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Cardiac physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786656/temperature-effects-on-force-and-actin%C3%A2-myosin-interaction-in-muscle-a-look-back-on-some-experimental-findings
#1
REVIEW
K W Ranatunga
Observations made in temperature studies on mammalian muscle during force development, shortening, and lengthening, are re-examined. The isometric force in active muscle goes up substantially on warming from less than 10 °C to temperatures closer to physiological (>30 °C), and the sigmoidal temperature dependence of this force has a half-maximum at ~10 °C. During steady shortening, when force is decreased to a steady level, the sigmoidal curve is more pronounced and shifted to higher temperatures, whereas, in lengthening muscle, the curve is shifted to lower temperatures, and there is a less marked increase with temperature...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785884/morphological-changes-and-myocardial-function-assessed-by-traditional-and-novel-echocardiographic-methods-in-preadolescent-athlete-s-heart
#2
Anders W Bjerring, Hege Ew Landgraff, Svein Leirstein, Anette Aaeng, Hamza Z Ansari, Jørg Saberniak, Klaus Murbræch, Henrik Bruun, Thomas M Stokke, Kristina H Haugaa, Jostein Hallén, Thor Edvardsen, Sebastian I Sarvari
Background Athlete's heart is a term used to describe the morphological and functional changes in the hearts of athletes. Recent studies suggest that these changes may occur even in preadolescent athletes. This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes occurring in the preadolescent athlete's heart. Design and methods Cardiac morphology and function in 76 preadolescent cross-country skiers (aged 12.1 ± 0.2 years) were compared with 25 age-matched non-competing preadolescents. Echocardiography was performed in all subjects, including 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and 3D echocardiography...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782639/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-and-the-value-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#3
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Flora Bacopoulou, Despoina Apostolaki, George P Chrousos
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the non-traumatic death, due to loss of heart function that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly within 6 hours of a previously normal state of health. It is related to intense competitive sports promoting ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the presence of underlying abnormal substrate. A serial evaluation of cardiac physiologic changes taking place during training will allow the better understanding of athlete's heart and will facilitate its discrimination from other gray-zone cardiomyopathies...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781990/fetal-mouse-cardiovascular-imaging-using-a-high-frequency-ultrasound-30-45mhz-system
#4
Marlin Touma
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. Prenatal detection of the underlying molecular mechanisms of CHDs is crucial for inventing new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Mutant mouse models are powerful tools to discover new mechanisms and environmental stress modifiers that drive cardiac development and their potential alteration in CHDs. However, efforts to establish the causality of these putative contributors have been limited to histological and molecular studies in non-survival animal experiments, in which monitoring the key physiological and hemodynamic parameters is often absent...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781527/the-role-of-dichloroacetate-in-improving-acute-hypoxic-tolerance-and-cardiac-function-translation-to-failing-hearts
#5
Da Hye Kim, Shelly Chauhan
Cardiac metabolism depends on a high rate of ATP production to maintain its myocardial pump function. Under physiological conditions, more than 70% of ATP generated in the heart is derived from beta oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in the mitochondria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780726/operative-techniques-for-improving-surgical-exposure-in-basic-cardiac-surgery
#6
Dawn S Hui, Jason M Lizalek, Vikram S Chawa, Richard Lee
Operative exposure is key to ensuring surgical efficiency and patient safety in cardiac surgery. As the population ages and the prevalence of obesity increases, cardiac surgeons will be challenged to consider obese patient physiology and body habitus, surgical exposure and sternotomy closure techniques, and postoperative medical management to ensure optimal outcomes. In this article, we describe techniques to improve operative exposure in both obese and non-obese patients undergoing basic cardiac surgery and highlight the roles of surgical team members to ensure patient safety and provide optimal anesthetic management...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777477/cardiac-and-gait-rhythms-in-healthy-younger-and-older-adults-during-treadmill-walking-tasks
#7
Matthew W Wittstein, Joseph M Starobin, Randy J Schmitz, Sandra J Shulz, Francis Jay Haran, Christopher K Rhea
BACKGROUND: Aging and pathology result in changes in the dynamics of several physiological subsystems. Often, these changes are concurrent, altering the dynamics between subsystems. Cardiac and gait rhythms are one example in which patterns change during physical activity. AIMS: The purpose of this research is to simultaneously monitor changes in cardiac and gait rhythms when participants complete various treadmill walking tasks-normal speed, fast speed, and while synchronizing steps with a blinking metronome...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776810/congenital-heart-disease-in-adults-assessmentof-functional-capacity-using-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#8
Sílvia Aguiar Rosa, Ana Agapito, Rui M Soares, Lídia Sousa, José Alberto Oliveira, Ana Abreu, Ana Sofia Silva, Sandra Alves, Helena Aidos, Fátima F Pinto, Rui Cruz Ferreira
AIM: The aim of the study was to compare functional capacity in different types of congenital heart disease (CHD), as assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients with CHD who had undergone CPET in a single tertiary center. Diagnoses were divided into repaired tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) after Senning or Mustard procedures or congenitally corrected TGA, complex defects, shunts, left heart valve disease and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction...
