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Sarah E Kleinstein, Patrick R Shea, Andrew S Allen, David M Koelle, Anna Wald, David B Goldstein
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an incurable viral infection with severity ranging from asymptomatic to frequent recurrences. The viral shedding rate has been shown as a reproducible HSV-2 severity end point that correlates with lesion rates. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate the role of common human genetic variation in HSV-2 severity. We performed a GWAS on 223 HSV-2-positive participants of European ancestry. Severity was measured by viral shedding rate, as defined by the percent of days PCR+ for HSV-2 DNA over at least 30 days...
February 28, 2018: Genes and Immunity
A Deethae, Y Peerapornpisal, J Pekkoh, P Sangthong, Y Tragoolpua
AIMS: To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml-1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Varun Chauhan, Kapil Goyal, Mini P Singh
Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. The present study was aimed to identify the conserved T and B cell epitopes in the major glycoproteins of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via rigorous computational approaches. Identification of promiscuous T cell epitopes is of utmost importance in vaccine designing as such epitopes are capable of binding to several allelic forms of HLA and could generate effective immune response in the host...
March 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Wenwen Dai, Yu Wu, Jinpeng Bi, Shuai Wang, Fang Li, Wei Kong, Julien Barbier, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Feng Gao, Daniel Gillet, Weiheng Su, Chunlai Jiang
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative pathogen of genital herpes and is closely associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The absence of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance to commonly used nucleoside analogs emphasize the urgent need for alternative antivirals against HSV-2. Recently, ABMA [1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine] has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of several pathogens exploiting host-vesicle transport, which also participates in the HSV-2 lifecycle...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Katarzyna Klysik, Aneta Pietraszek, Anna Karewicz, Maria Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex (HSV) viruses are widely spread, highly contagious human pathogens. The statistics indicate that 50-90% of adults worldwide are seropositive for these viruses, mainly HSV-1 and HSV-2. The primary infection results in the appearance of watery blisters (cold sores) on the skin, lips, tongue, buccal mucosa or genitals. The ocular infection is the major cause of corneal blindness in the Western World. Once the HSV virus enters human body it cannot be completely eradicated because HSV viruses are able to change into their latent form which can survive the treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Q Duan, R Li, M Z Liao, P X Huang, H Y Yu, T Yang, S X Shan, D M Kang
Objective: This study aimed to understand the herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection and related factors among female drug abusers in the women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center of Shandong province and to provide reference for the prevention and control of HSV-2 in these settings. Methods: We screened all of 451 female drug abusers in the women's compulsory drug rehabilitation centers in of Shandong province and conducted a study using both questionnaire investigation and serological tests for HSV-2, HIV and syphilis...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Caitlin M Drumm, Maura C Caufield, Cynthia M DeKlotz, Helena B Pasieka, Kabir M Abubakar
There is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from pregnant women to their fetus or newborn. Although most commonly transmitted in the peripartum period, in rare cases HSV can lead to intrauterine infection. Cutaneous lesions are the most common manifestation of intrauterine HSV, and have a wide spectrum of presentation. We present a rare case of intrauterine HSV-2 infection presenting with a zosteriform eruption mimicking congenital varicella syndrome in a newborn...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Daniel B Reeves, Amalia S Magaret, Alex L Greninger, Christine Johnston, Joshua T Schiffer
Humans can be infected sequentially by different strains of the same virus. Estimating the prevalence of so-called 'superinfection' for a particular pathogen is vital because superinfection implies a failure of immunologic memory against a given virus despite past exposure, which may signal challenges for future vaccine development. Increasingly, viral deep sequencing and phylogenetic inference can discriminate distinct strains within a host. Yet, a population-level study may misrepresent the true prevalence of superinfection for several reasons...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Elizabeth A Torrone, Charles S Morrison, Pai-Lien Chen, Cynthia Kwok, Suzanna C Francis, Richard J Hayes, Katharine J Looker, Sheena McCormack, Nuala McGrath, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Deborah Watson-Jones, Nicola Low, Sami L Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993-2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for ≥1 selected STIs or BV at baseline...
