifts-effective-for-nursing-student-clinical-learning-findings-from-a-mixed-method-study-design
#4
Alvisa Palese, Felix Basso, Elena Del Negro, Illarj Achil, Annamaria Ferraresi, Marzia Morandini, Renzo Moreale, Irene Mansutti
BACKGROUND: Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. OBJECTIVES: The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. DESIGN: An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015...
February 11, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214663/the-care-of-and-communication-with-older-people-from-the-perspective-of-student-nurses-a-mixed-method-study
#5
Lena Marmstål Hammar, Inger K Holmström, Karin Skoglund, Martina Summer Meranius, Annelie J Sundler
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nurse education needs to prepare student nurses to meet the demands and to have the necessary communication skills for caring for an increasing older population. The challenges involve how best to support and empower student nurses to learn the communication skills needed to care for older people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate student nurses' views on the care of and communication with older people. DESIGN: A descriptive study with a mixed-method approach was conducted...
February 8, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214623/rheology-and-microstructure-of-aqueous-suspensions-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-rods
#6
Yuan Xu, Aleks D Atrens, Jason R Stokes
HYPOTHESIS: Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a negatively charged rod-like colloid obtained from the hydrolysis of plant material. It is thus expected that NCC suspensions display a rich set of phase behaviour with salt and pH because of its anisotropic shape and electrical double layer that gives rise to liquid crystallinity and self-assembly respectively. It should thus be possible to tune the rheological properties of NCC suspensions for a wide variety of end-use applications. EXPERIMENTS: Rheology and structural analysis techniques are used to characterise surface-sulphated NCC suspensions as a function of pH, salinity (NaCl) and NCC concentration...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214498/vasculitic-and-autoimmune-wounds
#7
REVIEW
Victoria K Shanmugam, Divya Angra, Hamza Rahimi, Sean McNish
OBJECTIVE: Chronic wounds are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Approximately 20% to 23% of nonhealing wounds that are refractory to vascular intervention have other causes, including vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and other autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this article was to review the literature across medical and surgical specialties with regard to refractory chronic wounds associated with vasculitis and autoimmune diseases and to delineate clinical outcomes of these wounds in response to vascular and other interventions...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214473/pacific-island-health-inequities-forecast-to-grow-unless-profound-changes-are-made-to-health-systems-in-the-region
#8
Don Matheson, Kunhee Park, Taniela Sunia Soakai
Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals.Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members...
February 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214468/difficulties-experienced-by-veterinarians-when-communicating-about-emerging-zoonotic-risks-with-animal-owners-the-case-of-hendra-virus
#9
Diana H Mendez, Petra Büttner, Jenny Kelly, Madeleine Nowak, Rick Speare Posthumously
BACKGROUND: Communication skills are essential for veterinarians who need to discuss animal health related matters with their clients. When dealing with an emerging zoonosis, such as Hendra virus (HeV), veterinarians also have a legal responsibility to inform their clients about the associated risks to human health. Here we report on part of a mixed methods study that examined the preparedness of, and difficulties experienced by, veterinarians communicating about HeV-related risks with their clients...
February 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214431/simulation-in-undergraduate-paediatric-nursing-curriculum-evaluation-of-a-complex-ward-for-a-day-education-program
#10
Andree S Gamble
Simulation in health education has been shown to increase confidence, psychomotor and professional skills, and thus positively impact on student preparedness for clinical placement. It is recognised as a valuable tool to expose and engage students in realistic patient care encounters without the potential to cause patient harm. Although inherent challenges exist in the development and implementation of simulation, variability in clinical placement time, availability and quality dictates the need to provide students with learning opportunities they may otherwise not experience...
February 4, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214430/development-of-evidence-based-practice-in-academic-service-partnerships-experiences-of-working-life-representatives-from-social-and-health-care-sectors
#11
Hanna-Leena Melender
Learning about how to develop and lead the implementation of evidence based practice (EBP) in services is an important part of the education of developers and managers for the social and health care sectors. In order to develop this teaching and to support the development of EBP in services, a Teaching Development Effort (TDE) was conducted by establishing academic service partnerships (ASPs) and connecting Master's students' assignments with them. The TDE was conducted as a part of a larger project whose main aims were to strengthen, develop and renew transfers of knowledge and competence between higher education institutions and workplaces, and to strive for a more multidisciplinary quality in workplace innovations...
February 9, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214370/the-effect-of-pre-operative-submucosal-administration-of-tramadol-on-the-success-rate-of-inferior-alveolar-nerve-blocks-on-mandibular-molars-with-acute-irreversible-pulpitis-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#12
A De Pedro-Muñoz, J Mena-Álvarez
AIM: This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, clinical trial was designed to improve the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) by means of pre-operative submucosal administration of 50mg tramadol. METHODOLOGY: Forty-two patients with a mandibular molar diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis took part in the trial. Patients were assigned randomly to one of two groups: tramadol group (n=21), who received 50mg tramadol in 1mL by mandibular infiltration, and a placebo group (n=21), who received 1 mL of normal saline administered to the affected tooth by the same means...
