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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#1
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
May 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531761/3%C3%AE-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-confers-protection-against-znonps-induced-adversity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Hema Negi, Shilpi Khare Saikia, Ranjana Kanaujia, Satish Jaiswal, Rakesh Pandey
Despite their well reported potent risk towards human health and environment Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) find an extensive commercial usage due to their antimicrobial properties. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a natural triterpene ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) for overcoming the cytotoxic challenges of ZnONPs employing Ceanorhabditis elegans. The 24h LC50 of Zn-ONPs (<50nm TEM) was deduced as 4.75mgL(-1). UA (25μM) was observed to defend against this toxicity by attenuating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) resulting into better survival at 2mgL(-1) in a time dependent behavior...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531232/changes-in-primary-healthcare-providers-attitudes-and-counseling-behaviors-related-to-dietary-sodium-reduction-docstyles-2010-and-2015
#3
Zerleen S Quader, Mary E Cogswell, Jing Fang, Sallyann M Coleman King, Robert K Merritt
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The 2013 ACC/AHA Lifestyle Management Guideline recommends counseling pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to reduce sodium intake. Population sodium reduction efforts have been introduced in recent years, and dietary guidelines continued to emphasize sodium reduction in 2010 and 2015. The objective of this analysis was to determine changes in primary health care providers' sodium-reduction attitudes and counseling between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#4
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530506/racial-differences-in-20-year-cardiovascular-mortality-risk-among-childhood-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#5
Amy M Berkman, Abenaa M Brewster, Lee W Jones, Jun Yu, J Jack Lee, S Andrew Peng, Abigail Crocker, Joann L Ater, Susan C Gilchrist
PURPOSE: Whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk differs according to race and cancer type among survivors of childhood or young adulthood cancers is unknown. METHODS: Data from the years 1973-2011 were analyzed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries. Cases were categorized by ICD-0-3/WHO 2008 Adolescent and Young Adult classification. CVD death was determined by ICD-10 codes for diseases of the heart, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular diseases, or other diseases of the arteries...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530499/the-duality-of-oral-sex-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-examination-into-the-increase-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-amid-the-age-of-hiv-prevention
#6
Tiffany R Glynn, Don Operario, Madeline Montgomery, Alexi Almonte, Philip A Chan
Several studies suggest that the increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) could be due, in part, to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction strategies, which include engaging in oral sex over anal sex. The aims of this study were to evaluate oral sex behaviors and STI diagnoses and to investigate the potential dual role of oral sex as being protective for HIV, yet perpetuating STI transmission among MSM. We analyzed records from 871 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STI Clinic between 2012 and 2015...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530439/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-attentional-biases-towards-affect-in-young-children
#7
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Susan M Rivera
This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral, angry or happy) for 500 ms that was followed by a 1,500-ms asterisk probe on 1 side of the screen. Congruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the same side of the screen as the emotional face and incongruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the opposite side of the emotional face...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530431/socioeconomic-status-and-parenting-during-adolescence-in-relation-to-ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-black-and-white-men
#8
Karen A Matthews, Jennifer M Boylan, Karen P Jakubowski, Jenny M Cundiff, Laisze Lee, Dustin A Pardini, J Richard Jennings
OBJECTIVE: American Heart Association (AHA) developed a new metric to evaluate ideal cardiovascular health based on optimal levels of 7 cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. We evaluated the relationships of parenting characteristics and academic achievement in adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in midlife men. METHOD: We measured cardiovascular risk factors in 171 Black and 136 White men and their ideal cardiovascular health score was constructed based on AHA guidelines...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530429/a-daily-diary-examination-of-caffeine-mixed-with-alcohol-among-college-students
#9
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
OBJECTIVE: Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use is associated with a range of substance-related problems. The majority of prior research on CABs is based on cross-sectional and retrospective reports, which do not account for intraindividual differences in use and may be subject to recall biases. The current research used a daily diary, within-subjects design to compare days where individuals simultaneously mixed alcohol with caffeine (CAB days) and days where individuals drank other types of alcohol (non-CAB days) on alcohol use outcomes...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530427/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-pubertal-timing-and-psychopathology-in-adolescence-are-there-sex-differences-in-risk
#10
Josie M Ullsperger, Molly A Nikolas
Research examining pubertal timing effects on psychopathology has emphasized that a subset of adolescents, particularly females, who experience early pubertal maturation relative to their peers appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology. The aims of the current meta-analysis were (a) to quantify the magnitude of early pubertal timing effects on psychopathology, (b) to examine potential moderators of pubertal timing effects (sex, psychopathology domain, sample composition, measurement method, and mean sample age), and (c) to examine findings in relation to hypotheses in the extant literature explicating differential pubertal timing effects for early versus late youth and males versus females...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530343/-sexuality-in-psychiatric-hospitalization-reality-versus-policy