February 2018: PLoS Medicine
Suzanna C Francis, T Nondumiso Mthiyane, Kathy Baisley, S Lerato Mchunu, Jane B Ferguson, Theresa Smit, Tania Crucitti, Dickman Gareta, Siphephelo Dlamini, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Janet Seeley, Deenan Pillay, Nuala McGrath, Maryam Shahmanesh
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are associated with increased transmission of HIV, and poor reproductive and sexual health. The burden of STIs/BV among young people is unknown in many high HIV prevalence settings. We conducted an acceptability, feasibility, and prevalence study of home-based sampling for STIs/BV among young men and women aged 15-24 years old in a health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 2018: PLoS Medicine
Tatjana Vilibić-Čavlek, Branko Kolarić, Maja Bogdanić, Irena Tabain, Nataša Beader
Herpes group viruses (herpes simplex virus, HSV; varicella-zoster virus, VZV; cytomegalovirus, CMV; and Epstein-Barr virus, EBV) remain an important cause of morbidity in immunocompromised persons. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV and EBV in patients undergoing hemodialysis. During a three-year period (2013-2015), 152 consecutive serum samples from hemodialysis patients and 150 healthy subjects (control group) were tested for the presence of IgM/IgG antibodies to herpes group viruses...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Lainee S Goettsche, Karolyn A Wanat
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease that typically presents with focal erosions or small vesicles on an erythematous base.Herein, a case is described in which a 42-year old man experienced a genital HSV-2 outbreak after sustaining a spinal cord injury. No typical prodromal symptomswere experienced; therefore the vesicular lesions remained completely intact, granting an unusual opportunity to visualize herpetic infection in its most classic morphology.
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Soha R Dargham, Gheyath K Nasrallah, Enas S Al-Absi, Layla I Mohammed, Rana S Al-Disi, Mariam Y Nofal, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). We examined country- and age-specific HSV-2 seroprevalence among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. METHODS: Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation June 2013-2016. Specimens were screened for anti-HSV-2 IgG antibodies following a two-test algorithm: HerpeSelect® 2 ELISA was used to identify HSV-2 positive specimens, and Euroline-WB was used to confirm positive and equivocal specimens for final HSV-2 status...
January 16, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Hong-Ha M Truong, Robin Fatch, Robert M Grant, Meenakshi Mathur, Sameer Kumta, Hemangi Jerajani, Timothy A Kellogg, Christina P Lindan
We examined associations with HIV recent infection and estimated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence among 3345 men at sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai (2002-2005). HIV seroincidence was 7.92% by the BED-CEIA and was higher at a clinic located near brothels (12.39%) than at a hospital-based clinic (3.94%). HIV recent infection was associated with a lifetime history of female sex worker (FSW) partners, HSV-2, genital warts, and gonorrhea. TDR prevalence among recent infection cases was 5...
February 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
(no author information available yet)
During 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-1 was 48.1% among adolescents and adults aged 14-49 years (50.9% for females and 45.2% for males). Prevalence was higher for females than males in most 2-year periods from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Also during 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-2 for those aged 14-49 years was 12.1% (15.9% among females compared to 8.2% among males) and was higher for females than males for all 2-year periods. Prevalence significantly declined from 1999-2000 through 2015-2016 for HSV-1 and HSV-2 among both males and females...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Marianna Karachaliou, Silvia de Sanjose, Tim Waterboer, Theano Roumeliotaki, Maria Vassilaki, Katerina Sarri, Vasiliki Leventakou, Marina Vafeiadi, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an infectious origin of obesity is emerging. We explored whether common viruses were associated with obesity and metabolic traits. METHODS: We used cross-sectional (n = 674) and prospective (n = 440) data from children participating at the 4 and 6 years of age follow-up in the Rhea birth cohort. Presence of IgG antibodies to ten polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, MCPyV, HPyV9, and HPyV10) and four herpesviruses (EBV, CMV, HSV-1, and HSV-2) were measured at age 4...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Anna Brischetto, Ian Gassiep, David Whiley, Robert Norton
There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemi-luminescence immunoassay (CMIA), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid reagin (RPR) flocculation test). A retrospective audit was conducted of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, T...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Geraldine McQuillan, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Elaine W Flagg, Ryne Paulose-Ram
During 2015-2016, prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was 47.8%, and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 11.9%. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased with age. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was higher among females than males. Prevalence of HSV-1 was highest among Mexican- American persons and lowest among non-Hispanic white persons. HSV-2 prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic black persons and lowest among non-Hispanic Asian persons. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 decreased from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016 (from 59...
February 2018: NCHS Data Brief
Christina Farr Zuend, John F Nomellini, John Smit, Marc S Horwitz
HSV-2 infection is a significant health problem and a major co-morbidity factor for HIV-1 acquisition, increasing risk of infection 2-4 fold. Condom based prevention strategies for HSV-2 and HIV-1 have not been effective at stopping the HIV-1 pandemic, indicating that alternative prevention strategies need to be investigated. We have previously developed an inexpensive HIV-1 specific microbicide that utilizes the S-layer mediated display capabilities of Caulobacter crescentus, and have shown that recombinant C...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne-Kathrin Brunnemann, Anja Hoffmann, Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Claus-Henning Nagel, Ruben Rose, Helmut Fickenscher, Andreas Sauerbrei, Andi Krumbholz
Therapy or prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections with the nucleoside analog aciclovir (ACV) can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-2 strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this context, multiple amino acid (aa) changes can accumulate in the ACV-converting viral thymidine kinase (TK) which hampers sequence-based diagnostics significantly. In this study, the so far unknown or still doubted relevance of several individual aa changes for drug resistance in HSV-2 was clarified...
February 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
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