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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903680/herpes-simplex-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-a-cohort-with-primary-genital-infection-correlates-inversely-with-frequency-of-subsequent-recurrences
#1
Elisabeth Franzen-Röhl, Danika Schepis, Fredrik Atterfelt, Kristina Franck, Arne Wikström, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Tomas Bergström, Elisabeth Aurelius, Klas Kärre, Louise Berg, Hans Gaines
OBJECTIVES: During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood...
November 30, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898577/decline-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-among-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-users-in-new-york-city-2005-to-2014-prospects-for-avoiding-a-resurgence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#2
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Holly Hagan, Hannah L F Cooper
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. METHODS: Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872770/herpes-simplex-virus-hepatitis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-resembling-hepatic-pyogenic-abscesses
#3
Carrie Down, Amit Mehta, Gayle Salama, Erika Hissong, Russell Rosenblatt, Michael Cantor, David Helfgott, Kristen Marks
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis represents a rare complication of HSV infection, which can progress to acute liver failure and, in some cases, death. We describe an immunocompetent 67-year-old male who presented with one week of fever and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen showed multiple bilobar hepatic lesions, some with rim enhancement, compatible with liver abscesses. Subsequent liver biopsy, however, revealed hepatocellular necrosis, HSV-type intranuclear inclusions, and immunostaining positive for herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2)...
2016: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868164/efficient-production-of-recombinant-glycoprotein-d-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-pichia-pastoris-and-its-protective-efficacy-against-viral-challenge-in-mice
#4
Man Wang, Shuai Jiang, Li Zhou, Chaoqun Wang, Ruifeng Mao, Murugavel Ponnusamy
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. However, there are no approved vaccines available to prevent HSV-2 infection. The glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV-2 is the most important candidate antigen for vaccine development. In this study, a truncated form of gD (codons 1-340, gD1-340) was produced as a secretory protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant gD1-340 with a His6 tag was purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856447/maternal-antibodies-to-herpes-virus-antigens-and-risk-of-gastroschisis-in-offspring
#5
Martha M Werler, Samantha E Parker, Klaus Hedman, Mika Gissler, Annukka Ritvanen, Heljä-Marja Surcel
Gastroschisis risk is highest in offspring of young women and is increasing in prevalence, suggesting that exposures that are increasingly common among younger females may be causal. Some infections by viruses in the herpes family are more common in the earlier childbearing years and have been increasing in prevalence over time. Data from the Finnish Maternity Cohort were linked to Finnish malformation and birth registers (1987-2012) for this study, a nested case-control study of mothers of offspring with gastroschisis and age-matched controls...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853144/hla-class-i-and-ii-alleles-heterozygosity-and-hla-kir-interactions-are-associated-with-rates-of-genital-hsv-shedding-and-lesions
#6
A Magaret, L Dong, M John, S A Mallal, I James, T Warren, S Gaudieri, D M Koelle, A Wald
Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report...
