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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#1
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095879/treatment-seeking-behaviour-and-barriers-to-service-access-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-survey
#2
Jun-Jie Xu, Yan-Qiu Yu, Qing-Hai Hu, Hong-Jing Yan, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Wei-Ming Tang, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Delayed or inappropriate treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increases the risk of HIV acquisition and may cause other harmful outcomes. However, studies on STD treatment-seeking behaviour and correlated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) are scarce. This information is crucial for the promotion of STD treatment-seeking behaviour and reduction of HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. METHODS: During 2012-2013, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 Chinese cities...
January 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093274/a-direct-quantitative-pcr-based-measurement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-susceptibility-to-antiviral-drugs-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#3
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081512/association-between-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-with-cardiac-myxoma
#4
Maryam Sotoudeh Anvari, Moud Sabagh, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Shayan Ziaei, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Leyla Pourgholi, Yaser Jenab, Kyomars Abbasi
Most cases of atrial myxoma are sporadic, and the exact etiology is unknown. We examined if herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 antigens and/or DNA could be detected in a cohort of Iranian patients with cardiac myxomas. From July 2004 to June 2014, among a total of 36,703 patients undergoing open heart surgeries, consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated by surgical excision at our center included in this study. Of 73 patients studied, 56% were female with a mean age of 54 years (ranging from 23 to 77 years)...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079748/clinical-characteristics-of-herpes-simplex-virus-urethritis-compared-with-chlamydial-urethritis-among-men
#5
Jason J Ong, Anna N Morton, Helen R Henzell, Karen Berzins, Julian Druce, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona S Bradshaw, Tim Rh Read, Jane S Hocking, Marcus Y Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis. METHODS: We compared clinical and laboratory data from men diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV urethritis with those of men with chlamydial urethritis presenting to Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: Eighty HSV urethritis cases were identified: 55 (68%, 95% confidence interval, 58-78) were by HSV-1 and 25 (32%, 95% confidence interval, 22-42) by HSV-2...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052976/reciprocal-physical-intimate-partner-violence-is-associated-with-prevalent-sti-hiv-among-male-tanzanian-migrant-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Alison H Norris, Michele R Decker, Yiska L Weisband, Michelle J Hindin
OBJECTIVES: Physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and STIs, including HIV, are highly prevalent in east Africa. While we have some evidence about women's experience with physical IPV, little is known about men's experience with physical IPV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to examine, in Tanzanian male migrant plantation residents, the prevalence of, and associations among, experience and enactment of physical IPV and prevalent STI/HIV. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional survey of male plantation residents (n=158) in northern Tanzania were analysed to estimate prevalence of physical IPV experience and enactment...
January 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051084/enrichment-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-reactive-mucosal-t-cells-in-the-human-female-genital-tract
#7
C M Posavad, L Zhao, L Dong, L Jin, C E Stevens, A S Magaret, C Johnston, A Wald, J Zhu, L Corey, D M Koelle
Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033514/infections-due-to-alphaherpesviruses-in-early-post-transplant-period-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-results-of-a-5-year-survey
#8
Maciej Przybylski, Anna Majewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Patrycja Rusicka, Grzegorz W Basak, Barbara Nasilowska-Adamska, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Wieslaw W Jedrzejczak, Marta Wroblewska, Kazimierz Halaburda, Grazyna Mlynarczyk, Agnieszka Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by human α-herpesviruses usually have a benign course with recurrencies. However, they may become dangerous in immunocompromised hosts. In this case, molecular methods constitute a reliable diagnostic tool enabling rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the frequency of alphaherpesviral DNAemia and the viral load during early post-transplantation period after alloHSCT; we also analyzed association of the DNAemia and chosen parameters of the patients...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024582/evaluation-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-and-poly-dl-lactide-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-electrospun-fibers-for-the-treatment-of-hsv-2-infection
#9
Stella E Aniagyei, Lee B Sims, Danial A Malik, Kevin M Tyo, Keegan C Curry, Woihwan Kim, Daniel A Hodge, Jinghua Duan, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
More diverse multipurpose prevention technologies are urgently needed to provide localized, topical pre-exposure prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this work, we established the foundation for a multipurpose platform, in the form of polymeric electrospun fibers (EFs), to physicochemically treat herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. To initiate this study, we fabricated different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(dl-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) EFs that encapsulate Acyclovir (ACV), to treat HSV-2 infection in vitro...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017425/vaccination-of-rhesus-macaques-with-the-live-attenuated-hsv-1-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-the-proliferation-of-mucosal-t-cells-and-germinal-center-responses-resulting-in-sustained-production-of-highly-neutralizing-antibodies
#10
Brent A Stanfield, Bapi Pahar, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Ronald Veazey, Konstantin G Kousoulas
We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain with mutations in glycoprotein K (gK) and the membrane protein UL20 is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. To better understand the immune response generated by vaccination with VC2, we tested its ability to elicit immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals showed no signs of disease and developed increasing HSV-1 and HSV-2 reactive IgG1 after two booster vaccinations, while IgG subtypes IgG2 and IgG3 remained at low to undetectable levels...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008866/antiviral-potential-and-mode-of-action-of-indigofera-heterantha-against-hsv-2-by-targeting-the-early-stages-of-infection
#11
Natasha Kapoor Kaushik, Rupa Guha, Becky M Thomas
BACKGROUND: The development of antivirals against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) has a major public health importance because of the wide spectrum of associated clinical disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations. Even with the extensive use of acyclovir, issues such as emergence of drug resistant strains, poor oral bioavailability, and low effectiveness in recurrent infections have highlighted the requirement for alternate therapies. Plants, which are rich in metabolites and active against viruses, are being explored as one such source...
