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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791513/vaccine-induced-antibodies-to-herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-epitopes-involved-in-virus-entry-and-cell-to-cell-spread-correlate-with-protection-against-genital-disease-in-guinea-pigs
#1
Lauren M Hook, Tina M Cairns, Sita Awasthi, Benjamin D Brooks, Noah T Ditto, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Harvey M Friedman
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779181/tailoring-acyclovir-prodrugs-with-enhanced-antiviral-activity-rational-design-synthesis-human-plasma-stability-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#2
Radoslav L Chayrov, Evgenios K Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Kiril N Chuchkov, Aleksandra I Tencheva, Androniki D Kostagianni, Tsenka S Milkova, Assia L Angelova, Angel S Galabov, Stoyan A Shishkov, Daniel G Todorov, Andreas G Tzakos, Ivanka G Stankova
Bile acid prodrugs have served as a viable strategy for refining the pharmaceutical profile of parent drugs through utilizing bile acid transporters. A series of three ester prodrugs of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) with the bile acids cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic were synthesized and evaluated along with valacyclovir for their in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The in vitro antiviral activity of the three bile acid prodrugs was also evaluated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...
May 19, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#3
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#4
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765544/comparison-of-infectivity-and-spread-between-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-based-oncolytic-viruses-on-tumor-cells-with-different-receptor-expression-profiles
#5
Xinping Fu, Lihua Tao, Pin-Yi Wang, Timothy P Cripe, Xiaoliu Zhang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the many viruses that have been modified or adapted for oncolytic purposes. There are two serotypes of HSV, HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of oncolytic HSVs, including T-VEC which has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in treating late stage melanoma patients, are derived from HSV-1. Recently, we and others have developed several HSV-2 based oncolytic viruses. During our in vitro characterization of oncolytic viruses developed from both serotypes (Baco-1 from HSV-1 and FusOn-H2 from HSV-2), we noticed there is a subpopulation of cancer cells in which both viruses could infect but only FusOn-H2 could spread from cell to cell on monolayers...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762484/crispr-cas9-mutagenesis-of-ul21-in-multiple-strains-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reveals-differential-requirements-for-pul21-in-viral-replication
#6
Renée L Finnen, Bruce W Banfield
Studies from multiple laboratories using different strains or species of herpes simplex virus (HSV) with deletions in UL21 have yielded conflicting results regarding the necessity of pUL21 in HSV infection. To resolve this discrepancy, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to isolate pUL21 deficient viruses in multiple HSV backgrounds, and performed a side-by-side comparison of the cell-to-cell spread and replication phenotypes of these viruses. These analyses confirmed previous studies implicating the involvement of pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread of HSV...
May 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752114/highly-monodispersed-gold-nanoparticles-synthesis-and-inhibition-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#7
Asim Halder, Suvadra Das, Durbadal Ojha, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Arup Mukherjee
This work relates to quasi spherical gold nanoparticles synthesis and successful antiviral efficacy evaluations against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Ultrasound induced rapid reduction in gallic acid (GA) leads to highly monodispersed gold nanoparticles (GAunps). GAunps plasmonic peak was recorded at 531 nm with TEM size of 7.86 nm. X-ray diffraction and SAED pattern proved fcc crystalline structure. FTIR studies confirmed nanoparticles surface conjugation with gallic acid. The antiviral efficacy of GAunps was studied against HSV infections in Vero cells...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738431/a-vp26-mneongreen-capsid-fusion-hsv-2-mutant-reactivates-from-viral-latency-in-the-guinea-pig-genital-model-with-normal-kinetics
#8
Julianna R Pieknik, Andrea S Bertke, Shuang Tang, Philip R Krause
Fluorescent herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are invaluable tools for localizing virus in cells, permitting visualization of capsid trafficking and enhancing neuroanatomical research. Fluorescent viruses can also be used to study virus kinetics and reactivation in vivo. Such studies would be facilitated by fluorescent herpes simplex virus recombinants that exhibit wild-type kinetics of replication and reactivation and that are genetically stable. We engineered an HSV-2 strain expressing the fluorescent mNeonGreen protein as a fusion with the VP26 capsid protein...
