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Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Hylke F E van der Toom, Marc P van der Schroeff, Robert Jan Pauw
Importance: The ideal surgical treatment of cholesteatoma has been subject to discussion for years because both traditional surgical techniques (canal wall down [CWD] and canal wall up [CWU] tympanoplasty) have their own advantages and disadvantages. A more recently propagated surgical approach, to combine the CWD or CWU tympanoplasty technique with obliteration of the mastoid and epitympanum, is showing promising results. Objective: To systematically review the literature on recurrent and residual cholesteatoma rates after single-stage CWU and CWD tympanoplasty with mastoid obliteration...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Blom, Lucie Laflamme, Helle Mölsted Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation...
2018: PloS One
Nils Große Hokamp, Alexandra Hellerbach, Andreas Gierich, David W Jordan, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, David Maintz, Stefan Haneder
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of artifacts from deep brain stimulation electrodes (DBS) using an iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm (O-MAR), virtual monoenergetic images (VMI), and both in combination in postoperative spectral detector computed tomography using a dual-layer detector (spectral detector computed tomography [SDCT]) of the head. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nonanthropomorphic phantoms with different DBS leads were examined on SDCT; in 1 phantom periprocedural bleeding was simulated...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Kenzie A Cameron, Elaine R Cohen, Joelle R Hertz, Diane B Wayne, Debi Mitra, Jeffrey H Barsuk
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. METHODS: Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Jennifer S Dunkle
This qualitative study examined: 1) What older lesbians and gay men know about OAA-funded services; 2) attitudes towards the services; 3) experiences utilizing the services; 4) how current needs are met; and 5) plans for care as they age. Focus groups were conducted from June-August 2016. Purposive and snowball sampling yielded a sample size of 31. Five focus groups were conducted, and analysis used Grounded Theory. Four themes emerged: 1) low expectations of a welcoming environment, 2) the importance of being out, 3) need for LGBT-specific services, and 4) how to create inclusive services...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Brandon Jf Gheller, Phillip Joy, Daphne Lordly
PURPOSE: In Canada, dietitians serve a sex-diverse population despite the profession being predominately female (>95%). It is unknown why there are so few male dietitians. The objective of the present study was to explore the experience of the male dietitian, as a minority, in female-dominated dietetics. METHODS: Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, approximately 6 weeks apart, with Nova Scotian male dietitians. The interviews prompted participants to reflect on their experience of being a male dietitian...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Alessandro Bosco, Justine Schneider, Donna Maria Coleston-Shields, Lidia Sousa, Martin Orrell
OBJECTIVES: Good interaction with family caregivers helps maintain positive identity in people with dementia. However, research in this area is limited. We aimed to systematically review the dyadic experience of dementia caring. METHOD: We searched on five databases: MedLine, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, and CINAHL. Eligible studies employed qualitative or mixed method design, reported the experience of dyads of dementia with no comorbid organic or psychiatric disorders...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Farah Averill, Thomas G Brown, Robyn D Robertson, Angeline Tchomgang, Djamal Berbiche, Louise Nadeau, Marie Claude Ouimet
OBJECTIVES: In a pilot randomised controlled trial of contingency management (CM) and transdermal alcohol monitoring (TAM) with driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders, perceptions regarding the acceptability of a TAM device, recruitment issues, and the impact of CM and TAM on alcohol use over a six-week period were evaluated. The results aimed to inform the design of future trials and programs involving CM and TAM for DWI remediation. METHODS: TAM devices were affixed to 37 voluntary, community-recruited male DWI offenders with problem alcohol use...
March 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Julie A Cohen, Anusha Kassan
This qualitative study explored the cultural identity negotiation of young adult immigrants. Using a grounded theory research design, 10 semistructured interviews were conducted with emerging adult immigrants (EAI), ages 19-27. Results yielded a substantive model of cultural identity negotiation (MCIN) for EAI and posited that One's Motivation and Sense of Agency to Negotiate Cultural Identity is at the core of how participants navigate their cultural identities. This model included 6 major categories: (a) Family Cultural Rigidity ; (b) Connections Specific to Canada ; (c) Connection to a Same Cultured Community ; (d) Sense of Permanency ; (e) Desire to Preserve Culture of Origin ; (f) Desire to Fit in to Canadian Culture , as well as 2 overarching factors ( Dimension of Time and Dimension of Age ), which were found to be influential on participants' cultural identity negotiation...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Michal Holcapek, Gerhard Liebisch, Kim Ekroos
The state-of-art in the lipidomic analysis is summarized here to provide the overview of available sample preparation strategies, mass spectrometry (MS) based methods for the qualitative analysis of lipids, and the quantitative MS approaches for high-throughput clinical workflows. Major challenges in terms of widely accepted best practices for lipidomic analysis, nomenclature, and standards for data reporting are discussed as well.
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jeffrey T Sakamoto, Heather Burrell Ward, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Stephanie A Eucker
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common complaint in the Emergency Department (ED). Its management currently depends heavily on pharmacologic treatment, but evidence suggests non-pharmacologic interventions may be beneficial. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether non-pharmacologic interventions in the ED are effective in reducing pain. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on all types of non-pharmacologic interventions in the ED with pain reduction as an outcome...
March 15, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
V A Shaimova, T B Shaimov, R B Shaimov, A Yu Galin, Zh A Goloshchapova, P K Ryzhkov, A V Fomin
PURPOSE: To develop methods for evaluating effectiveness of YAG-laser vitreolysis of vitreous floaters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 144 patients (173 eyes) who had underwent YAG-laser vitreolysis and were under observation from 01.09.16 to 31.01.18. The patients were 34 to 86 years old (mean age 62.7±10.2 years), 28 (19.4%) patients were male, 116 (80.6%) - female. All patients underwent standard and additional examination: ultrasonography (Accutome B-scan plus, U...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Takumi Hamasaki, Yuta Itoh, Yuichi Hiroi, Daisuke Iwai, Maki Sugimoto
Spatial augmented reality (SAR) pursues realism in rendering materials and objects. To advance this goal, we propose a hybrid SAR (HySAR) that combines a projector with optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). In an ordinary SAR scenario with co-located viewers, the viewers perceive the same virtual material on physical surfaces. In general, the material consists of two components: a view-independent (VI) component such as diffuse reflection, and a view-dependent (VD) component such as specular reflection...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Li Guan, Kathy J Simpson
The upper trunk - pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of our study are to (a) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk - pelvis axial rotation coordination; (b) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm as well as some further issues to consider. Twenty healthy young adults were tested under three treadmill running speeds using a 3D motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
H Le Jeannic, A Cavaillès, K Huang, R Filip, J Laurat
Non-Gaussian states, and specifically the paradigmatic cat state, are well known to be very sensitive to losses. When propagating through damping channels, these states quickly lose their nonclassical features and the associated negative oscillations of their Wigner function. However, by squeezing the superposition states, the decoherence process can be qualitatively changed and substantially slowed down. Here, as a first example, we experimentally observe the reduced decoherence of squeezed optical coherent-state superpositions through a lossy channel...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jean David Wurtz, Chiu Fan Lee
Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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