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Paul A Granato, Marcia A DeGilio, Elsie M Wilson
BACKGROUND: The Lyra™ Direct HSV 1+2/VZV Assay is a moderately complex, multiplex PCR assay that qualitatively detects the presence of HSV 1, HSV 2, and VZV DNA in cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens with a time-to-result of less than 60min. OBJECTIVES: To report a one-year laboratory experience using Lyra assay for testing cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens for HSV and VZV that resulted in the unexpected detection of VZV in 14 male and female genital specimens...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Fang Ma, Wenwei Shen, Xiaoqi Zhang, Manmei Li, Yifei Wang, Yuxiao Zou, Yaolan Li, Hui Wang
Six stilbene derivatives isolated from Mulberry leaves including Kuwanon X, Mulberrofuran C, Mulberrofuran G, Moracin C, Moracin M 3'-O-b-glucopyranoside and Moracin M were found to have antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) at different potencies except for Mulberrofuran G. Kuwanon X exhibited the greatest activity against HSV-1 15577 and clinical strains and HSV-2 strain 333 with IC50 values of 2.2, 1.5 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively. Further study revealed that Kuwanon X did not inactivate cell-free HSV-1 particles, but inhibited cellular adsorption and penetration of HSV-1 viral particles...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
D Topalis, S Gillemot, R Snoeck, G Andrei
Emergence of drug-resistance to all FDA-approved antiherpesvirus agents is an increasing concern in immunocompromised patients. Herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is currently the target of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. Mutations in DNApol that confer resistance arose in immunocompromised patients infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and to lesser extent in herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). In this review, we present distinct drug-resistant mutational profiles of herpesvirus DNApol...
September 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Nadia Martinez-Martin, Abel Viejo-Borbolla, Antonio Alcami
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) are among the most prevalent human pathogens, causing a variety of diseases. HSV modulation of the chemokine network remains poorly understood. We have previously identified secreted glycoprotein G (gG) as the first viral chemokine binding protein that enhances chemokine function as a novel viral immunomodulatory mechanism. However, gG is also present at the viral envelope and its role in the virus particle remains unknown. Here we have addressed the chemokine binding capacity of HSV particles and the functionality of such interaction in vitro...
September 27, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Barbara Van Der Pol
HSV-1 and HSV-2 are among the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections (stis) globally. these infections are strongly associated with increased risk of hiv acquisition and rare, but devastating, neonatal disease. available treatment options can reduce HSV transmission and improve quality of life. accurate diagnosis early in disease can improve patient management. Areas covered: This paper describes the clinical manifestations of HSV infection often used for clinical diagnostic purposes. The paper then describes the evolution of laboratory diagnostic assays...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Griffins O Manguro, Linnet N Masese, Ruth W Deya, Amalia Magaret, Anna Wald, R Scott McClelland, Susan M Graham
OBJECTIVES: Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment...
2016: PloS One
Dr Mélanie Fromentin, Remy Gauzit, Benoit Gille, Charles Marc Samama
Genital herpes is increasingly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), but recurrences are less frequent than with HSV-2. Distinguishing between primary genital infection and reactivation can be difficult, but HSV-1 more often causes severe primary infections and fewer recurrences. However, as virus reactivation is common during septic shock, a severe form of HSV-1 reactivation can occur in locations other than the lungs, which remain the most common site. The case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man who presented with HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis after three episodes of severe sepsis or septic shock in the context of acute biliary necrotizing pancreatitis is described...
2016: IDCases
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
We report the case of a 57 year-old woman who developed myelitis and acute HSV-2 reactivation following influenza vaccination. Over the next 5 years, she experienced a fluctuating course of improvement and regression for both myelitis and herpes.
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Y Liu, H L Yang, F F Zhong, J Y Fan
BACKGROUND: The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the only detectable viral gene expressed during latent infection in neurons. LAT inhibits apoptosis and maintains latency by promoting the survival of infected neurons. However, whether LAT functions during HSV-2 infection via its encoded RNAs or via its encoded proteins remain unknown. Increasing evidence has indicated that LAT is likely to functionally promote the establishment of latent infection via LAT-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Muzammel Haque, Brent Stanfield, Konstantin G Kousoulas
We have previously shown that the HSV-1 gK and UL20 proteins interact and function in virion envelopment, membrane fusion, and neuronal entry. Alignment of the predicted secondary structures of gKs encoded by BoHV-1, HSV-1, HSV-2, EHV-1 and VZV indicated a high degree of domain conservation. Two BoHV-1 gK-null mutant viruses were created by either gK gene deletion or stop codon insertion. In addition, a V5 epitope-tag was inserted at the carboxyl terminus of gK gene to detect gK. The engineered gK-null mutant viruses failed to replicate and produce viral plaques...