May 8, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727474/high-prevalence-and-correlates-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-in-nevocytic-nevus-and-seborrheic-diseases-implication-from-a-pilot-study-of-skin-patient-tissues-in-shanghai
#9
Ling Ding, Xiaohui Mo, Liming Zhang, Feng Zhou, Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Cankun Cai, Yeqiang Liu, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity, and the causes of these disorders are largely unknown. Human herpesvirus (HHV) has been shown to cause many diseases. However, the prevalence and correlate of each HHV infection with different skin disorders remains obscure. To reveal the potential link of certain type of skin disease with herpesvirus infection, a total of 272 patient tissues with inflammatory or neoplastic skin diseases including 7 subtypes in Shanghai, China, were investigated. We found that the overall prevalence of HHV-6A in inflammatory or neoplastic skin tissues is the most common (40...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720520/herpes-simplex-virus-2-latency-associated-transcript-lat-region-mutations-do-not-identify-a-role-for-lat-associated-micro-rnas-in-viral-reactivation-in-the-guinea-pig-genital-model
#10
Yoshiki Kawamura, Marta Bosch-Marce, Shuang Tang, Amita Patel, Philip R Krause
Despite the long-standing observation that herpes simplex virus (HSV) Latency-Associated Transcript (LAT) promoter-deletion viruses show impaired recurrence phenotypes in relevant animal models, the mechanism by which these sequences exert this phenotypic effect is unknown. We constructed and evaluated four mutant HSV-2 viruses with targeted mutations in the LAT promoter and LAT-associated miRNAs affecting (1) the LAT TATA box, (2) the LAT ICP4-binding site, (3) miR-I and miR-II (miR-I/II), which both target ICP34...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709968/a-novel-system-for-constructing-a-recombinant-highly-attenuated-vaccinia-virus-strain-lc16m8-expressing-foreign-genes-and-its-application-for-the-generation-of-lc16m8-based-vaccines-against-herpes-simplex-virus-2
#11
Natsumi Omura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Hikaru Fujii, Miho Shibamura, Takuya Inagaki, Hirofumi Kato, Kazutaka Egawa, Shizuko Harada, Souichi Yamada, Haruko Takeyama, Masayuki Saijo
A novel system was developed for generating a highly-attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8 (m8, third generation smallpox vaccine) that expresses foreign genes. The innovations in this system are its excisable selection marker, specificity of the integration site of a gene of interest, and easy identification of clones with the fluorescent signal. Using this system, recombinant m8s, which expressed either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein B (gB)-, gD-, or both gB and gD (gB+gD) were developed, and their efficacy was evaluated...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698714/ph-responsive-delivery-of-griffithsin-from-electrospun-fibers
#12
Kevin M Tyo, Jinghua Duan, Pravallika Kollipara, Mark Vincent C Dela Cerna, Donghan Lee, Kenneth E Palmer, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) affects over 36 million people globally. Current prevention strategies utilize antiretrovirals that have demonstrated protection, but result in antiviral resistance, adverse toxicity, and require frequent administration. A novel biologic, griffithsin (GRFT), has demonstrated outstanding safety and efficacy against laboratory and primary HIV isolates and against intravaginal murine herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, making it a promising microbicide candidate. However, transient activity and instability remain concerns surrounding biologic delivery, particularly in the harsh environment of the female reproductive tract (FRT)...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698393/effects-of-spatiotemporal-hsv-2-lesion-dynamics-and-antiviral-treatment-on-the-risk-of-hiv-1-acquisition
#13
Catherine M Byrne, Soren Gantt, Daniel Coombs
Patients with Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) infection face a significantly higher risk of contracting HIV-1. This is thought to be due to herpetic lesions serving as entry points for HIV-1 and tissue-resident CD4+ T cell counts increasing during HSV-2 lesional events. We have created a stochastic and spatial mathematical model describing the dynamics of HSV-2 infection and immune response in the genital mucosa. Using our model, we first study the dynamics of a developing HSV-2 lesion. We then use our model to quantify the risk of infection with HIV-1 following sexual exposure in HSV-2 positive women...