February 18, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214219/perpetuating-stigma-or-reducing-risk-perspectives-from-naloxone-consumers-and-pharmacists-on-pharmacy-based-naloxone-in-2-states
#13
Traci C Green, Patricia Case, Haley Fiske, Janette Baird, Shachan Cabral, Dina Burstein, Victoriana Schwartz, Nathan Potter, Alexander Y Walley, Jeffrey Bratberg
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about attitudes of pharmacists and consumers to pharmacy naloxone. We examined perceptions and experiences of pharmacy naloxone from people with opioid use disorder, patients taking chronic opioids for pain, caregivers of opioid users, and pharmacists from 2 early pharmacy naloxone adopter states: Massachusetts and Rhode Island. DESIGN: Eight focus groups (4 per state) were held in October to December 2015. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were recruited from pharmacies, health clinics, and community organizations; pharmacists were recruited from professional organizations and pharmacy colleges...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214175/the-traumatic-experience-of-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Rebecca Rodrigues, Kelly K Anderson
INTRODUCTION: A psychotic episode may be sufficiently traumatic to induce symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which could impact outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in relation to psychosis in FEP and to identify risk factors for the development of PTSD symptoms. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and conducted manual searching of reference lists and tables of contents to identify relevant studies...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214043/-i-just-want-to-be-normal-a-qualitative-study-of-pregnant-women-s-blogs-who-present-themselves-as-overweight-or-obese
#15
Lovisa Lingetun, Madicken Fungbrant, Ing-Marie Claesson, Christina Baggens
OBJECTIVE: to describe what pregnant women who present themselves as overweight or obese write about their pregnancy in their blogs. SETTING: Swedish private blogs. DESIGN: a qualitative study, using 13 Internet blogs as the source of data. Google was used to find the blogs. The blog content was analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: three main themes were identified: Pregnancy as an excuse, Perspectives on the pregnant body and Becoming a mother...
January 31, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213947/select-noxious-stimuli-induce-changes-on-corneal-nerve-morphology
#16
Deborah M Hegarty, Sam M Hermes, Katherine Yang, Sue A Aicher
The surface of the cornea contains the highest density of nociceptive nerves of any tissue in the body. These nerves are responsive to a variety of modalities of noxious stimuli and can signal pain even when activated by low threshold stimulation. Injury of corneal nerves can lead to altered nerve morphology, including neuropathic changes which can be associated with chronic pain. Emerging technologies that allow imaging of corneal nerves in vivo are spawning questions regarding the relationship between corneal nerve density, morphology and function...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213928/problem-solving-phase-transitions-during-team-collaboration
#17
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Stephen M Fiore
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes...
February 18, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213923/diagnostic-accuracy-of-charcot-s-triad-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Steva Rumsey, Joel Winders, Andrew D MacCormick
BACKGROUND: Charcot's triad is a well-established diagnostic tool for acute cholangitis (AC). It has been recognized as an inaccurate test in clinical practice; however, its exact sensitivity and specificity remain unclear. This knowledge is key to informing the value of its continued clinical application. The objectives of this study are to calculate an estimate of the sensitivity and specificity of Charcot's triad based on published research and consider its applicability to clinical practice and medical education...
February 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213832/dynamic-fluorescence-microscopy-of-cellular-uptake-of-intercalating-model-drugs-by-ultrasound-activated-microbubbles
#19
B H A Lammertink, R Deckers, M Derieppe, I De Cock, I Lentacker, G Storm, C T W Moonen, C Bos
PURPOSE: The combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can facilitate cellular uptake of (model) drugs via transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. By using fluorescent molecules, this process can be studied conveniently with confocal fluorescence microscopy. This study aimed to investigate the relation between cellular uptake and fluorescence intensity increase of intercalating model drugs. PROCEDURES: SYTOX Green, an intercalating fluorescent dye that displays >500-fold fluorescence enhancement upon binding to nucleic acids, was used as a model drug for ultrasound-induced cellular uptake...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213797/long-term-outcomes-of-tot-and-tvt-procedures-for-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Enrico Finazzi Agrò, Marco Soligo, Vincenzo Li Marzi, Alex Digesu, Maurizio Serati
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESES: One of the most relevant topics in the field of pelvic floor dysfunction treatment is the long-term efficacy of surgical procedures, in particular, the use of prosthesis. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of midurethral sling (MUS) procedures for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies. METHODS: This systematic review is based on material searched and obtained via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library between January 2000 and October 2016...
February 17, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
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