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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287142/worldwide-circulation-of-hsv-2%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-hsv-1-recombinant-strains
#1
David M Koelle, Peter Norberg, Matthew P Fitzgibbon, Ronnie M Russell, Alex L Greninger, Meei-Li Huang, Larry Stensland, Lichen Jing, Amalia S Magaret, Kurt Diem, Stacy Selke, Hong Xie, Connie Celum, Jairam R Lingappa, Keith R Jerome, Anna Wald, Christine Johnston
Homo sapiens harbor two distinct, medically significant species of simplexviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2, with estimated divergence 6-8 million years ago (MYA). Unexpectedly, we found that circulating HSV-2 strains can contain HSV-1 DNA segments in three distinct genes. Using over 150 genital swabs from North and South America and Africa, we detected recombinants worldwide. Common, widely distributed gene UL39 genotypes are parsimoniously explained by an initial >457 basepair (bp) HSV-1 × HSV-2 crossover followed by back-recombination to HSV-2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276007/investigation-on-the-association-between-thyroid-tumorigeneses-and-herpesviruses
#2
J F M Almeida, A H Campos, M A Marcello, N E Bufalo, C L Rossi, L H P Amaral, A B Marques, L L Cunha, C A Alvarenga, P C Tincani, A J Tincani, L S Ward
Herpesviruses have been associated with various human malignancies and with thyroid autoimmunity. Aiming to investigate the presence of these viruses in thyroid nodules, we analyzed serum and thyroid tissue from 183 patients (83 benign and 100 malignant thyroid nodules). We also obtained 104 normal thyroid tissues extracted from the contralateral lobe of these patients. We used ELISA to screen the serology of all patients and a real-time quantitative PCR to analyze thyroid tissue viral load in antibody-positive patients...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275195/the-product-of-the-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-ul16-gene-is-critical-for-the-egress-of-capsids-from-the-nuclei-of-infected-cells
#3
Jie Gao, Thomas J M Hay, Bruce W Banfield
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL16 gene is conserved throughout the Herpesviridae and encodes a poorly understood tegument protein. The HSV-1 UL16 protein forms complexes with several viral proteins including UL11, gE, VP22 and UL21. We previously demonstrated that HSV-2 UL21 was essential for virus propagation due to the failure of DNA-containing capsids to exit the nucleus. We hypothesized that if a UL16/UL21 complex were required for nuclear egress then HSV-2 lacking UL16 would have a similar phenotype as HSV-2 lacking UL21...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264883/inflammatory-monocytes-require-type-i-interferon-receptor-signaling-to-activate-nk-cells-via-il-18-during-a-mucosal-viral-infection
#4
Amanda J Lee, Branson Chen, Marianne V Chew, Nicole G Barra, Mira M Shenouda, Tina Nham, Nico van Rooijen, Manel Jordana, Karen L Mossman, Robert D Schreiber, Matthias Mack, Ali A Ashkar
The requirement of type I interferon (IFN) for natural killer (NK) cell activation in response to viral infection is known, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that type I IFN signaling in inflammatory monocytes, but not in dendritic cells (DCs) or NK cells, is essential for NK cell function in response to a mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Mice deficient in type I IFN signaling, Ifnar(-/-) and Irf9(-/-) mice, had significantly lower levels of inflammatory monocytes, were deficient in IL-18 production, and lacked NK cell-derived IFN-γ...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257513/effect-of-mycoplasma-hominis-and-cytomegalovirus-infection-on-pregnancy-outcome-a-prospective-study-of-200-mongolian-women-and-their-newborns
#5
Byambaa Otgonjargala, Kathrin Becker, Gunchin Batbaatar, Sandag Tsogtsaikhan, Jamsranjav Enkhtsetseg, Altangerel Enkhjargal, Klaus Pfeffer, Ortwin Adams, Chimeddorj Battogtokh, Birgit Henrich
In Mongolia, diagnostic tests for the detection of the sexually transmitted mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are currently not routinely used in clinical settings and the frequency of these STIs are enigmatic. The prevalence of these STI pathogens were prospectively evaluated among 200 Mongolian pregnant women and their newborns and correlated with pregnancy outcome. TaqMan PCRs were used to detect bacterial and viral STI pathogens in pre-birth vaginal swabs of the pregnant women and in oral swabs of their newborns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253893/effect-of-suppressive-acyclovir-administered-to-hsv-2-positive-mothers-from-week-28-to-36%C3%A2-weeks-of-pregnancy-on-adverse-obstetric-outcomes-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence Mirembe
BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV) given to HSV-2 positive women after 36 weeks reduces adverse outcomes but its benefit at lower gestation was undocumented. We determined the effect of oral acyclovir administered from 28 to 36 weeks on premature rupture of membranes (PROM) primarily and preterm delivery risk. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial among 200 HSV-2 positive pregnant women at 28 weeks of gestation at Mulago Hospital, Uganda...