#11
Anat Shalev, Gabriel Weil, Ludmila Rubinstein
Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530342/-behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-characteristics-associated-with-post-traumatic-response-to-continuous-exposure-versus-alternate-exposure-in-an-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to approximate these conditions in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the neurobiological basis of these conditions, focusing on stress-related behavioral changes, HPA-axis and morphological were evaluated. The intention was to employ this well-validated, reproducible and reliable model for PTSD, to elicit data which will provide some guidance in the planning of a prospective study involving military personal. BACKGROUND: Combat personnel are exposed to significant stress and hardship, both physical and emotional, during their service and especially during active combat...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530142/a-targeted-self-management-approach-for-reducing-stroke-risk-factors-in-african-american-men-who-have-had-a-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack
#13
Martha Sajatovic, Curtis Tatsuoka, Elisabeth Welter, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Carol Blixen, Adam T Perzynski, Shelly Amato, Jamie Cage, Johnny Sams, Shirley M Moore, Svetlana Pundik, Sophia Sundararajan, Charles Modlin, Cathy Sila
PURPOSE: This study compared a novel self-management (TargetEd MAnageMent Intervention [TEAM]) versus treatment as usual (TAU) to reduce stroke risk in African American (AA) men. DESIGN: Six-month prospective randomized controlled trial with outcomes evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. SETTING: Academic health center. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight (age < 65) AA men who had a stroke or transient ischemic attack and a Barthel index score of >60 were randomly assigned to TEAM (n = 19) or TAU (n = 19)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529756/a-socioecological-framework-for-research-on-work-and-obesity-in-diverse-urban-transit-operators-based-on-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#14
REVIEW
BongKyoo Choi, Peter Schnall, Marnie Dobson, Haiou Yang, Dean Baker, YoungJu Seo
Urban transit (bus and rail) operators, totaling nearly 700,000 persons, are one of the heaviest occupational groups in the United States (US). Little is known about occupational risk factors for weight gain and obesity and their interrelationship with health-related behaviors, particularly among female minority (African Americans and Hispanics) transit operators who are at greater risk for obesity. As a step towards developing successful obesity interventions among urban transit operators, this paper aims to present a new socioecological framework for studying working conditions, chronic strain, health-related behaviors, weight gain/obesity, and obesity disparity in diverse urban transit operators based on gender, race, and ethnicity...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529537/a-web-based-tool-for-automatic-data-collection-curation-and-visualization-of-complex-healthcare-survey-studies-including-social-network-analysis
#15
José Alberto Benítez, José Emilio Labra, Enedina Quiroga, Vicente Martín, Isaías García, Pilar Marqués-Sánchez, Carmen Benavides
There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529440/parents-primary-professional-sources-of-parenting-advice-moderate-predictors-of-parental-attitudes-toward-corporal-punishment
#16
Catherine A Taylor, Sarah McKasson, Guenevere Hoy, William DeJong
Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529439/pubertal-timing-and-youth-internalizing-psychopathology-the-role-of-relational-aggression
#17
Hayley Pomerantz, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Nicole Lafko Breslend, Jeffrey P Winer
The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529400/long-term-consequences-of-early-sexual-initiation-on-young-adult-health-a-causal-inference-approach
#18
Kari C Kugler, Sara A Vasilenko, Nicole M Butera, Donna L Coffman
Although early sexual initiation has been linked to negative outcomes, it is unknown whether these effects are causal. In this study, we use propensity score methods to estimate the causal effect of early sexual initiation on young adult sexual risk behaviors and health outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We found that early sexual initiation predicted having 2 or more partners (for both males and females) and having a sexually transmitted infection in the past year (females only) but did not predict depressive symptoms in the past week (for either gender)...
May 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529225/sedentary-behavior-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-among-latino-adults
#19
Valerie Silfee, Stephenie Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros Rosal
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among primarily White samples, while studies among Latinos have shown mixed results. PURPOSE: To explore relationships between sedentary behavior and CVD risk factors among a sample of Latino adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults. Surveys of sedentary behavior and physical activity were orally administered. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529222/the-effect-of-childhood-household-dysfunction-on-future-hiv-risk-among-probationers
#20
Brittany Marshall, Stephanie A Spohr, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood events (ACE) can lead to numerous health risks in adulthood. ACEs coupled with increased risk-taking behaviors can lead to increased risk for HIV infection, particularly in vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if mental health symptom severity mediates the relationship between childhood household dysfunction and adult HIV risk among a group of probationers. METHODS: T-tests were used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics and cumulative engagement in sexual risk behaviors in 282 drug-involved probationers...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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