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Cardiac physiology

Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Fernando Garagoli, Ezequiel Guzzetti, Ezequiel Lillo, Luciano Lucas, César Belziti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Sabri Soussi, Marina Taccori, Christian De Tymowski, François Depret, Maïté Chaussard, Alexandre Fratani, Marion Jully, Alexandru Cupaciu, Axelle Ferry, Mourad Benyamina, Kevin Serror, David Boccara, Marc Chaouat, Maurice Mimoun, Pierre Cattan, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, James Anstey, Alexandre Mebazaa, Matthieu Legrand
OBJECTIVES: Burn-induced shock can lead to tissue hypoperfusion, including the gut. We performed this study to describe burn patients at risk of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) with the aim to identify potential modifiable risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study including adult severely burned patients between August 2012 and March 2017. Patients who developed AMI were matched to severely burned patients without AMI at a ratio of 1:3 (same year of admission, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII))...
March 20, 2018: Shock
Athena E Theyers, Benjamin I Goldstein, Arron Ws Metcalfe, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh
Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Eva Skiöldebrand, Anna Thorfve, Ulrika Björklund, Pegah Johansson, Ruth Wickelgren, Anders Lindahl, Elisabeth Hansson
Chondrocytes are effectively involved in the pathophysiological processes of inflammation in joints. They form cellular processes in the superficial layer of the articular cartilage and form gap junction coupled syncytium to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. However, very little is known about their physiological cellular identity and communication. The aim with the present work is to evaluate the physiological behavior after stimulation with the inflammatory inducers interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide...
January 2018: Heliyon
Yang Dong, Dan Yang, Yuchi Han, Wei Cheng, Jiayu Sun, Ke Wan, Hong Liu, Andreas Greiser, Xiaoyue Zhou, Yucheng Chen
Background: Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is a common pathological process in many cardiovascular diseases. In order to determine disease, we must have standard normal imaging values. We investigated myocardial interstitial fibrosis of the left ventricle (LV) in a healthy population of Chinese adults and explored the impact of gender, age, and other physiological factors using a T1 mapping technique of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Materials and Methods: We recruited 69 healthy adult Chinese subjects (35 males; age 18-76)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jessica Nielsen, Kathleen Duncan, Bunny Pozehl
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of patient-selected exercise adherence strategies following cardiac rehabilitation (CR). DESIGN: Twenty patients with heart failure (HF) were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group at completion of CR. METHODS: The intervention included the use of six adherence strategies (logs, graphs, pedometers, phone follow-up, education, and a letter from CR staff), which were provided for 6 weeks post CR and during home-based exercise...
March 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Paul P Walker, Pasquale P Pompilio, Paolo Zanaboni, Trine S Bergmo, Kaiu Prikk, Andrei Malinovschi, Josep M Montserrat, Jo Middlemass, Silvana Šonc, Giulia Munaro, Dorjan Marušič, Ruth Sepper, Roberto Rosso, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Christer Janson, Ramon Farre, Peter M A Calverley, Raffaele L Dellaca'
RATIONALE: Early detection of COPD exacerbations using tele-monitoring of physiological variables might reduce the frequency of hospitalisation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of home monitoring of lung mechanics by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and cardiac parameters in older COPD patients with co-morbidities. METHODS: This multicentre, randomized clinical trial recruited 312 GOLD grade II-IV COPD patients (median age 71 years [IQR:66-76], 49...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren
Alcoholism is accompanied with a high incidence of cardiac morbidity and mortality due to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, manifested as dilation of one or both ventricles, reduced ventricular wall thickness, myofibrillary disarray, interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated for the etiology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy including ethanol/acetaldehyde toxicity, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative injury, apoptosis, impaired myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and protein synthesis, altered fatty acid extraction and deposition, as well as accelerated protein catabolism...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Fazhao Li, Han Xiao, Zhiping Hu, Fangfang Zhou, Binbin Yang
HSPB8 is a member of ubiquitous small heat shock protein (sHSP) family, whose expression is induced in response to a wide variety of unfavorable physiological and environmental conditions. Investigation of HSPB8 structure indicated that HSPB8 belongs to the group of so-called intrinsically disordered proteins and possesses a highly flexible structure. Unlike most other sHSPs, HSPB8 tends to form small-molecular-mass oligomers and exhibits substrate-dependent chaperone activity. In cooperation with BAG3, the chaperone activity of HSPB8 was reported to be involved in the delivery of misfolded proteins to the autophagy machinery...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Sheikh Mohammad Shavik, Zhenxiang Jiang, Seungik Baek, Lik Chuan Lee
While it has long been recognized that bi-directional interaction between the heart and the vasculature plays a critical role in the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system, a comprehensive study of this interaction has largely been hampered by a lack of modeling framework capable of simultaneously accommodating high-resolution models of the heart and vasculature. Here, we address this issue and present a computational modeling framework that couples finite element (FE) models of the left ventricle (LV) and aorta to elucidate ventricular-arterial coupling in the systemic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
W P de Boode, M Kluckow, P J McNamara, S Gupta
Neonatologist-performed echocardiography (NPE) is an indispensable tool in the haemodynamic management of critically ill newborn infants. NPE is used to facilitate timely diagnosis of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants and to assess its haemodynamic significance. Before treatment is considered, it is obligatory to confirm structural cardiac normality. Importantly, NPE offers the ability to guide therapeutic interventions, allowing an individualised haemodynamic management approach to the PDA...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shinako Masuda, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Tatsuya Shimizu
Fibroblasts not only play key roles under physiological and pathological conditions in various tissues and organs including the heart but also are indispensable for fabricating bioengineered cardiac tissues and their functions through cell-cell interactions. Because tissue functions and cells surrounding fibroblasts in vivo are different among tissues, the properties of fibroblasts might be different according to their tissue origin. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of fibroblasts may lead to fabrication of bioengineered tissues close to biological tissues...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Olivier Villemain, Mafalda Correia, Elie Mousseaux, Jérome Baranger, Samuel Zarka, Ilya Podetti, Gilles Soulat, Thibaud Damy, Albert Hagège, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Emmanuel Messas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of our study was to investigate the potential of myocardial shear wave imaging (SWI) to quantify the diastolic myocardial stiffness (MS) (kPa) noninvasively in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) and its physiological variation with age, and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) populations with heart failure and preserved ejection function (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: MS is an important prognostic and diagnostic parameter of the diastolic function. MS is affected by physiological changes but also by pathological alterations of extracellular and cellular tissues...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sonia L Betancourt Cuellar, Diana Palacio, Marcelo F Benveniste, Brett W Carter, Gregory Gladish
Positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT) with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has been established as an effective modality for evaluation of cancer. Interpretations of patterns of physiologic18 F-FDG uptake by the heart is particularly difficult given the wide normal variations of18 F-FDG metabolic activity observed. Atypical patterns of focal or diffuse physiologic cardiac18 F-FDG uptake and post-therapeutic effects after radiation therapy, systemic diseases, or cardiomyopathy may also be confused with malignant disease on18 F-FDG PET/CT...
February 6, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
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