March 3, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251181/maternal-immunoreactivity-to-herpes-simplex-virus-2-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-male-offspring
#7
Milada Mahic, Siri Mjaaland, Hege Marie Bøvelstad, Nina Gunnes, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Anne-Siri Øyen, Bruce Levin, Xiaoyu Che, Deborah Hirtz, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Synnve Schjølberg, Christine Roth, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Pål Surén, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin
Maternal infections during pregnancy are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Proposed pathogenetic mechanisms include fetal infection, placental inflammation, and maternal cytokines or antibodies that cross the placenta. The Autism Birth Cohort comprises mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in Norway in 1999 to 2008. Through questionnaire screening, referrals, and linkages to a national patient registry, 442 mothers of children with ASD were identified, and 464 frequency-matched controls were selected...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250263/lambda-interferons-inhibit-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-replication-in-human-cervical-epithelial-cells-through-activation-of-jak-stat-pathway
#8
Zhu Li, Xuan Lu, Yufan Zhu, Pengfei Cheng, Shi Liu, Yi Zhang, Jingfeng Tang, Sijun Yang, Li Zhou
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with a variety of diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. Our early study showed that lambda-interferons (IFN-λs) induced by activation of the toll-like receptors 3/ retinoic acid-inducible protein I (TLR3/RIG-I) signaling pathways contribute to inhibition of HSV-2 replication in the human cervical epithelial cells. However, anti-HSV-2 mechanisms and specific differences in signaling transduction by different IFN-λs in human cervical epithelial cells are unclear...
February 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238255/linear-multiepitope-glyco-peptides-for-type-specific-serology-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-infections
#9
Christian Risinger, Kasper K Sørensen, Knud J Jensen, Sigvard Olofsson, Tomas Bergström, Ola Blixt
Detection of type-specific antibodies is an important and essential part of accurate diagnosis, even in silent carriers of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 (oral) and HSV-2 (genital) infections. Serologic assays that identify HSV-1 and HSV-2 type-specific antibodies have been commercially available for more than a decade but often face problems related to cross-reactivity and similar issues. Attempts to identify type-specific peptide epitopes for use in serology for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 have been limited. We recently demonstrated epitope mapping of envelope glycoprotein G2 and identified a type-specific glycopeptide epitope that broadly recognized HSV-2 infected individuals...
March 6, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#10
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226272/automated-processing-extraction-and-detection-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-a-comparative-evaluation-of-three-commercial-platforms-using-clinical-specimens
#11
Matthew J Binnicker, Mark J Espy, Brian Duresko, Cole Irish, Jay Mandrekar
BACKGROUND: Recently, automated platforms have been developed that can perform processing, extraction and testing for herpes simplex virus (HSV) nucleic acid on a single instrument. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared three commercially-available systems; Aptima(®)/Panther (Hologic, San Diego, CA), ARIES(®) (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX), and cobas(®) 4800 (Roche Molecular Systems Inc, Pleasanton, CA) for the qualitative detection of HSV-1/2 in clinical samples...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207861/in-vitro-anti-herpes-simplex-virus-2-activity-of-salvia-desoleana-atzei-v-picci-essential-oil
#12
Valeria Cagno, Barbara Sgorbini, Cinzia Sanna, Cecilia Cagliero, Mauro Ballero, Andrea Civra, Manuela Donalisio, Carlo Bicchi, David Lembo, Patrizia Rubiolo
Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202736/hiv-and-sti-s-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dodoma-municipality-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Elia John Mmbaga, Kåre Moen, Neema Makyao, Rose Mpembeni, Melkizedeck T Leshabari
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV, STI and related risks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dodoma municipality, Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling was employed to recruit study participants aged 18 years and above. Data on sociodemographics, HIV/STI knowledge and sexual practices were collected. Blood samples were tested for HIV and selected STIs. RESULTS: A total of 409 participants aged from 18 to 60 years took part in this study...