December 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007920/role-of-il-32-in-hiv-reactivation-and-its-link-to-hiv-hsv-coinfection
#12
Pedro M M Mesquita, Paula Preston-Hurlburt, Marla J Keller, Nalini Vudattu, Lilia Espinoza, Michelle Altrich, Kathryn Anastos, Kevan C Herold, Betsy C Herold
BACKGROUND: HSV-2 exacerbates HIV by unclear mechanisms. These studies tested the impact of HSV-2 on systemic T cell populations and HIV reservoirs. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy who were HSV-2 seropositive or seronegative (HIV(+)/HSV-2(+) or HIV(+)/HSV-2(-)) and HIV-uninfected controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. HIV cell-associated (CA)-DNA and RNA were quantified in the absence or presence of activating stimuli, recombinant IL-32γ, and a RUNX1 inhibitor...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007703/immunohistochemistry-is-rarely-justified-for-the-diagnosis-of-viral-infections
#13
Isaac H Solomon, Jason L Hornick, Alvaro C Laga
OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the diagnosis of viral infections in surgical pathology specimens lacking characteristic viral cytopathic effects. METHODS: Five years of cases at an academic medical center were reviewed for the use of IHC to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus, or polyomavirus (ie, BK or JC). RESULTS: In total, 1,636 viral IHC stains were ordered on 1,099 specimens from 957 cases...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003966/performance-of-kalon-herpes-simplex-virus-2-assay-using-dried-blood-spots-among-young-women-in-uganda
#14
Sam L Nsobya, Paul C Hewett, Sam Kalibala, Barbara S Mensch
The study evaluated the performance of the Kalon HSV-2 assay on dried blood spots (DBS) of various dilutions compared with plasma from young women aged 18-24 years in Uganda. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of three DBS dilutions using plasma as the reference. All three evaluated DBS dilutions yielded low sensitivities and specificities with DBS 1:2 yielding the highest concurrence. Other HSV-2 assays should be examined with regard to their utility for testing DBS.
2016: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003032/commercial-sex-and-risk-of-hiv-syphilis-and-herpes-simplex-virus-2-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-six-chinese-cities
#15
Cunge Zheng, Jun-Jie Xu, Qing-Hai Hu, Yan-Qiu Yu, Zhen-Xing Chu, Jing Zhang, Xiao-Xu Han, Lin Lu, Zhe Wang, Ji-Hua Fu, Xi Chen, Hong-Jing Yan, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Sten H Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China and globally. Engaging in commercial sex put them at even greater risk. This study estimated the prevalence of HIV/STIs among three subgroups of MSM: MSM who sold sex (MSM-selling), MSM who bought sex (MSM-buying), and non-commercial MSM (NC-MSM) and evaluated the relationship between commercial sex and HIV/STIs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM in six Chinese cities (Shenyang, Ji'nan, Changsha, Zhengzhou, Nanjing, and Kunming) from 2012 to 2013...
December 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999325/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antiviral-lectin-griffithsin-administered-by-different-routes-indicates-multiple-potential-uses
#16
Christopher Barton, J Calvin Kouokam, Harrell Hurst, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points...
December 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997660/serologic-screening-for-genital-herpes-an-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#17
Cynthia Feltner, Catherine Grodensky, Charles Ebel, Jennifer C Middleton, Russell P Harris, Mahima Ashok, Daniel E Jonas
Importance: Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016...
20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997659/serologic-screening-for-genital-herpes-infection-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#18
Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Karina W Davidson, John W Epling, Francisco A R García, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, William R Phillips, Maureen G Phipps, Michael P Pignone, Michael Silverstein, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States, occurring in almost 1 in 6 persons aged 14 to 49 years. Infection is caused by 2 subtypes of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2. Antiviral medications may provide symptomatic relief from outbreaks but do not cure HSV infection. Neonatal herpes infection, while uncommon, can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Objective: To update the 2005 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for genital herpes...
20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997653/effect-of-pritelivir-compared-with-valacyclovir-on-genital-hsv-2-shedding-in-patients-with-frequent-recurrences-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Anna Wald, Burkhard Timmler, Amalia Magaret, Terri Warren, Stephen Tyring, Christine Johnston, Kenneth Fife, Stacy Selke, Meei-Li Huang, Hans-Peter Stobernack, Holger Zimmermann, Lawrence Corey, Alexander Birkmann, Helga Ruebsamen-Schaeff
Importance: Current therapy of herpes infections relies on nucleoside analogues. Pritelivir is a well-tolerated novel herpes simplex virus (HSV) helicase-primase inhibitor that reduced genital shedding and lesions. Objective: To compare the efficacy of pritelivir with valacyclovir for suppression of genital HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial at clinical research centers in 4 US cities (October 2012-July 2013) compared daily oral doses of 100 mg of pritelivir with 500 mg of valacyclovir...
20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974365/nk-cells-require-antigen-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-to-mediate-superior-effector-functions-during-hsv-2-recall-responses-in-vitro
#20
Branson Chen, Amanda J Lee, Marianne V Chew, Ali A Ashkar
Natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in mounting protective innate responses against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. However their role as effectors in adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells from C57BL/6 mice in an ex vivo splenocyte culture produce significantly more interferon γ (IFN-γ) upon re-exposure to HSV-2 antigens in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 immunization. We find that naïve NK cells do not require any prior stimulation or priming to be activated to produce IFN-γ...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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