May 15, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776561/circulating-micrornas-as-emerging-cardiac-biomarkers-responsive-to-acute-exercise
#9
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Alberto Dávalos, Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, Laura Amado-Rodríguez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Cristina Tomás-Zapico, Ana Montero, Ángela García-González, Vicenta Llorente-Cortés, Maria Eugenia Heras, Araceli Boraita Pérez, Ángel E Díaz-Martínez, Natalia Úbeda, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are mediators of intercellular communication with great potential as cardiac biomarkers. The analysis of c-miRNAs in response to physiological stress, such as exercise, would provide valuable information for clinical practice and a deeper understanding of the molecular response to physical activity. Here, we analysed for the first time the acute exercise response of c-miRNAs reported as biomarkers of cardiac disease in a well-characterized cohort of healthy active adults...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774530/cardiomyocyte-programmed-necrosis-mitochondria-death-receptor-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Junxia Zhang, Dairu Liu, Mao Zhang, Yan Zhang
Excessive death of cardiac myocytes leads to multiple cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. For the last several decades, most work on cell death has focused on apoptosis, which is generally considered as the only form of regulated cell death, whereas necrosis has been regarded to be an unregulated process. Recent findings reveal that necrosis also occurs in a regulated manner and that it is closely related to the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organs, including the heart...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772453/the-roles-of-cypa-and-cd147-in-cardiac-remodelling
#11
REVIEW
Hongyan Su, Yi Yang
Cyclophilin A (CyPA), an abundantly expressed protein belonging to the immunophilin family, is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological activities together with its extracellular receptor, CD147. Many studies have provided compelling evidence supporting critical roles of CyPA in immune and infectious diseases and malignant tumours. Recent studies have revealed that both CyPA and CD147 strongly promote cardiovascular inflammation, myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and myocardial remodelling processes...
May 14, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772353/cardiac-profile-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cell-therapy-in-children-a-single-institution-experience
#12
Danielle Burstein, Shannon Maude, Stephen Grupp, Heather Griffis, Joseph Rossano, Kimberly Lin
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells targeting CD19 for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has demonstrated significant efficacy. The principle toxicity is cytokine release syndrome with resultant hypotension. However, the spectrum of cardiovascular effects associated with CAR T-cell therapy has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who received CD19-directed CAR T-cells at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between April 2012 and September 2016...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770745/2706-km-cycling-in-two-weeks-effects-on-cardiac-function-in-six-elderly-male-athletes
#13
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Nick Mattsson, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Hanne K Rasmusen
INTRODUCTION: Physiological effects of exercise on trained and untrained individuals have been studied extensively. Typically, young or middle-aged individuals are examined before and after short periods of vigorous exertion. METHODS: We studied six elderly male athletes (61±8 years (mean ± SD); baseline VO2 max 48±5 ml·kg-1 · min-1 ) with focus on cardiac function and biomarkers following 14 consecutive days of moderate intensity exercise. Cardiac dimensions, function, biomarkers, and other measures of cardiovascular health were examined at baseline and 2 and 28 h after the last day of cycling a total of 2706 km...