December 2016: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835627/intravaginal-practices-and-prevalence-of-sexual-and-reproductive-tract-infections-among-women-in-rural-malawi
#7
Allahna Esber, Nisha Rao, Alison Norris, Patricia Carr Reese, Jonathan Kandodo, Patrick Nampandeni, Enock Jumbe, Abigail Norris Turner
BACKGROUND: Many women engage in intravaginal practices (IVP) with a goal of improving genital hygiene and increasing sexual pleasure. Intravaginal practices can disrupt the genital mucosa, and some studies have found that IVP increases risk of acquisition of HIV and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Limited prior research also suggests significant associations between IVP, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: We examined associations between IVP and HPV, BV, and HSV-2 among 200 women in rural Malawi participating in a clinic-based study on sexual and reproductive tract infections...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832025/herpes-simplex-virus-suppressive-therapy-in-herpes-simplex-virus-2-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-coinfected-women-is-associated-with-reduced-systemic-cxcl10-but-not-genital-cytokines
#8
Erica Andersen-Nissen, Joanne T Chang, Katherine K Thomas, Devin Adams, Connie Celum, Jorge Sanchez, Robert W Coombs, M Juliana McElrath, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster HIV-1 disease progression. An 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted and HSV-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervical compartment...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827367/cd301b-dendritic-cells-stimulate-tissue-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-to-protect-against-genital-hsv-2
#9
Haina Shin, Yosuke Kumamoto, Smita Gopinath, Akiko Iwasaki
Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (CD8 TRM) cells are an essential component of protective immune responses at barrier tissues, including the female genital tract. However, the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of CD8 TRM-mediated protective immunity after viral infection are unclear. Here we report that CD8 TRM cells established by 'prime and pull' method confer protection against genital HSV-2 infection, and that IFN-γ produced by CD8 TRM cells is required for this protection. Furthermore, we find that CD8 TRM-cell restimulation depends on a population of CD301b(+) antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the lamina propria...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821613/use-of-injectable-hormonal-contraception-and-hsv-2-acquisition-in-a-cohort-of-female-sex-workers-in-vancouver-canada
#10
M Eugenia Socías, Putu Duff, Jean Shoveller, Julio S G Montaner, Paul Nguyen, Gina Ogilvie, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVES: Increased risk of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) has been proposed as a possible indirect pathway through which hormonal contraceptives (specifically depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)) may increase the risk of HIV acquisition among women. We investigated the effects of DMPA on HSV-2 acquisition among female sex workers. METHODS: Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. The primary outcome was HSV-2 seroconversion...
November 7, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815148/the-effect-of-a-conditional-cash-transfer-on-hiv-incidence-in-young-women-in-rural-south-africa-hptn-068-a-phase-3-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Audrey Pettifor, Catherine MacPhail, James P Hughes, Amanda Selin, Jing Wang, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Susan H Eshleman, Ryan G Wagner, Wonderful Mabuza, Nomhle Khoza, Chirayath Suchindran, Immitrude Mokoena, Rhian Twine, Philip Andrew, Ellen Townley, Oliver Laeyendecker, Yaw Agyei, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cash transfers have been proposed as an intervention to reduce HIV-infection risk for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, scarce evidence is available about their effect on reducing HIV acquisition. We aimed to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence among young women in rural South Africa. METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised controlled trial (HPTN 068) in the rural Bushbuckridge subdistrict in Mpumalanga province, South Africa...
November 1, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801374/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seroconversion-among-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-prospective-study
#12
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800146/antimicrobial-activity-of-biocompatible-microemulsions-against-aspergillus-niger-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2
#13
Mayson H Alkhatib, Magda M Aly, Rajaa A Rahbeni, Khadijah S Balamash
BACKGROUND: Microemulsions (MEs), which consist of oil, water, surfactants, and cosurfactants, have recently generated considerable interest as antimicrobial agents. OBJECTIVES: To determine the antifungal and antiviral activities of three ME formulations (MEa, MEb, and MEc) that differ in their hydrophilicity. METHODS: The ME formulas were produced by mixing different fractions of Tween 80, Span 20, ethanol, oil, isopropyl myristate, and distilled water...
September 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795468/prevalence-and-determinants-of-hsv-2-syphilis-co-infection-and-hsv-2-mono-infection-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-northeast-china
#14
Qing-Hai Hu, Jun-Jie Xu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Yan-Qiu Yu, Huan Yu, Hai-Bo Ding, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Ning Wang, Hong Shang
We aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mono-infection and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 545 HIV-positive MSM in Shenyang between February 2009 and October 2014. Participants received physical examinations and serological tests for HSV-2 and syphilis. A multinomial logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793121/seroprevalence-and-correlates-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-infection-among-young-adults-in-arkhangelsk-northwest-russia-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#15
Tatiana Balaeva, Andrej M Grjibovski, Oleg Sidorenkov, Olga Samodova, Natalia Firsova, Anatoly Sannikov, Elise Klouman
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the brink of a generalized HIV-epidemic, but Arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV-infection. The evidence on the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in Russia is limited. The aim of this study was to assess HSV-2 seroprevalence and correlates among young adults in the city of Arkhangelsk...