September 20, 2016: Virology
Clarice Perry, Brianne Banasik, Summer R Gorder, Jingya Xia, Sarah Auclair, Nigel Bourne, Gregg N Milligan
Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Jessica Baker Flechtner, Deborah Long, Shane Larson, Veronica Clemens, Amy Baccari, Lena Kien, Jason Chan, Mojca Skoberne, Matthew Brudner, Seth Hetherington
PURPOSE: GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine containing a fragment of infected cell protein 4 (ICP4.2), a deletion mutant of glycoprotein D2 (gD2ΔTMR), and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. In a dose-ranging phase 1/2a clinical trial, immunization with GEN-003 reduced viral shedding and the percentage of reported herpetic lesion days. Here we examine the immune responses in the same trial, to characterize vaccine-related changes in antibody and cell-mediated immunity. METHODS: Participants with genital HSV-2 infection were randomized to 1 of 3 doses of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Nicolò Mauro, Paolo Ferruti, Elisabetta Ranucci, Amedea Manfredi, Angela Berzi, Mario Clerici, Valeria Cagno, David Lembo, Alessandro Palmioli, Sara Sattin
The initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. Blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Mannosylated glycodendrimers act as HIV entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this receptor. Previously, an amphoteric, but prevailingly cationic polyamidoamine named AGMA1 proved effective as infection inhibitor for several heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV-16 and herpes simplex virus HSV-2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Doina Atanasiu, Wan Ting Saw, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen
: Receptor dependent HSV-induced fusion requires glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. Our current model posits that during fusion receptor-activated conformational changes in gD activate gH/gL, which subsequently triggers transformation of the pre-fusion form of gB into a fusogenic state. To examine the role of each glycoprotein in receptor dependent cell-cell fusion we took advantage of our discovery that fusion by wild type HSV-2 glycoproteins occurs twice as fast as that achieved by HSV-1 glycoproteins...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Yalan Liu, Mei Li, Di Zhang, Mudan Zhang, Qinxue Hu
BACKGROUND: HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes. We previously demonstrated that the host viral restriction factor tetherin restricts HSV-2 release and is antagonized by several HSV-2 glycoproteins. However, the mechanisms underlying HSV-2 glycoproteins mediated counteraction of tetherin remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether tetherin restricts the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-2 and the mechanisms underlying HSV-2 gD mediated antagonism of tetherin. METHODS: Infectious center assays were used to test whether tetherin could affect cell-to-cell spread of HSV-2...
2016: Virology Journal
Sonia P Bohórquez, Juliana Díaz, Claudia M Rincón, Marcela Estupiñán, Mauricio Chaparro, Ana María Low-Calle, Jaime E Castellanos
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients is an alternative treatment for different diseases. The conditioning regimen for transplant predisposes recipients to the development of infections. Viral infections by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are the most common, and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. These viruses lie dormant in various cell types and the reactivation of latent infections may lead to asymptomatic viral shedding in saliva...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Paulomi Aldo, Yuan You, Klara Szigeti, Tamas L Horvath, Brett Lindenbach, Gil Mor
PROBLEM: Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained public concern for its association with microcephaly in infants born to ZIKV-infected mothers. To reach the fetus the virus must overcome the defense mechanisms provided by trophoblast cells. Additionally, in the first trimester, the integrity of the placenta is critical for fetal protection as damage to differentiating trophoblast can affect placental formation and function. We sought to investigate the effect of ZIKV infection on trophoblast cells and the factors that might increase the risk for ZIKV infection during pregnancy...
November 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Néstor Casillas-Vega, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Santos García, Jorge Llaca-Díaz, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Ma de la Merced Ayala-Castellanos, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Santiago Petersen-Morfín, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza, Francisco J Bosques-Padilla, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nine sexually transmitted pathogens, coinfections and risk factors in patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Jalisco, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 662 patients attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics were analyzed. Treponema pallidum, HIV, and HCV were detected by serology. HPV was detected by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and its genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
Jun-Jie Xu, Wei-Ming Tang, Hua-Chun Zou, Tanmay Mahapatra, Qing-Hai Hu, Geng-Feng Fu, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Yan-Qiu Yu, Jin-Xin Lu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Xiao-Xu Han, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Recent upsurge of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a major concern in China. Paucity of national-level information regarding the burden and predictors of this progressive epidemic of new infections called for a multi-centric, timely and comprehensive investigation. METHODS: Mixed methods were used to recruit MSM from seven cities in China between 2012 and 2013. Recent and established HIV infections were estimated by Western Blot and BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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