May 17, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770487/inhibitory-effect-of-melatonin-on-necroptosis-via-repressing-the-ripk3-pgam5-cypd-mptp-pathway-attenuates-cardiac-microvascular-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Hao Zhou, Dandan Li, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Toan Sam, Jin Wang, Shunying Hu, Yundai Chen, Yingmei Zhang
The molecular features of necroptosis in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury have been extensively explored. However, there have been no studies investigating the physiological regulatory mechanisms of melatonin acting on necroptosis in cardiac IR injury. This study was designed to determine the role of necroptosis in microvascular IR injury, and investigate the contribution of melatonin in repressing necroptosis and preventing IR-mediated endothelial system collapse. Our results demonstrated that Ripk3 was primarily activated by IR injury and consequently aggravated endothelial necroptosis, microvessel barrier dysfunction, capillary hyperpermeability, the inflammation response, microcirculatory vasospasms and microvascular perfusion defects...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770421/quantitative-proteomics-and-systems-analysis-of-cultured-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-during-differentiation-over-time-supports-a-function-follows-form-model-of-differentiation
#15
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Delphi Van Haver, Kris Gevaert, Francis Impens, Anna Dittrich, H Llewelyn Roderick, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9C2 has emerged as a valuable tool for studying cardiac development, mechanisms of disease and toxicology. We present here a rigorous proteomic analysis that monitored the changes in protein expression during differentiation of H9C2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells over time. Quantitative mass spectrometry followed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that early changes in H9C2 differentiation are related to protein pathways of cardiac muscle morphogenesis and sphingolipid synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770299/regenerative-medicine-therapy-for-single-ventricle-congenital-heart-disease
#16
REVIEW
Chetan Ambastha, Gregory J Bittle, David Morales, Nathaniel Parchment, Progyaparamita Saha, Rachana Mishra, Sudhish Sharma, Alexander Vasilenko, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, Manal T Al-Suqi, Deqiang Li, Peixin Yang, Sunjay Kaushal
One of the most complex forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) involving single ventricle physiology is hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle (LV), mitral and aortic valves, and narrowing of the ascending aorta. The underdeveloped LV is incapable of providing long-term systemic flow, and if left untreated, the condition is fatal. Current treatment for this condition consists of three consecutive staged palliative operations: the first is conducted within the first few weeks of birth, the second between 4 to 6 months, and the third and final surgery within the first 4 years...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770125/fgf23-actions-on-target-tissues-with-and-without-klotho
#17
REVIEW
Beatrice Richter, Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone whose physiologic actions on target tissues are mediated by FGF receptors (FGFR) and klotho, which functions as a co-receptor that increases the binding affinity of FGF23 for FGFRs. By stimulating FGFR/klotho complexes in the kidney and parathyroid gland, FGF23 reduces renal phosphate uptake and secretion of parathyroid hormone, respectively, thereby acting as a key regulator of phosphate metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that FGF23 can also target cell types that lack klotho...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769316/the-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-endoribonuclease-ire1%C3%AE-protects-the-heart-against-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#18
DeAnna Steiger, Tomohiro Yokota, Jin Li, Shuxun Ren, Susumu Minamisawa, Yibin Wang
Heart failure is associated with induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). The serine/threonine protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1α is a key protein in ER stress signal transduction. IRE1α activity can induce both protective UPR and apoptotic downstream signaling events, but the specific role for IRE1α activity in the heart is unknown. A major aim of this study was to characterize the specific contribution of IRE1α in cardiac physiology and pathogenesis. We used both cultured myocytes and a transgenic mouse line with inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific IRE1α overexpression as experimental models to achieve targeted IRE1α activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764550/-predictive-value-of-central-venous-to-arterial-carbon-dioxide-partial-pressure-difference-for-fluid-responsiveness-in-septic-shock-patients-a-prospective-clinical-study
#19
Guangyun Liu, Huibin Huang, Hanyu Qin, Bin Du
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (Pcv-aCO2 ) before and after rapid rehydration test (fluid challenge) in predicting the fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective observation was conducted. Forty septic shock patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled. All of the patients received fluid challenge in the presence of invasive hemodynamic monitoring...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760746/microrna-495-inhibits-the-high-glucose-induced-inflammation-differentiation-and-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-through-downregulation-of-nod1
#20
Xiaowei Wang, Haiying Jin, Shifeng Jiang, Yanlan Xu
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have physiological and pathophysiological functions that are involved in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of miR-495 on high glucose-induced cardiac fibrosis in human cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and to establish the mechanism underlying these effects. Methods: Human CFs were transfected with an miR-495 inhibitor or mimic and incubated with high glucose. The levels of NOD1 and miR-495 were then determined via quantitative RT-PCR...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
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