April 26, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673001/inhibition-of-hsv-2-infection-by-pure-compounds-from-thymus-capitatus-extract-in-vitro
#14
Marwa Mekni Toujani, Massimo Rittà, Andrea Civra, Salvatore Genovese, Francesco Epifano, Abdeljelil Ghram, David Lembo, Manuela Donalisio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669832/comparative-analysis-of-ul16-mutants-derived-from-multiple-strains-of-hsv-2-and-hsv-1-reveals-species-specific-requirements-for-the-ul16-protein
#15
Jie Gao, Xiaohu Yan, Bruce W Banfield
Orthologs of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL16 gene are conserved throughout the Herpesviridae Because of this conservation, one might expect that these proteins perform similar functions for all herpesviruses. Previous studies on a UL16 null mutant derived from HSV-2 strain 186 revealed a roughly 100-fold replication defect and a critical role for UL16 in the nuclear egress of capsids. These findings were in stark contrast to what has been observed with UL16 mutants of HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus where roughly 10-fold replication deficiencies were reported that were accompanied by defects in the secondary envelopment of cytoplasmic capsids...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668856/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-among-pregnant-women-and-sexually-active-non-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#16
Monica E Patton, Kyle Bernstein, Gui Liu, Akbar Zaidi, Lauri E Markowitz
Background: Neonatal herpes is a rare, devastating consequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2) infection during pregnancy. The risk of neonatal infection is higher among pregnant women seronegative for HSV-1 or HSV-2 who acquire their first HSV infection near delivery. Methods: We estimated HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 1999-2014, assessed HSV seroprevalence changes between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014, and compared HSV seroprevalence between pregnant women and sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 2007-2014 using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655629/intramuscular-vaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-human-herpes-simplex-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-a-transcriptional-profile-of-vaginal-th17-and-regulatory-tr1-responses
#17
Brent A Stanfield, Paul J F Rider, John Caskey, Fabio Del Piero, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Herpes simplex virus is a common causative agent of oral and genital diseases. Novel vaccines and therapeutics are needed to combat herpes infections especially after the failure of subunit vaccines in human clinical trials. We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. The guinea pig represents the best small animal model of genital HSV-2 disease...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642603/acyclovir-loaded-chitosan-nanospheres-from-nano-emulsion-templating-for-the-topical-treatment-of-herpesviruses-infections
#18
Manuela Donalisio, Federica Leone, Andrea Civra, Rita Spagnolo, Ozgen Ozer, David Lembo, Roberta Cavalli
Acyclovir is not a good candidate for passive permeation since its polarity and solubility limit is partitioning into the stratum corneum. This work aims to develop a new topical formulation for the acyclovir delivery. New chitosan nanospheres (NS) were prepared by a modified nano-emulsion template method. Chitosan NS were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and an in vitro release study. The in vitro skin permeation experiment was carried out using Franz cells and was equipped with porcine skin...
April 10, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625767/review-of-mathematical-models-of-hsv-2-vaccination-implications-for-vaccine-development
#19
Ian H Spicknall, Katharine J Looker, Sami L Gottlieb, Harrell W Chesson, Joshua T Schiffer, Jocelyn Elmes, Marie-Claude Boily
Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a life-long sexually-transmitted infection (STI), would be a major step forward in improving global sexual and reproductive health. In this review, we identified published literature of dynamic mathematical models assessing the impact of either prophylactic or therapeutic HSV-2 vaccination at the population level. We compared each study's model structure and assumptions as well as predicted vaccination impact. We examined possible causes of heterogeneity across model predictions, key gaps, and the implications of these findings for future modelling efforts...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622627/cryo-em-structure-of-a-herpesvirus-capsid-at-3-1-%C3%A3
#20
Shuai Yuan, Jialing Wang, Dongjie Zhu, Nan Wang, Qiang Gao, Wenyuan Chen, Hao Tang, Junzhi Wang, Xinzheng Zhang, Hongrong Liu, Zihe Rao, Xiangxi Wang
Structurally and genetically, human herpesviruses are among the largest and most complex of viruses. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with an optimized image reconstruction strategy, we report the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) capsid structure at 3.1 angstroms, which is built up of about 3000 proteins organized into three types of hexons (central, peripentonal, and edge), pentons, and triplexes. Both hexons and pentons contain the major capsid protein, VP5; hexons also contain a small capsid protein, VP26; and triplexes comprise VP23 and VP19C...
April 6, 2018: Science
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