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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348258/high-risk-behaviour-and-hiv-infection-risk-among-non-local-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-less-than-a-single-year-s-residence-in-urban-centres-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-study-from-china
#1
Yan-Qiu Yu, Jun-Jie Xu, Qing-Hai Hu, Hong-Jing Yan, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Yi-Lu Qin, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, subjects' migration status has usually been defined on the basis of their registered residency status. We attempted to redefine migration based on the duration of residency in their cities of migration and to explore more precisely the impact of migration on HIV infection risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2013 in seven Chinese cities. Questionnaire surveys were conducted and blood was drawn to test for antibodies to HIV, syphilis and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)...
February 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334191/exogenous-oestrogen-inhibits-genital-transmission-of-cell-associated-hiv-1-in-dmpa-treated-humanized-mice
#2
Nirk E Quispe Calla, Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel, Melissa E Glick, Jesse J Kwiek, Janelle M Gabriel, Thomas L Cherpes
INTRODUCTION: HIV affects more women than any other life-threatening infectious agent, and most infections are sexually transmitted. HIV must breach the female genital tract mucosal barrier to establish systemic infection, and clinical studies indicate virus more easily evades this barrier in women using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and other injectable progestins for contraception. Identifying a potential mechanism for this association, we learned DMPA promotes susceptibility of wild-type mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection by reducing genital tissue expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule desmoglein-1 (DSG-1) and increasing genital mucosal permeability...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310062/are-infectious-agents-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-postpartum-psychosis
#3
Lot D de Witte, Gijsje Snijders, Manja Litjens, Astrid M Kamperman, Steven A Kushner, René S Kahn, Veerle Bergink
BACKGROUND: Since postpartum psychosis has been linked to activation of the immune system, it has been hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We therefore investigated whether exposure to pathogens that can infect the central nervous system is increased in patients with postpartum psychosis. METHODS: We measured the prevalence and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma Gondii (TG) in a cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis (n = 81) and compared these to matched postpartum controls...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287977/effects-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infections-on-seminal-parameters-in-male-partners-of-infertile-couples
#4
Fábio A Kurscheidt, Edilson Damke, Jaqueline C Bento, Valério A Balani, Karen I Takeda, Sérgio Piva, João P Piva, Mary M T Irie, Fabrícia Gimenes, Marcia E L Consolaro
OBJECTIVE: To assess the possibility that HSV infection could affect seminal parameters we (1) standardize and validate a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay to detect HSV-1 and HSV-2 in semen; (2) determine the prevalence of HSV-1/-2 in the semen of randomized male partners of couples seeking fertility evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 279 semen samples were included in the study from males who visited the Sperm Analysis Section of São Camilo Laboratory of Maringá/Brazil between November 2014 and July 2015...
December 26, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285883/associations-between-friendship-characteristics-and-hiv-and-hsv-2-status-amongst-young-south-african-women-in-hptn-068
#5
Elizabeth Fearon, Richard D Wiggins, Audrey E Pettifor, Catherine MacPhail, Kathleen Kahn, Amanda Selin, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Sinéad Delany-Moretlwe, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, James R Hargreaves
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of HIV among young women in South Africa remains extremely high. Adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. The characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and HIV risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. We investigated associations between young women's friendships and their Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection status in rural South Africa...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281620/dual-strain-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-infection-in-the-us-peru-and-8-countries-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-nested-cross-sectional-viral-genotyping-study
#6
Christine Johnston, Amalia Magaret, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Alexander L Greninger, Daniel Reeves, Joshua Schiffer, Keith R Jerome, Cassandra Sather, Kurt Diem, Jairam R Lingappa, Connie Celum, David M Koelle, Anna Wald
BACKGROUND: Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months) were included...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273146/the-ticking-clock-of-hsv-2%C3%A2-pathology
#7
Rebecca J Bayliss, Vincent Piguet
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative agent of genital herpes. Matsuzawa et al have demonstrated that, in a mouse model, HSV-2 pathology is influenced by the time infection occurs. Increased expression of the HSV-2 receptor Nectin-1 under the control of CLOCK coincided with an increase in viral titer suggesting that HSV-2 infection is regulated by the host circadian clock.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259582/experimental-oral-herpes-simplex-virus-1-hsv-1-co-infection-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#8
Meropi Aravantinou, Olga Mizenina, Giulia Calenda, Jessica Kenney, Ines Frank, Jeffrey D Lifson, Moriah Szpara, Lichen Jing, David M Koelle, Natalia Teleshova, Brooke Grasperge, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, Elena Martinelli, Nina Derby
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP) models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251725/broad-spectrum-non-toxic-antiviral-nanoparticles-with-a-virucidal-inhibition-mechanism
#9
Valeria Cagno, Patrizia Andreozzi, Marco D'Alicarnasso, Paulo Jacob Silva, Marie Mueller, Marie Galloux, Ronan Le Goffic, Samuel T Jones, Marta Vallino, Jan Hodek, Jan Weber, Soumyo Sen, Emma-Rose Janeček, Ahmet Bekdemir, Barbara Sanavio, Chiara Martinelli, Manuela Donalisio, Marie-Anne Rameix Welti, Jean-Francois Eleouet, Yanxiao Han, Laurent Kaiser, Lela Vukovic, Caroline Tapparel, Petr Král, Silke Krol, David Lembo, Francesco Stellacci
Viral infections kill millions yearly. Available antiviral drugs are virus-specific and active against a limited panel of human pathogens. There are broad-spectrum substances that prevent the first step of virus-cell interaction by mimicking heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the highly conserved target of viral attachment ligands (VALs). The reversible binding mechanism prevents their use as a drug, because, upon dilution, the inhibition is lost. Known VALs are made of closely packed repeating units, but the aforementioned substances are able to bind only a few of them...