February 15, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201953/acute-hiv-1-infection-presenting-with-fulminant-encephalopathy
#14
Eun J Lee, Young H Kim, Jeong Y Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Se Y Park, Tae H Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. We encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary presentation of acute HIV-1 infection, in which highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in a full clinical recovery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196487/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-terminalia-chebula-retz-extract-and-its-constituents-chebulagic-and-chebulinic-acids
#15
Ajay Kesharwani, Suja Kizhiyedath Polachira, Reshmi Nair, Aakanksha Agarwal, Nripendra Nath Mishra, Satish Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Development of new and effective therapeutics for sexually transmitted herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is important from public health perspective. With an aim to identify natural products from medicinal plants, in the present study, the potential of Terminalia chebula Retz was investigated for its activity against HSV-2. METHODS: Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz were used to prepare 50% ethanolic extract. In addition, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid both purified from T...
February 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191384/delayed-temporal-lobe-hemorrhage-after-initiation-of-acyclovir-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-with-herpes-simplex-virus-2-encephalitis-a-case-report
#16
Kyle Mueller, Joshua E Ryan, Alex Tai, Rocco A Armonda
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of non-epidemic, sporadic, acute focal encephalitis in the United States. Inflammation of the vasculature makes them friable and susceptible to hemorrhage. Massive hemorrhage, though rare, can present in a delayed fashion after initiation of acyclovir and often requires surgical intervention. We report a unique case of delayed temporal lobe hemorrhage after initiation of acyclovir in an immunocompetent patient, specifically for its presentation, virology, and surgical management...
January 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180012/seroprevalence-and-co-infection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-among-pregnant-women-in-lokoja-north-central-nigeria
#17
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Oluwatomi Olufunke Amuda, Charles Nzurumike, Muhammed Mustapha Suleiman, Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153513/first-estimates-of-the-global-and-regional-incidence-of-neonatal-herpes-infection
#18
Katharine J Looker, Amalia S Magaret, Margaret T May, Katherine M E Turner, Peter Vickerman, Lori M Newman, Sami L Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Neonatal herpes is a rare but potentially devastating condition with an estimated 60% fatality rate without treatment. Transmission usually occurs during delivery from mothers with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the global burden has never been quantified to our knowledge. We developed a novel methodology for burden estimation and present first WHO global and regional estimates of the annual number of neonatal herpes cases during 2010-15...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146426/ex-vivo-2d-and-3d-hsv-2-infection-model-using-human-normal-vaginal-epithelial-cells
#19
Yaqi Zhu, Yan Yang, Juanjuan Guo, Ying Dai, Lina Ye, Jianbin Qiu, Zhihong Zeng, Xiaoting Wu, Yanmei Xing, Xiang Long, Xufeng Wu, Lin Ye, Shubin Wang, Hui Li
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition...
January 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134004/prevalence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-tanzanian-migrants-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Alison H Norris, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband, Melissa Wiles, Jeannette R Ickovics
For the many millions of migrants, mobility creates vulnerabilities and elevates risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We document, among Tanzanian agricultural plantation residents, migrant characteristics and test associations between migrant status and prevalent STI (HSV-2, syphilis, and HIV). From 623 plantation resident participants, we limit this analysis to participants about whom we know migration status (migrants n = 242, non-migrants n = 291). We collected behavioral data via audio-computer assisted self-interview survey, and clinical data via STI testing...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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