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Maja Bech Juul, Pernille Hammershoej Jensen, Henriette Engberg, Sonja Wehberg, Andriette Dessau-Arp, Donika Haziri, Helene Bjoerg Kristensen, Joachim Baech, Lene Schurmann, Michael Roost Clausen, Rebecca Valentin, Lene Meldgaard Knudsen, Lars Munksgaard, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Henrik Frederiksen, Thomas Stauffer Larsen
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment strategy for the oldest patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial, as this group often is precluded from clinical trials, and population-based studies are limited. METHODS: All Danish DLBCL-patients ≥75 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were identified, using the Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO). Information regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, comorbidities and outcomes was retrieved from LYFO, the Danish National health registries and medical records...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Yang Yanfang, Zhang Kaikai, Yang Liying, Lv Xing, Wu Ying, Liu Hongwei, Lu Qiang, Chen Duanfen, Qiu Deyou
Myelocytomatosis (MYC) transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. In cell cultures, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can improve the production of taxol, which is a complex terpenoid compound with an intense antitumor activity. However, the functions of MYC genes in Taxus sp. (yew trees) remain poorly known. Based on Taxus sp. transcriptome changes induced by MeJA, a TcMYC gene was isolated in a previous study. Here, we further characterized the TcMYC TF encoded by that gene and four other yew MYC TFs previously obtained...
June 20, 2018: Gene
L R Koopmans, H Finlayson, A Whitelaw, E H Decloedt, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Data on antimicrobial use among hospitalised children in Africa is very limited owing to the absence of electronic prescription tracking. METHODS: We evaluated antimicrobial consumption rates, antimicrobial spectrum used and indications for therapy on a paediatric ward and the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Antimicrobial prescription and patient demographic data was prospectively collected from 10 May 2015 to 11 November 2015...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ingryd Fortes Souza Lipaus, Elisa Fraga Gomes, Cleciane Waldetário Martins, Cristina Martins E Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Fernanda Malgarin, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Ester Miyuki Nakamura Palacios, Lívia Carla de Melo Rodrigues
Crack cocaine is a highly toxic drug with great potential to induce addiction. It produces more intense effects than cocaine powder, with its use having grown worldwide. However, few studies have focused on the cognitive and biochemical consequences that result from crack cocaine inhalation. This study examined the effects of direct crack cocaine inhalation on spatial working memory and brain oxidative stress parameters in rats. Male adult Wistar rats, well-trained in an eight-arm radial maze (8-RM), underwent five sessions of crack cocaine inhalation (crack cocaine group) once a day or inhalation simulation (sham group), being tested in 1-h delayed tasks 24 h after the last inhalation...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shin Hayase, Kazuhiro Wada
Learned vocalization, including birdsong and human speech, is acquired through self-motivated vocal practice during the sensitive period of vocal learning. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) develops a song characterized by vocal variability and crystalizes a defined song pattern as adulthood. However, it remains unknown how vocal variability is regulated with diurnal singing during the sensorimotor learning period. Here, we investigated the expression of activity-dependent neuroplasticity-related gene Arc during the early plastic song phase to examine its potential association with vocal plasticity...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
A Haehner, T Hummel, W Heinritz, S Krueger, M Meinhardt, K L Whitcroft, R Sabatowski, G Gossrau
Mutations in the sodium-channel Nav 1.7, encoded by the gene SCN9A, are known to cause pain disorders. In particular, gain-of-function missense mutations in Nav 1.7 have been shown to be causal in primary erythromelalgia. We present a patient with erythromelalgia, pain attacks and hyperosmia with a mutation within the sodium channel gene SCN9A. A 50-year-old woman presented with burning pain in both feet and abdominal pain attacks developed over the course of 10 years. Furthermore, this patient experienced a hypersensitivity for odors...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
Healthcare professionals working on inpatient wards face the externalizing or challenging behaviour of the patients who are admitted. Ethical values and principles in psychiatric nursing have been reported to be important when approaching patients during the most acute phase of deterioration in their mental health. Hence, the aim of this study was to discover and describe staff members' ethical and moral concerns about their work as healthcare professionals in a psychiatric intensive care unit. The study has a qualitative descriptive design and makes use of Framework Analysis...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Luciana Scotti, Hamilton Mitsugu Ishiki, Marcelo Cavalcante Duarte, Tiago Branquinho Oliveira, Marcus T Scotti
Current therapeutic strategies entail identifying and characterizing a single protein receptor whose inhibition is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease of interest, and testing experimentally large libraries of small molecule compounds "in vitro" and "in vivo" to identify promising inhibitors in model systems and determine if the findings are extensible to humans. This highly complex process is largely based on tests, errors, risk, time, and intensive costs. The virtual computational study of compounds simulates situations predicting possible drug linkages with multiple protein target atomic structures, taking into account the dynamic protein inhibitor, and can help identify inhibitors efficiently, particularly for complex drug-resistant diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hanie Ahmadzade Kermani, Morteza Hosseini, Andrea Miti, Mehdi Dadmehr, Giampaolo Zuccheri, Saman Hosseinkhani, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyl transferase (MTase) is a significant epigenetic process for modulating gene expression. Abnormal levels of DNA MTase enzyme have been regarded as a cancer biomarker or a sign of bacterial diseases. We developed a novel colorimetric method to assay M.SssI MTase activity employing peroxidase-like activity of DNA template Ag/Pt NCs without using restriction enzymes. Based on inhibiting the peroxidase reaction that occurred in the TMB-H2 O2 system, in the presence of MTase, a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric biosensor was fabricated with a detection limit (LOD) of 0...