December 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236293/real-time-pcr-to-evaluate-hsv-2-shedding-from-anal-and-genital-samples-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-living-with-hiv
#10
Dayana Nicté Vergara-Ortega, Edgar Enrique Sevilla-Reyes, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Leticia Torres-Ibarra, Jorge Salmerón, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Miguel Angel Sánchez-Alemán
This study shows the relative quantification of HSV-2 by qPCR, using the MIQE Guidelines. The reaction efficiency was evaluated, and the relative quantification used the R=2-ΔCq method. The relative quantification of HSV-2 was conducted with anal and genital samples from men who have sex with men (MSM), living with HIV. The presence of a single amplification product was validated with a dissociation curves profile and the determination of the melting temperature. The limit of detection for β-globin was determined as 3...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224963/meeting-report-initial-world-health-organization-consultation-on-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-vaccine-preferred-product-characteristics-march-2017
#11
Sami L Gottlieb, Birgitte K Giersing, Julian Hickling, Rebecca Jones, Carolyn Deal, David C Kaslow
The development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important global goal for sexual and reproductive health. A key priority to advance development of HSV vaccines is the definition of preferred product characteristics (PPCs), which provide strategic guidance on World Health Organization (WHO) preferences for new vaccines, specifically from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) perspective. To start the PPC process for HSV vaccines, the WHO convened a global stakeholder consultation in March 2017, to define the priority public health needs that should be addressed by HSV vaccines and discuss the key considerations for HSV vaccine PPCs, particularly for LMICs...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#12
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223449/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-peganum-harmala-l-and-isolation-of-the-active-compound
#13
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216362/an-hsv-2-single-cycle-candidate-vaccine-deleted-in-glycoprotein-d-%C3%AE-gd-2-protects-male-mice-from-lethal-skin-challenge-with-clinical-isolates-of-hsv-1-and-hsv-2
#14
Clare Burn, Natalie Ramsey, Scott J Garforth, Steven Almo, William R Jacobs, Betsy C Herold
HSV infections manifest as recurrent oral or genital mucosal lesions, meningoencephalitis, corneal blindness and perinatal disease. Subunit vaccines have advanced into the clinic without success. None were tested preclinically in male mice. We compared a single-cycle candidate vaccine deleted in HSV-2 glycoprotein D (ΔgD-2) and subunit gD-2 or gD-1 protein vaccines in a male murine skin model. ΔgD-2 provided complete protection against 10-times the lethal dose of HSV-1 or HSV-2 clinical isolates and no latent virus was detected, whereas gD-1 and gD-2 adjuvanted proteins provided little or no protection...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214036/strong-viral-associations-with-sle-among-filipinos
#15
Evan S Vista, Michael H Weisman, Mariko L Ishimori, Hua Chen, Rebecka L Bourn, Ben F Bruner, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Robelle D Tanangunan, Noga J Gal, Julie M Robertson, John B Harley, Joel M Guthridge, Sandra V Navarra, Judith A James
Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209488/education-early-screening-and-treatment-of-stis-could-reduce-infertility-among-women-in-kenya
#16
EDITORIAL
S M Musundi
In Kenya, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis and trichomoniasis tend to be prevalent, especially in women. Further, the research shows that women who test positive for STIs (other than HIV), have little knowledge of these infections. Of particular concern, is that there has been little attention on the part of government to educate the general public about STIs, yet these diseases can have devastating consequences on women's and men's health...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207707/diagnostic-approach-to-viral-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-aes-in-paediatric-age-group-a-study-from-new-delhi
#17
Shipra Goel, Anita Chakravarti, Mukta Mantan, Surinder Kumar, Md Anzar Ashraf
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203577/hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-epidemiological-synergy-misguided-observational-evidence-a-modelling-study
#18
Ryosuke Omori, Nico Nagelkerke, Laith J Abu-Raddad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether observational studies of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have the capacity to assess the HIV/HSV-2 epidemiological synergy. METHODS: An individual-based Monte Carlo model was used to simulate HIV/HSV-2 epidemics in two scenarios: no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction and HSV-2 seropositivity enhancing HIV acquisition. Cross-sectional observational studies were simulated by sampling individuals from the population to assess resulting crude and adjusted ORs of the HIV/HSV-2 association...
December 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203273/the-traditional-use-of-vachellia-nilotica-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-is-substantiated-by-the-antiviral-activity-of-its-bark-extract-against-sexually-transmitted-viruses
#19
Manuela Donalisio, Valeria Cagno, Andrea Civra, Davide Gibellini, Giuseppina Musumeci, Massimo Rittà, Manik Ghosh, David Lembo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198180/converging-epidemics-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-bacterial-vaginosis-in-southern-african-female-adolescents-at-risk-of-hiv
#20
Shaun L Barnabas, Smritee Dabee, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Heather B Jaspan, David A Lewis, Shameem Z Jaumdally, Hoyam Gamieldien, Lindi Masson, Etienne Muller, Venessa D Maseko, Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Zizipho Mbulawa, Anna-Lise Williamson, Clive M Gray, Thomas J Hope, Francesca Chiodi, Janan Dietrich, Glenda Gray, Linda-Gail Bekker
Adolescents in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Since behavior and burden of STIs/BV may influence HIV risk, behavioral risk factors and prevalence of STIs/BV were compared in HIV-seronegative adolescent females (n = 298; 16-22 years) from two South African communities (Soweto and Cape Town). STIs ( Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi) were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, human papillomavirus (HPV) by Roche Linear Array, and BV by Nugent scoring...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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