October 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775709/rna-binding-protein-cpeb1-remodels-host-and-viral-rna-landscapes
#16
Ranjan Batra, Thomas J Stark, Elizabeth Clark, Jean-Philippe Belzile, Emily C Wheeler, Brian A Yee, Hui Huang, Chelsea Gelboin-Burkhart, Stephanie C Huelga, Stefan Aigner, Brett T Roberts, Tomas J Bos, Shashank Sathe, John Paul Donohue, Frank Rigo, Manuel Ares, Deborah H Spector, Gene W Yeo
Host and virus interactions occurring at the post-transcriptional level are critical for infection but remain poorly understood. Here, we performed comprehensive transcriptome-wide analyses revealing that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results in widespread alternative splicing (AS), shortening of 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and lengthening of poly(A)-tails in host gene transcripts. We found that the host RNA-binding protein CPEB1 was highly induced after infection, and ectopic expression of CPEB1 in noninfected cells recapitulated infection-related post-transcriptional changes...
October 24, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773908/herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-associated-recurrent-aseptic-meningitis-mollaret-s-meningitis-with-a-recurrence-after-11-year-interval-a-case-report
#17
Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Hideto Nakajima, Yosuke Kano, Kiichi Unoda, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura
A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis at the age of 43 and 44. She developed sudden fever and headache, and she showed nuchal rigidity. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed pleocytosis (cell count 208/mm(3)) and was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA by PCR. Acyclovir was started on the first day of admission, and she was complete recovery. Preserved cerebrospinal fluid specimen from aseptic meningitis at the age of 44 was also positive for HSV-2 DNA by PCR. She was diagnosed with HSV-2 associated recurrent aseptic meningitis (Mollaret's meningitis) with a recurrence after 11-year interval...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772619/%C3%AE-herpes-virus-infections-among-renal-transplant-recipients
#18
Cybele Lara Abad, Raymund R Razonable
The α herpes viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV often reactivate in the setting of immune suppression after solid organ transplantation. Oral or genital mucocutaneous disease is the most common clinical manifestation of HSV disease while VZV manifests as varicella (or chickenpox) or reactivation herpes zoster, characterized by a diffuse rash, or a painful unilateral vesicular eruption in a dermatomal distribution, respectively. The diagnosis of HSV and VZV is primarily based on history and clinical presentation, although diagnostic tests may be necessary for atypical presentations of disease...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771977/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-luminex%C3%A2-aries%C3%A2-hsv-1-2-assay-for-the-detection-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-in-cutaneous-and-mucocutaneous-lesion-specimens
#19
Stephen Young, Barbara Body, Franklin Moore, Sherry Dunbar
The ARIES® HSV 1&2 Assay is a new FDA cleared real-time PCR test for detection and differentiation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions. The test is performed on the ARIES® System, an automated sample to answer real-time PCR instrument that provides a closed system and simple workflow for performing molecular testing. Areas covered: This article reports the clinical performance of the ARIES® HSV 1&2 Assay assessed on 1963 prospectively collected specimens. Assay sensitivities were 91...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756008/the-unexpected-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-in-genital-specimens-using-the-lyra%C3%A2-direct-hsv-1-2-vzv-assay
#20
Paul A Granato, Marcia A DeGilio, Elsie M Wilson
BACKGROUND: The Lyra™ Direct HSV 1+2/VZV Assay is a moderately complex, multiplex PCR assay that qualitatively detects the presence of HSV 1, HSV 2, and VZV DNA in cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens with a time-to-result of less than 60min. OBJECTIVES: To report a one-year laboratory experience using Lyra assay for testing cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens for HSV and VZV that resulted in the unexpected detection of VZV in 14 male and female genital specimens...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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