June 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
María E Báez, Jeannette Espinoza, Edwar Fuentes
The intensive use of insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) in the agricultural activities worldwide has produced contamination of soils and/or transport to non-target areas including their distribution to surface and groundwaters. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been proposed as an alternative in remediation technologies based on the separation of contaminants from soils because they could allow a higher bioavailability for their degradation with a low environmental impact. In this work, the degradation pattern of CPF and DZN and the formation and dissipation of the major degradation products 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMPH) was established in four agricultural volcanic and non-volcanic soils belonging to Andisol, Ultisol, and Mollisol orders...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dragana Bartolić, Mira Stanković, Dragosav Mutavdžić, Slavica Stanković, Dragoljub Jovanović, Ksenija Radotić
In this preliminary study, we used the Multivariate Curve Resolution- Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm to analyze the excitation-emission matrix for different samples of maize flour contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) - uncontaminated, low-contaminated, high-contaminated and flour from the local market. We intended to see if there are differences in emission spectral parameters that depend on degree of contamination. The analysis used genuine emission of the fluorophores in the flour, in absence and presence of AFB1, which enables fast screening of the samples, without sample pre-processing...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
Martin Hanel, Oldřich Rakovec, Yannis Markonis, Petr Máca, Luis Samaniego, Jan Kyselý, Rohini Kumar
Early 21st-century droughts in Europe have been broadly regarded as exceptionally severe, substantially affecting a wide range of socio-economic sectors. These extreme events were linked mainly to increases in temperature and record-breaking heatwaves that have been influencing Europe since 2000, in combination with a lack of precipitation during the summer months. Drought propagated through all respective compartments of the hydrological cycle, involving low runoff and prolonged soil moisture deficits. What if these recent droughts are not as extreme as previously thought? Using reconstructed droughts over the last 250 years, we show that although the 2003 and 2015 droughts may be regarded as the most extreme droughts driven by precipitation deficits during the vegetation period, their spatial extent and severity at a long-term European scale are less uncommon...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Karlsen, Elisabeth Ytteborg, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Vibeke Høst, Sigurd Handeland, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Aleksei Krasnov
Atlantic salmon farming operates with high production intensities where skin integrity is recognized as a central factor and indicator for animal health and welfare. In the described trial, the skin development and its immune status in healthy Atlantic salmon reared in two different systems, a traditional open net-pen system and a semi-closed containment system, were investigated. Freshwater smolts were compared to post-smolts after 1 and 4 months in seawater. Growth performance, when adjusted for temperature, was equal between the systems...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi Wang, Yuji Liu, Siwei Song, Zhijian Yang, Xiujuan Qi, Kangcai Wang, Yu Liu, Qinghua Zhang, Yong Tian
Finding new high-energy-density materials with desired properties has been intensely-pursued in recent decades. However, the contradictory relationship between high energy and low mechanical sensitivity makes the innovation of insensitive high-energy-density materials an enormous challenge. Here, we show how a materials genome approach can be used to accelerate the discovery of new insensitive high-energy explosives by identification of "genetic" features, rapid molecular design, and screening, as well as experimental synthesis of a target molecule, 2,4,6-triamino-5-nitropyrimidine-1,3-dioxide...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Martina Mason, Jules Hernández-Sánchez, Alain Vuylsteke, Ian Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive accuracy of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in relation to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detected by nocturnal oximetry, as well as postoperative outcomes, in a population undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: The specialist cardiothoracic center at the Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge University Health Partners, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients, undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiac valve surgery between March 2013 and July 2014 were included...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Mina K Kim, Hae Won Jang, Kwang-Geun Lee
The objective of the current study was to correlate the sensory and instrumental flavor analysis results of commercial orange juice (OJ) products prepared by different processing methods. Descriptive analysis was conducted using a highly trained panel (n = 6) to evaluate four OJs in triplicate. Volatile compounds associated with the four OJs were quantitatively and qualitatively identified using a Dynamic Headspace Sampling, followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The sensory characteristics of the four commercially available OJs were significantly different (p < ...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jeffrey M Treiber, Tyler C Steed, Michael G Brandel, Kunal S Patel, Anders M Dale, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen
The physiologic processes underlying MRI contrast enhancement in glioblastoma patients remain poorly understood. MRIs of 148 glioblastoma subjects from The Cancer Imaging Archive were segmented using Iterative Probabilistic Voxel Labeling (IPVL). Three aspects of contrast enhancement (CE) were parametrized: the mean intensity of all CE voxels (CEi ), the intensity heterogeneity in CE (CEh ), and volumetric ratio of CE to necrosis (CEr ). Associations between these parameters and patterns of gene expression were analyzed using DAVID functional enrichment analysis...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
J M Kröpfl, G Tschakert, I Stelzer, K Pekovits, S Zelzer, G Dohr, S Holasek, T Stojakovic, H Scharnagl, C M Spengler, P Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced circulating haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HPC) number has been discussed in the context of regeneration in heart disease patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effect of different exercise protocols usually applied in cardiac rehabilitation on the number of acute, exercise-induced HPCs, related to potential mediators, e.g. biomarkers of sympathetic and oxidative stress, and inflammation. METHODS: This is a case series comprising seven patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) undertaken at the Center for Ambulant Cardiac Rehabilitation...
May 14, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Arpit Chhabra, Craig Schneider, Mudit Chowdhary, Tejan P Diwanji, Pranshu Mohindra, Mark V Mishra
The ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy using intensity-modulated radiation therapy and particle therapy provides for new opportunities to improve patient outcomes by reducing treatment-related morbidities following radiation therapy. By reducing the volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation therapy (RT), while also allowing for the opportunity to escalate the dose of RT delivered to the tumor, use of conformal RT delivery should also provide the possibility of expanding the therapeutic index of radiotherapy...
June 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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